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Jan B. Schmutz

Jan B. Schmutz
ETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Department of Management, Technology, and Economics

PhD

About

45
Publications
16,739
Reads
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872
Citations
Introduction
As a psychologist and healthcare simulation educator, my interests include teamwork and in particular team reflection in medical teams and also in teams from other industries where teams have to deal with challenging and extreme environments. My current field studies involve collaborations with various hospitals and simulation centers in Europe and the United States, the Portuguese Foundation for Polar Research and the European Space Agency (ESA).
Additional affiliations
November 2019 - present
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Lecturer
May 2018 - November 2019
Northwestern University
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation
June 2014 - April 2018
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Lecturer

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Team reflexivity (TR)–defined as a team's conscious reflection on their objectives, strategies, and processes—is an important team process that fosters adaptation and information processing. However, traditional conceptualizations frame TR as a process that occurs in periods of downtime to reflect on past, terminated performance, largely ignoring r...
Article
There is a growing literature on the relationship between team processes and clinical performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize these articles and examine the impact of team process behaviours on clinical performance. We conducted a literature search in five major databases. Inclusion criteria were: English peer-reviewed papers publis...
Article
Full-text available
Health care teams are groups of highly skilled experts who may often form inexpert teams because of a lack of collective competence. Because teamwork and collaboration form the foundation of effective clinical practice, factors that promote collective competence demand exploration. The authors review team reflexivity (TR), a concept from psychology...
Article
Objective This study aimed to analyze effective teamwork at security checkpoints by investigating how security crews communicate in different (routine and threat) situations. Background Working at an airport security screening checkpoint is challenging. Although tasks and processes are highly regulated and standardized due to legal requirements, s...
Article
Full-text available
Initiatives to implement interprofessional simulation education programs (ISEP) often fail due to lack of support, resources from management or proper integration into the organization system. This paper aims to identify factors that ensure the successful implementation of an ISEP. Further, the study explores the potential effects an ISEP can have...
Chapter
Theoretical constructs and theories applied in experiments in decision making have challenges, when applied to actual healthcare, where data and time are limited. This chapter describes some alternative decision making theories that can be applied in the messy “real” world of healthcare professionals. The chapter covers several cognitive processes...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Acute care teams work in dynamic and complex environments and must adapt to changing circumstances. A team process that helps teams process information and adapt is in-action team reflection (TR), defined as concurrent collective reflection on group objectives, strategies, or processes during an ongoing care event. However, the health car...
Article
Full-text available
Communication errors and system problems negatively impact teamwork and shared decision-making and can cause patient harm. However, regular debriefings after critical events positively impact teamwork and patient outcome in pediatric emergency care. Team reflection promotes learning, helps teams to improve and to minimize errors from being repeated...
Article
Full-text available
While many studies have investigated the consequences of psychological safety for behavior, there is little theorizing on the mechanisms that account for these effects. Since psychological safety makes individuals feel safe to express their true self, we argue that it should act as a catalyst for alignment between individual beliefs and behavior. D...
Research
Full-text available
Antarctica is the harshest continent on the planet and presents unique challenges to human collaboration. Since 2016, our team has applied diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives to learn how Antarctica science teams engage in various forms of teamwork to achieve performance goals. We have found that Antarctica science teams face daily...
Article
Full-text available
Objective We examine whether surgical teams can handle changes in task requirements better when their formal leader and strategic core role holder—that is, the main surgeon—is central to team coordination. Background Evidence regarding the benefits of shared leadership for managing complex tasks is divided. We tested whether a strategic core role...
Article
Full-text available
Regelmäßige Debriefings (Nachbesprechungen) kritischer Ereignisse in der Kindernotfallversorgung können das Patienten-Outcome und die Teamzusammenarbeit verbessern. Die Reflexion ermöglicht Lernen in Teams, um in Zukunft besser zu werden und die Wiederholung von Fehlern zu vermeiden. Allerdings werden Debriefings im klinischen Alltag noch immer unr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To investigate the relationship between teamwork and clinical performance and potential moderating variables of this relationship. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data source PubMed was searched in June 2018 without a limit on the date of publication. Additional literature was selected through a manual backward search of rele...
Poster
Full-text available
First descriptive results of a field study at the security control of an airport show interesting findings: Security Crews use more implicit coordination in threat situations than in routine situations.
Article
In this month's Medical Education, Bochatay et al.1 report on their use of social identity theory as a lens through which to explore the relationships between group boundaries and conflict at an academic medical centre. Social identity theory helps to explain group behaviours and clarifies phenomena well known in interprofessional and multidiscipli...
Article
Full-text available
In various industries, individuals from different professions have to work together in a team to achieve their collective goal. Having gone through different educations, team members speak different professional languages, which poses a challenge to communication, and coordination in interprofessional teams. A shared language is believed to improve...
Article
Full-text available
Paramedics alert the emergency department (ED) about an 8‐year‐old boy (Trevor) who was struck by a car while crossing the street playing yo‐yo. He sustained head and abdominal trauma, but is reportedly alert and stable. Shortly after the radio call, the trauma team gathers and the team leader informs the team about the patient who will arrive shor...
Chapter
Das Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit der Definition und dem Messen von nichttechnischen Kompetenzen, oft auch Soft-Skills genannt, die einen wichtigen Bestandteil beruflicher Kompetenzen ausmachen. In kritischen Situationen sind Führungskompetenzen, Team- oder Kommunikationsfähigkeiten oft entscheidend für den Erfolg eines Teams. Um diese Kompetenzen v...
Article
Full-text available
Due to increasing complexity in healthcare, clinicians must often make decisions under uncertain conditions in which teams must be flexible and process emerging information “on the fly” in order to adapt to changing circumstances. A crucial strategy that helps teams to adapt, learn, and develop is team reflexivity (TR) – a team’s ability to collect...
Article
A team’s ability to coordinate and adapt their performance to meet situational demands is critical to excellent patient care. The goal of this article is to identify common coordination characteristics that enable health care action teams to ensure effective patient care and to discuss specific examples of adaptive coordination within the health ca...
Article
As interprofessional education (IPE) continues to be instituted, much attention has been paid to training-intervention effectiveness. Less attention has been paid to the selection side of the IPE model; however, efficient delivery is necessary to sustain the development of IPE. This short report investigates the " two big social cognitions " (agenc...
Article
Full-text available
Anhand eines Fallbeispiels erläutern wir Ihnen, welche Fehler aufgrund mangelnder Vorbereitung und Kommunikation in einer Notfallsituation passieren können. Wir zeigen Ihnen, wie mittels wichtiger Reflexionsprozesse innerhalb des Teams der Fall doch noch gemeistert werden kann.
Article
Full-text available
Coordination in health care action teams is an important factor in clinical performance and patient safety. Implementing a high-fidelity in situ simulation study, we investigated the performance-relevant effects of task distribution, provide information without request (PIWR) and closed-loop communication (CLC) in 68 medical emergency teams (METs)...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to develop a pictorial presence scale using self-assessment-manikins (SAM). The instrument assesses presence sub-dimensions (self-location and possible actions) as well as presence determinants (attention allocation, spatial situation model, higher cognitive involvement, and suspension of disbelief). To qualitativel...
Article
We pilot tested a novel human factors–informed concept to identify infectious risk moments (IRMs) that occur with high frequency during routine intensive care. Following 30 observation-hours, 28 potential IRMs related to hand hygiene, gloves, and objects were expert rated. A comprehensive IRM inventory may provide valuable taxonomy for research, tr...
Article
Full-text available
The process of developing checklists to rate clinical performance is essential for ensuring their quality; thus, the authors applied an integrative approach for designing checklists that evaluate clinical performance. The approach consisted of five predefined steps (taken 2012-2013). Step 1: On the basis of the relevant literature and their clinica...
Article
Introduction/Background: Teamwork has frequently been associated with adverse events and patient harm. Teamwork is central to the successful provision of patient care.1,2 However the literature provides mixed Results about the effect of specific teamwork behaviours on performance. Based on previous studies we assume that contradicting Results can -...
Article
Introduction/Background: Assessing performance helps to identify the abilities of clinicians and potential performance gaps, augments debriefings and is essential for scientific studies investigating factors influencing clinical performance.1 Checklists are widespread tools to assess performance. But while the development process of such a performa...
Chapter
Full-text available
Von den in Hoch-Risiko-Arbeitsfeldern tätigen Personen wird ein hohes Maß an Kompetenz erwartet, unabhängig davon, ob es sich um Beschäftigte in der Nuklearindustrie, der Luftfahrt oder der Medizin handelt. Doch was macht eine hochgradig kompetente Person aus? Was ist es jenseits von ausgezeichnetem Fachwissen und hervorragenden technischen Fertigk...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Antarctica is the harshest continent on the planet and presents unique challenges to human collaboration. Since 2016, our team has applied diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives to learn how Antarctica science teams engage in various forms of teamwork to achieve performance goals in this extreme environment.