Jan Novakofski

Jan Novakofski
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Animal Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

177
Publications
23,639
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4,593
Citations
Citations since 2016
22 Research Items
1419 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), the prion disease of the Cervidae family, has been managed in Illinois deer since it was first detected in the Fall of 2002. Management uses a state-sponsored localized focus culling (LFC) program, implemented as close as possible to previously identified CWD-infected locations (TRSs (township/range/section)). We used...
Article
Full-text available
In Fall 2020, universities saw extensive transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among their populations, threatening health of the university and surrounding communities, and viability of in-person instruction. Here we report a case study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where a multimodal “SHIELD: Target, Test, and Tell” program, with other...
Article
Full-text available
Cervids are distinguished by the shedding and regrowth of antlers. Furthermore, they provide insights into prion and other diseases. Genomic resources can facilitate studies of the genetic underpinnings of deer phenotypes, behavior, and disease resistance. Widely distributed in North America, the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has recre...
Article
Full-text available
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT) are vector-borne viral diseases that affect wild and domestic ruminants. Clinical signs of EHD and BT are similar; thus, the syndrome is referred to as hemorrhagic disease (HD). Syndromic surveillance and virus detection in North America reveal a northern expansion of HD. High mortalities at n...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by prions that has spread across cervid species in North America since the 1960s and has recently been detected in Eurasian cervids. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) considers CWD to be of major concern for cervids in AZA-accredited facilities because of th...
Article
Full-text available
In northern Illinois, chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first identified in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; hereafter referred to as "deer") in 2002. To reduce CWD transmission rates in Illinois, wildlife biologists have conducted locally focussed culling of deer since 2003 in areas where CWD has been detected. We used retro...
Preprint
In the Fall of 2020, many universities saw extensive transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among their populations, threatening the health of students, faculty and staff, the viability of in-person instruction, and the health of surrounding communities.1, 2 Here we report that a multimodal “SHIELD: Target, Test, and Tell” program mitigated the spread of SARS-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, affects captive and free-ranging species of the family Cervidae (moose, deer, and elk). CWD is endemic in North America and has been detected in 26 states in the United States and three Canadian provinces. Disease surveillance is essential to understand the emergence, distrib...
Article
Full-text available
Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) cases have increased worldwide, causing significant economic loss to ruminant livestock production and detrimental effects to susceptible wildlife populations. In recent decades, hemorrhagic disease cases have been reported over expanding geographic areas in the United States. Effective BT and...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by prions that has spread across cervid species in North America since the 1960s and recently spread to cervids in Eurasia. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) considers CWD to be of major concern for cervids in AZA-accredited facilities because of the indirec...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is caused by prions, infectious proteinaceous particles, PrPCWD. We sequenced the PRNP gene of 2,899 white-tailed deer (WTD) from Illinois and southern Wisconsin, finding 38 haplotypes. Haplotypes A, B, D, E, G and 9 others encoded Q95G96S100N103A123Q226, designated ‘PrP variant A.’ Haplotype C and 4 other haplotypes e...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging foodborne pathogens present a threat to public health. It is now recognized that several foodborne pathogens originate from wildlife as demonstrated by recent global disease outbreaks. Zoonotic spillover events are closely related to the ubiquity of parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens present within human and animal populations and t...
Preprint
Spatial analysis of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois, 2008-2019 RH: Space-time cluster analysis of CWD in Illinois Abstract Understanding the geographic distribution and clustering of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the geographic distribution and clustering of chronic wasting disease (CWD) among free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations can inform disease management practices. We used a retrospective analysis of surveillance data to evaluate CWD's spatial and temporal dynamics within 16 CWD-infected northern Illinois co...
Article
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, highly transmissible spongiform encephalopathy caused by an infectious prion protein. CWD is spreading across North American cervids. Studies of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in white-tailed deer (WTD; Odocoileus virginianus) have identified non-synonymous substitutions associated with reduced CWD frequency...
Article
The objective was to examine the effectiveness of mate tea (MT, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire) and caffeine from mate tea (MC) on in vitro lipid accumulation and in vivo diet-driven-obesity. MC and decaffeinated mate (DM) were obtained using supercritical CO2 extraction and mainly composed of caffeine and caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. MC re...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that affects members of the cervidae family. The infectious agent is a misfolded isoform (PrPSC) of the host prion protein (PrPC). The replication of PrPSC initiates a cascade of developmental changes that spread from cell to cell, individual to individual, and that fo...
Article
Full-text available
We compared methods commonly used in the field of river otter (Lontra canadensis) ecology to estimate visitation rates. We evaluated visitation rates estimated from 2 survey protocols based on video detection—individual visitation rate (IVR) and recording visitation rate (RVR)—and one indirect method based on scat detection—scat visitation rate (SV...
Article
Full-text available
Managing and controlling the spread of diseases in wild animal populations is challenging, especially for social and mobile species. Effective management benefits from information about disease susceptibility, allowing limited resources to be focused on areas or populations with a higher risk of infection. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmiss...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental reservoirs are important to infectious disease transmission and persistence, but empirical analyses are relatively few. The natural environment is a reservoir for prions that cause chronic wasting disease (CWD) and influences the risk of transmission to susceptible cervids. Soil is one environmental component demonstrated to affect pr...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of reproductive characteristics of wild populations is necessary to inform responsible management decisions that promote herd health. As management, goals, and free-ranging populations change over time and landscapes, updated knowledge of reproductive characteristics are needed to inform responsible management practices. We estimated repr...
Article
Full-text available
The sequence of the prion protein gene (PRNP) affects susceptibility to spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases in many species. In white-tailed deer, both coding and non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in this gene that correlate to chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility. Previous studies examined individua...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the behaviors river otters (Lontra canadensis) commonly exhibit when visiting latrine sites. By use of video data we constructed an ethogram to describe and quantify latrine behaviors. The most common behaviors were standing (20.5 %) and sniffing (18.6 %), lending support to the hypothesis that latrines are used for olfactory...
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of white-nose syndrome in North American bats has resulted in massive data collection efforts to characterize the fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Wing biopsies routinely are collected from live bats, placed in agar media to culture the fungus, and ultimately discarded. We tested whether these discarded tissues represent a viable...
Article
Full-text available
Prion proteins (PrP(c)) are cell membrane glycoproteins that can be found in many cell types, but specially in neurons. Many studies have suggested PrP(c)'s participation in metal transport and cellular protection against stress in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand PrP(sc), the misfolded isoform of PrP(c) and the pathogenic agent...
Article
Providing both introductory information and biosecurity protocols in laboratory, farm and field settings are central to student learning and safety. However, even when clear protocols are provided, students do not fully understand the consequences of their actions. We present a crime scene that requires evidence investigation to improve basic skill...
Article
Full-text available
Fatty acids (FA) have recently been used in several studies to infer the diet in a number of species. While these studies have been largely successful, most have dealt with predators that have a fairly specialized diet. In this paper, we used FA analysis as a tool to infer the diet of the nearctic river otter (Lontra canadensis). The river otter is...
Article
Full-text available
Investigating sources of infection for new disease cases is critical to effective disease management. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was first detected among white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois in 2002. Although CWD was focused in northern Illinois, 4 infected deer were sampled in 2011 from locations greater than 100 km south of t...
Article
Full-text available
The landscape can influence host dispersal and density, which in turn, affect infectious disease transmission, spread, and persistence. Understanding how the landscape influences wildlife dispersal and pathogen epidemiology can enhance the efficacy of disease management in natural populations. We applied landscape genetics to examine relationships...
Article
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) has been reported in white-tailed deer at the border of the US states of Illinois and Wisconsin since 2002. Transmission of infectious prions between animals and from the environment has resulted in spatial and temporal structure observable in the spatio-temporal patterns of reported cases. Case locations of 382 positi...
Article
Full-text available
The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is a biomonitor for organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) associated with a wide range of deleterious health effects in wildlife and humans. We determined concentrations of twenty OHCs in livers of 23 river otters salvaged by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources from 2009 to 2011, determined s...
Article
Full-text available
Strategies to contain the spread of disease often are developed with incomplete knowledge of the possible outcomes but are intended to minimize the risks associated with delaying control. Culling of game species by government agencies is one approach to control disease in wild populations but is unpopular with hunters and wildlife enthusiasts, poli...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits an...
Article
Full-text available
Many rodent species are currently under conservation threat. However, population monitoring and status assessment are extremely challenging because of small body size, low abundance and elusive behavior of rodents. Furthermore, invasive methods of capture and tissue collection commonly used to address such studies can induce an unacceptable amount...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Chapter
This third edition of Growth of Farm Animals consists of 352 pages and 19 chapters wherein sections from each chapters have been updated. A new chapter (12th chapter: Growth of Avian Species) has been added and a previous chapter has been divided into two chapters. The core remains largely unaltered because it contains, on the whole, immutable fact...
Article
Full-text available
Microsatellites are useful tools for ecological studies because they can be used to discern population structure, dispersal patterns and genetic relationships among individuals. However, they can also yield inaccurate genotypes that, in turn, bias results, promote biological misinterpretations, and create repercussions for population management and...
Article
Full-text available
1. The prevention and management of transmissible diseases hinges upon understanding host dispersal because it influences distribution of wildlife, affects the rate of disease transmission, and alters the spatial distribution of infection. The relationship between host dispersal and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids is of interest because po...
Article
Biochemical and biophysical research tools are used to define the developmental dynamics of numerous cell lineages from a variety of tissues relevant to meat quality. With respect to the adipose cell lineage, much of our present understanding of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism was initially determined through the use of these methods, even though...
Article
As research funding becomes more competitive, it will be imperative for researchers to break the mentality of a single laboratory/single research focus and develop an interdisciplinary research team aimed at addressing real world challenges. Members of this team may be at the same institution, may be found regionally, or may be international. Howev...
Article
To determine whether antioxidants could protect meat color during irradiation, we extracted myoglobin (Mb) from beef hearts, treated it with one of four antioxidants (control, citric acid [CA], ascorbic acid [AA], ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid [EDTA] or propyl gallate [PG]) and irradiated it at 0.00, 1.25, or 2.50 kGy. The myoglobin model system...
Article
To determine the effect of antioxidants and irradiation on meat color, myoglobin (Mb) was extracted from beef hearts. Mb was treated with one of four antioxidants (control, citric acid [CA], rosemary extract [RE] or combination of citric acid and rosemary extract [CA/RE]) and irradiated at 0.00 (Control), 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75 and 2.00...
Article
Full-text available
The quality and value of the carcass in domestic meat animals are reflected in its protein and fat content. Preadipocytes and adipocytes are important in establishing the overall fatness of a carcass, as well as being the main contributors to the marbling component needed for consumer preference of meat products. Although some fat accumulation is e...