Jan Krämer

Jan Krämer
Universität Passau · Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät

Dr. rer. pol, Dipl.-Wi.-Ing.

About

86
Publications
30,114
Reads
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1,047
Citations
Introduction
Professor Krämer follows an interdisciplinary research approach by combining theoretical and empirical methods with insights from computer science, psychology and law. His current research interest include predominantly the regulation of telecommunications and Internet markets, as well as digital ecosystems and data-driven business models.
Additional affiliations
September 2019 - present
Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE)
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • The Centre on Regulation in Europe (CERRE) promotes robust and consistent regulation in Europe’s network and digital industries through top quality studies and dissemination activities.
April 2014 - present
Universität Passau
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2008 - March 2014
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Position
  • Head of Research Group Telecommunications Markets
Education
January 2008 - April 2013
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Information Systems
February 2005 - December 2007
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Department of Economics
July 2004 - February 2005
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Sloan School of Management

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
Although Internet service providers (ISPs) are technically capable as well as legally allowed to offer non-neutral Internet access services, where the data flows of those customers that pay a premium are prioritized over others, such an access service is currently not offered by ISPs. We argue that ISPs are hesitant to tap the price discrimination...
Article
Net neutrality (NN) is believed to prevent the emergence of exclusive online content, which yields Internet fragmentation. We examine the relationship between NN regulation and Internet fragmentation in a game- theoretic model that considers the interplay between termination fees, exclusivity, and competition between two Internet service providers...
Article
Auction sites on the Internet frequently put bidders under time pressure or highlight the social competition that is inherent to auctions. Both aspects are believed to elicit an exciting shopping experience, which may culminate in auction fever. In two laboratory experiments, we investigate the process of auction fever in retail auctions and demons...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is intended as an introduction to the debate on net neutrality and as a progress report on the growing body of academic literature on this issue. Different non-net neutrality scenarios are discussed and structured along the two dimensions of network and pricing regime. With this approach, the consensus on the benefits of a deviation from...
Article
Full-text available
We study departures from network neutrality through implementing a quality of service tiering regime in which an Internet service provider charges for prioritization on a nondiscriminatory basis. We find that quality of service tiering may be more efficient in the short run because it better allocates the existing network capacity and in the long r...
Article
This article analyses the crucial role of user data for digital markets contestability and presents policy proposals devised to address growing concerns about the dominance of data-rich incumbents in digital markets. To this end, we discuss a data-driven theory of harm that would warrant ex-ante data access regulation and highlight that niche entry...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many independent content providers (CPs) offer free content through a dominant platform (e.g., an app store or a video streaming platform) and obtain revenues later from the usage of their content (e.g., through ads or in-app purchases). Attaining a more prominent placement on the platform is important for CPs, because it gives them more demand, an...
Article
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This report considers the challenges that arise in remedying ‘intermediation bias’ by vertically integrated digital platforms which match the needs of different groups of users so they can transact with each other. Platforms perform this intermediation function by displaying and ranking those services or products which are most relevant to the user...
Article
We develop a simple game-theoretic model to demonstrate that with the new General Data Protection Regulation's (GDPR) right to port data between content providers (CPs), (i) the incumbent CP has less incentives to preserve users’ privacy, (ii) a new entrant CP will charge higher prices for its service, and (iii) customers of the new CP are worse of...
Article
Full-text available
Social logins, such as "Log in with Facebook", improve a website's user experience and therefore enjoy great popularity among content providers (CPs) and users alike. Moreover, they also enable the social network and the CPs to share data, which individually improves their ability to place targeted advertising. On the basis of a game-theoretic mode...
Article
Full-text available
We systematically investigate the relationship between the number of firms in a market and tacit collusion by means of a meta‐analysis of the literature on oligopoly experiments as well as two of our own experiments with a total of 368 participants. We show that the degree of tacit collusion decreases strictly with the number of competitors in indu...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate margin squeeze regulation in a market with infrastructure competition. To this end, we consider two integrated firms and one non-integrated retailer that compete in a horizontally differentiated retail market. The non-integrated firm relies on wholesale access provided by one of the integrated firms. Throughout several model variants...
Article
Full-text available
Im Datenkapitalismus sind neue Kommunikationsunternehmen entstanden, deren Angebot als „umsonst“ erscheint. Ihr Geschäftsmodell basiert darauf, dass die Nutzer (Kunden) ihre Daten preisgeben und dafür entweder ein nachgefragtes Gut (Kommunikation, Medien, Waren und Dienstleistungen) ohne oder für geringere monetäre Zahlungen erhalten. Wie die Unter...
Article
Full-text available
We model the climate negotiations and the countries’ individual commitments to carbon dioxide reductions as a threshold public goods game with uncertain threshold value. We find that a non-binding unanimous voting procedure on contribution vectors leads to frequent agreement on an optimal total contribution and high rates of compliance, even in the...
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the policy discussion in the EU whether to impose non-discrimination obligations for dominant online platforms, we analyse whether such regulation is warranted from an economic point of view. Our contribution is threefold. First, across several platform contexts, we identify (i) (paid) prominence of some third parties over others and (...
Article
Full-text available
Based on interviews of users’ experience with current smart-meter technologies the authors propose, implement and evaluate a user-centered design of an energy-use information system that assists private households in making efficient energy consumption decisions. Instead of providing disaggregated data, the envisioned system automatically calculate...
Article
Full-text available
Several regulatory authorities have recently allowed competing network operators to co-invest in network infrastructure. With the use of a laboratory experiment, we investigate the impact of co-investments on competition in regulated network industries, particularly in comparison to unilateral and duplicate investments. Our main finding is that co-...
Article
Full-text available
Based on interviews of users' experience with current smart-meter technologies we propose, implement and evaluate a user-centered design of an energy-use information system that assists private households in making efficient energy consumption decisions. Instead of providing disaggregated data, the envisioned system automatically calculates the mon...
Article
Internet auction sites frequently employ images as design elements on their websites in order to either induce a sense of community or competition among the bidders. In this paper, we investigate the impact of such affective images on bidding behavior in a controlled laboratory experiment during which participants' emotional processes are assessed...
Article
Full-text available
Even though the idea of science enjoys an impressive reputation, there seems to be no precise conception of science. On the one hand, there is no unified definition of the extension of activities subsumed under the notion of science. According to the narrow conception that is common in Anglo-Saxon countries, science is restricted to those disciplines...
Article
Full-text available
Digital content and services providers like Alphabet (formerly Google) or Facebook have become an indispensable part of our everyday lives and are among the highest valued firms in the economy as a whole. Most digital markets are characterized by direct and indirect network effects and therefore also by so-called two-sided platforms. To date it is...
Article
Although the regulation of access to an essential upstream resource is a perennial issue for policymakers and industry stakeholders, a set of new issues arises when there is more than one vertically integrated access provider such that competition at the wholesale level may emerge in addition to retail competition. Especially in the likely case of...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we scrutinize the request to regulate access to the OTTs’ essential services bottleneck based on insights from the economic literature. First, we delineate that OTTs may pursue a one-sided or two-sided business model, which makes a fundamental difference with respect to the underlying economics. Focusing on two-sided content markets,...
Article
We consider the case where wholesale access for a non-integrated reseller is provided competitively by two vertically integrated firms. In an economic laboratory experiment with both student and expert participants we compare market outcomes under different modes of wholesale competition as well as under a margin squeeze regulation. Under homogeneo...
Article
We conduct oligopoly competition experiments with differentiated goods in discrete and continuous time. Continuous time experiments allow for real-time, asynchronous strategic interaction and are therefore argued to be a more realistic mode of interaction, particularly in the context of (electronic) markets. We consider duopolies and triopolies bot...
Article
Full-text available
Although Internet service providers (ISPs) are technically capable as well as legally allowed to offer non-neutral Internet access services, where the data flows of customers who pay a premium are prioritized over others, such an access service is currently not offered by ISPs. We argue that ISPs are hesitant to tap the price discrimination potenti...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet has assumed a central role in the global economy facilitating commerce and communication, and is thus central to many areas of IS research. In particular, IS researchers played a critical role in the academic discourse on net neutrality, which has recently informed new regulatory frameworks in the US and Europe. We discuss and categori...
Article
According to Bernheim and Whinston's (The RAND Journal of Economics 21 (1), 1990) irrelevance result, multimarket contact may not facilitate tacit collusion if identical firms meet in identical markets. In contrast, we offer a novel behavioral explanation why multimarket contact may facilitate tacit collusion for this case. By means of an economic...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of open access (OA) plays a central role in the ongoing academic and political debate on the appropriate regulatory framework for next-generation access networks in Europe. However, clear policy conclusions on the effect of OA regulation were usually precluded by a fundamental lack in common understanding what actually defines an OA pol...
Article
Full-text available
Cost cap tariffs are pay-per-use tariffs for which costs cannot exceed a predefined cost limit. They were recently introduced to telecommunications markets, but were previously also applied in the insurance industry as deductibles or in the rental industry as day rates. This paper develops and empirically validates a consumer surplus model that exp...
Article
Full-text available
With the transition from a flat rate dominated pricing regime towards volume-based tariffs, bandwidth is often bundled with specific allowances or overuse-charges for data consumption. One central element in many new telecommunications tariffs is the implementation of data caps, which are a common tool to address several challenges telecommunicatio...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional wisdom attributes different economic outcomes of uniform pricing and price discrimination to the heterogeneity in market conditions or market participants, such as differences in demand elasticity or production costs. We offer a new explanation for the observed differences that relates to behavioral aspects rather than demand- or suppl...
Article
Full-text available
Unternehmensportale sollen Geschäftsprozesse unterstützen und die Produktivität der Mitarbeiter steigern. Die erwartete Produktivitätssteigerung wird allerdings nur dann erfüllt werden, wenn die Nutzer hinreichend über die Möglichkeiten des Unternehmensportals informiert sind. Diese Problematik betrifft vor allem große Unternehmensportale deren Die...
Article
Full-text available
Corporate portals are supposed to support a company’s business model and to increase productivity of the employees. However, the productivity gain that can be achieved by corporate portals is often undermined because the users of the portal are not sufficiently informed about the portal’s capabilities. This is of particular concern for large corpor...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of Open Access (OA) plays a central role in the ongoing academic and political debate on the appropriate regulatory framework for next-generation access networks (NGAN). In particular, OA is believed to provide a balance between static and dynamic efficiency, i.e., between the stimulation of competition and the encouragement of investme...
Article
The academic debate on net neutrality has thus far focused on the relationship between Internet service providers (ISPs) and content providers. In this paper instead, we investigate the drivers for Internet users' appreciation of a differentiated services regime in lieu of net neutrality. User tiering, i.e., a pay-for-priority arrangement between t...
Article
Full-text available
With the use of a laboratory experiment, we show the effects of co-investments on coverage, competition and price collusion in regulated network industries. On the one hand, co-investments turn out not to be a significant driver of new infrastructure investments beyond the level achieved by access regulation and they seem to facilitate tacit price...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, Internet auction sites have begun to compete in emotions by advertising the fun and excitement that bidders may experience during auction participation. The implicit conjecture inherent in these advertisements is that consumers derive a hedonic value from auction participation that makes exciting auctions more attractive and possibly indu...
Conference Paper
Imbalances in generation and demand locality in the German power market give rise to seemingly unfair grid cost allocations: few customers in wind-rich north-east Germany pay a major share of the costs of transmitting power to customers in the south. This development has prompted demands for billing the extend of grid usage - i.e., a customer's cos...
Article
Full-text available
Auction fever is a multifaceted phenomenon that is frequently observed in both traditional and Internet auctions. In order to gain a better understanding of its causes, we develop a conceptual framework to analyze emotions in auctions, which is based on an exhaustive literature review. The framework integrates rational calculus with emotional aspec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although the importance of emotions in economic decision-making is being widely accepted, it is still unclear how and to what extent emotional processing affects economic behavior. In this paper, we propose a new methodological framework for behavioral IS studies that we call physioeconomics, by which it is possible to measure psychophysiological c...
Article
The long tail phenomenon has been heavily discussed in recent years. What has been neglected so far is its striking relevance for electronic services. Whereas consumers expectations about information goods are often vague and transient, their requirements are pronounced and specific when it comes to the functional and non-functional characteristics...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article we provide a seminal academic investigation of mobile telephony consumers' perception of the recently introduced cost cap tariff in comparison to corresponding pay-per-use and flatrate calling plans. Previous studies have identified several psychological effects through which consumers are believed to be biased towards flatrate plan...
Article
We model the main arguments of the net neutrality debate in a two-sided market framework with network congestion sensitive content providers and Internet consumers on each side, respectively. The platform is controlled by a monopolistic Internet service provider, who may choose to sell content providers prioritized access to its customers. We expli...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the strategic impact of flexible delivery frequencies on the competition of logistics service providers (LSPs) in a supply chain. LSPs compete for customers who choose an exclusive service provider based on their individual preference, prices and inventory costs. The service provider which offers the higher delivery frequency is more...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we point at the large potentials that corporate community portals can have to support the business model of companies. In particular corporate community portals of the next generation are characterized by the integration of business intelligence tools which can facilitate or even automate many business processes. However, we also em...
Chapter
Full-text available
Auction fever is a frequently observed phenomenon in traditional and Internet auctions. However, traditional approaches of auction theory often neglect the inuence of emotions. In this paper we discuss a unied framework for emotional bidding in auctions and identify challenges for future auction fever research. In particular, we identify interdepen...
Article
Full-text available
We model the main arguments of the net neutrality debate in a two-sided market framework with network congestion sensitive content providers and Internet consumers on each side, respectively. The platform is controlled by a monopolistic Internet service provider, who may choose to sell content providers prioritized access to its customers. We expli...
Article
Full-text available
Cloud computing has recently shifted into the center of attention of Telecommuications Companies. Deutsche Telekom, for example, just announced the importance of cloud computing as one of their leading growth sectors (Deutsche Telekom Press Release, 2010). Also other important telecommunication players such as AT&T, Vodafone and Telefónica are expa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current industry-driven trend of providing flexible e- services lays the ground for the new research area "service value networks" (SVNs). We observe a rising number of industry-oriented publications provided by research depart- ments of large companies such as IBM or SAP as well as the fact that more and more IS conferences offer special track...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether and how bundling services may achieve leverage of market power from the telco's home to a secondary service market (e.g. video broadcasting). Despite digital convergence, in many countries the former telco monopolist remains to hold significant market power in its home market for telecom...