Jan Kozlowski

Jan Kozlowski
Jagiellonian University | UJ · Institute of Environmental Sciences

PhD

About

123
Publications
22,713
Reads
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5,166
Citations
Introduction
I am developing the theory of life history evolution based on the assumption of optimal resource allocation. The theory explains the role of ecological mortality in shaping size distribution and the distribution of age at maturity, growth patterns resembling von Bertalanffy’s curves, the correlation between the level of ecological mortality and lifespan. I am also testing the role of cell sizes in scaling of metabolic rate and in determination of Temperature-Size-Rule.
Additional affiliations
September 1999 - present
Panstwowa Wyzsza Szkola Zawodowa w Tarnowie
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Lectures and laboratory on ecology and population genetics
September 1990 - present
Jagiellonian University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Lectures on evolution
November 1981 - June 1983
University of Georgia
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • I was working in Richard G. Wiegert lab on the models of life history evolution.

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in cell number and size are apparently associated with the body mass differences between species and sexes, but we rarely know which of the two mechanisms underlies the observed variance in body mass. We used phylogenetically informed comparisons of males and females of 19 Carabidae beetle species to compare body mass, resting metabolic...
Article
Full-text available
The persistent enigma of why the whole-body metabolic rate increases hypoallometrically with body mass should be solved on both the ultimate and proximate levels. The proximate mechanism may involve hyperallometric scaling of metabolically inert tissue/organ masses, hypoallometric scaling of metabolically expensive organ masses, a decrease in mass-...
Article
Full-text available
During development, cells may adjust their size to balance between the tissue metabolic demand and the oxygen and resource supply: Small cells may effectively absorb oxygen and nutrients, but the relatively large area of the plasma membrane requires costly maintenance. Consequently, warm and hypoxic environments should favor ectotherms with small c...
Article
Full-text available
Despite many decades of research, the allometric scaling of metabolic rates (MRs) remains poorly understood. Here, we argue that scaling exponents of these allometries do not themselves mirror one universal law of nature but instead statistically approximate the non‐linearity of the relationship between MR and body mass. This ‘statistical’ view mus...
Article
Full-text available
Terrestrial isopods have evolved pleopodal lungs that provide access to the rich aerial supply of oxygen. However, isopods occupy conditions with wide and unpredictable thermal and oxygen gradients, suggesting that they might have evolved adaptive developmental plasticity in their respiratory organs to help meet metabolic demand over a wide range o...
Article
Full-text available
1.In many annual plants, mollusks, crustaceans and ectothermic vertebrates, growth accompanies reproduction. The growth curves of these organisms often exhibit a complex shape, with episodic cessations or accelerations of growth occurring long after maturation. The mixed allocation to growth and reproduction has poorly understood adaptive consequen...
Preprint
Full-text available
The continual enigma that is sublinear scaling of the whole-body metabolic rate should be solved on both the ultimate and proximate levels. The proximate mechanism likely involves superlinear scaling of metabolically inert tissue/organ masses, sublinear scaling of metabolically expensive organ masses, a decrease in mass-specific metabolic rates or,...
Article
Full-text available
The Williams’ hypothesis is one of the most widely known ideas in life history evolution. It states that higher adult mortality should lead to faster and/or earlier senescence. Theoretically derived gradients, however, do not support this prediction. Increased awareness of this fact has caused a crisis of misinformation among theorists and empirica...
Article
Full-text available
Cell size plays a role in body size evolution and environmental adaptations. Addressing these roles, we studied body mass and cell size in Galliformes birds and Rodentia mammals and collected published data on their genome sizes. In birds, we measured erythrocyte nuclei and basal metabolic rates (BMRs). In birds and mammals, larger species consiste...
Article
Full-text available
The role of extrinsic mortality in shaping life histories is poorly understood. However, substantial evidence suggests that extrinsic mortality interacts with density-dependence in crucial ways. We develop a model combining Evolutionarily Stable Strategies with a projection matrix that allows resource allocation to growth, tissue repairs, and repro...
Data
Algorithm for searching ESS. (PDF)
Data
Effect of repair efficiency. (PDF)
Data
Interpolating fractional maturity ages. (PDF)
Data
Definition of the shapes of density-dependence used in the paper. (PDF)
Article
The rate at which organisms metabolize resources and consume oxygen is tightly linked to body mass. Typically, there is a negative allometric relationship between metabolic rates and body mass (mass-scaling exponent b<1). The origin of this pattern remains one of the most intriguing and hotly debated topics in evolutionary physiology. A decrease in...
Article
The origin of the allometric relationship between standard metabolic rate (MR) and body mass (M), often described as MR=aM (b) , remains puzzling and interpretation of the mass-scaling exponent, b may depend on the methodological approach, shapes of residuals, coefficient of determination (r(2) ) and sample size. We investigated the mass scaling of...
Article
Full-text available
Cell size plays a role in evolutionary and phenotypically plastic changes in body size. To examine this role, we measured the sizes of seven cell types of geckos (Paroedura picta) reared at three constant temperatures (24, 27, and 30 °C). Our results show that the cell size varies according to the body size, sex and developmental temperature, but t...
Article
The evolution of current terrestrial life was founded by major waves of land invasion coinciding with high atmospheric oxygen content. These waves were followed by periods with substantially reduced oxygen concentration and accompanied by evolution of novel traits. Reproduction and development are limiting factors for evolutionary water-land transi...
Article
The tight association between ambient temperature (T) and metabolic rate (MR) is a common occurrence in ectotherms, but the determinants of this association are not fully understood. This study examined whether the relationship between MR and T is the same among individuals, as predicted by the Universal Temperature Dependence hypothesis, or whethe...
Poster
Full-text available
The optimal cell size theory proposes that the changes in cell size may have important consequences for the physiological performance of organisms. Small cells provide the larger area of plasma membranes for resource assimilation, however, on the other hand, large cells spend less energy on maintaining ion gradients across membranes. This comparati...
Article
Full-text available
Many ectotherms grow more slowly but mature at a larger size in colder environments, according to the pattern called the temperature-size rule. Thermal variation of cell size is suspected to be inherent in the origin of this pattern, but empirical testing of this hypothesis has been conducted in only a few taxa. In the laboratory, we reared two sub...
Article
Full-text available
Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a...
Article
Full-text available
The degree to which reproduction is based on reserves (capital breeding) and/or current acquisition (income breeding) drives extensive variation in organism life-histories. In nature, pure income and capital breeding are endpoints of a continuum of diversity whose ultimate drivers are poorly understood. To study the adaptive value of capital and in...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen availability is a major constraint of plant reproductive success. Because pollen size trades-off with the quantity of produced grains, the link between climate characteristics and the determination of pollen size is of fundamental importance. To minimize the rate of water loss due to desiccation, a plant should produce larger grains that als...
Article
Full-text available
Why do colder ectotherms grow more slowly but mature at a larger size? Some researchers have argued that oxygen supply and demand play a crucial role in these processes, but many studies conflated the effects of oxygen and temperature. We studied the body sizes of rotifers (Keratella cochlearis) at different depths in 20 European lakes, taking adva...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vast majority of ectotherm species were observed to follow the Temperature-Size Rule (TSR). It means that they grow faster but for a shorter time and achieve a smaller size at higher temperatures, while showing the opposite growth pattern at low temperature. It is not identified what is the developmental stage at which growing larger in cold vs. gr...
Article
Full-text available
The size of the ommatidia that compose the insect compound eye is linked to visual capacity, physiological performance, and cell size. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods for measuring ommatidia can advance research on insect ecology and evolution. We developed an automated method to measure ommatidia in nail polish imprints of the eyes of three...
Article
Full-text available
According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike other metazoans, Hydra does not experience the distinctive rise in mortality with age known as senescence, which results from an increasing imbalance between cell damage and cell repair. We propose that the Hydra controls damage accumulation mainly through damage-dependent cell selection and cell sloughing. We examine our hypothesis with a m...
Article
The acquisition and maintenance of symbiont-host associations is considered an important prerequisite for the successful colonisation of land by animals because symbionts allowed the hosts to dwell on low-quality food sources. Digestive tract symbionts are suggested to either enhance digestive efficiency of cellulose or supply the host with nutrien...
Article
Full-text available
In most ectotherms, compared with development at low temperatures, development at high temperatures results in the acceleration of maturation, which in turn results in a smaller size (temperature–size rule, TSR). It is not known at which developmental stages this thermal response is determined. We exposed different life stages of the rotifer Lecane...
Article
Full-text available
Our aim was to determine if a limitation of reproduction by available brood chamber space could explain indeterminate growth in Daphnia, and what conditions might affect this. We evaluated the brood chamber volumes of the larger Daphnia longispina and smaller D. cucullata species during the first three clutches of eggs and compared this with the vo...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature-Size Rule (TSR) is a phenotypic body size response of ectotherms to changing temperature. It is known from the laboratory studies, but seasonal patterns in the field were not studied so far. We examined the body size changes in time of rotifers inhabiting activated sludge. We hypothesize that temperature is the most influencing paramete...
Article
Full-text available
We present a novel optimal allocation model for perennial plants, in which assimilates are not allocated directly to vegetative or reproductive parts but instead go first to a storage compartment from where they are then optimally redistributed. We do not restrict considerations purely to periods favourable for photosynthesis, as it was done in pub...
Article
Evolution of metabolic rates of multicellular organisms is hypothesized to reflect the evolution of their cell architecture. This is likely to stem from a tight link between the sizes of cells and nuclei, which are expected to be inversely related to cell metabolism. Here, we analysed basal metabolic rate (BMR), internal organ masses and the cell/n...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we propose a novel optimal allocation model for perennial plants. We consider not only favorable for photosynthesis periods, but analyze the whole life of a perennial plant. This provides more information about strategies of a plant during transitions between favorable and unfavorable seasons. One of predictions of our model is that a...
Article
Full-text available
While metabolism is a fundamental feature of all organisms, the causes of its scaling with body mass are not yet fully explained. Nevertheless, observations of negative correlations between red blood cell (RBC) size and the rate of metabolism suggest that size variation of these cells responsible for oxygen supply may play a crucial role in determi...
Article
Full-text available
In a previous theoretical study we investigated whether adaptive or non-adaptive processes are more important in the evolution of senescence. We built a model that combined both processes and found that mutation accumulation is important only at those ages where mortality has a negligible impact on fitness. This model, however, was limited to haplo...
Article
Endophytes play an important role in ecological and evolutionary processes in plants and have marked economic value. Seed-transmitted fungal endophytes are conventionally regarded as mutualistic symbionts, but their fitness consequences for the offspring of the host are not clear. Puccinellia distans infected with the fungus Epichloë typhina (E+) p...
Article
Full-text available
The interactions of endophytes with plants are believed to evolve over time from parasitic to mutualistic, and in the seed-transmitted fungal endophytes, these interactions are conventionally treated as mutualistic. The weeping alkaligrass Puccinellia distans has recently dispersed to new habitats in Europe, where it was colonised by the seed-trans...
Article
Full-text available
Is senescence the adaptive result of tradeoffs between younger and older ages or the nonadaptive burden of deleterious mutations that act at older ages? To shed new light on this unresolved question we combine adaptive and nonadaptive processes in a single model. Our model uses Penna's bit-strings to capture different age-specific mutational patter...
Article
1. As a first approximation, whole-body metabolic rate can be considered as the sum of metabolic rates of constituent cells. Yet, among several current explanations of metabolic rate scaling, only two explicitly invoke cell architecture of organisms: (1) the Metabolic Theory of Ecology, which predicts size invariance of metabolically active cells,...
Article
Full-text available
Seed production is likely constrained by pollen limitation and the viability of pollen grains decreases rapidly in time due to water evaporation. Any decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio, through increase in size or change in shape of a grain, reduces the rate of water loss. However, grain size trade-offs with the number of grains that can be pr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: When infected with seed-transmitted fungal endophytes, some grasses produce a larger quantity of seeds, although these seeds are smaller than normal. The principles of life-history theory suggest that this size reduction could evolve if the infection reduces predation pressure. Question: Does the endophyte protect grass seedlings agains...
Article
Full-text available
We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell typ...
Article
Full-text available
Indeterminate growers such as plants, mollusks, fish, amphibians, and reptiles are highly diversified with respect to the seasonal timing of growth and reproduction. Current life-history theory does not offer a consistent view on the origin of this diversity. We use dynamic optimization to examine resource allocation in seasonal environments, consi...
Article
Full-text available
1. The life history of wood feeders was modelled in order to explain the multiseasonality of development and the great variability of adult size in this group. 2. The model was parameterised with experimental bioenergetic and reproductive data for the xylem feeder Aredolpona rubra (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). 3. The length of the developmental perio...
Article
Full-text available
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts the ubiquity of the of 3/4 scaling exponent relating metabolic rate (MR) to body mass, as well as cell-size invariance coupled with body-size dependence of cellular MR in quickly dividing cells. An alternative prediction is that MR scales interspecifically with a coefficient that is between 2/3 and 1,...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of density dependence appears in all approaches to the modelling of population dynamics. It is pertinent to classic models (i.e., Lotka-Volterra's), and also population genetics and game theoretical models related to the replicator dynamics. There is no density dependence in the classic formulation of replicator dynamics, which means th...
Article
Full-text available
Though many are convinced otherwise, variability of the size-scaling of metabolism is widespread in nature, and the factors driving that remain unknown. Here we test a hypothesis that the increased expenditure associated with faster growth increases metabolic scaling. We compare metabolic scaling in the fast- and slow-growth phases of ontogeny of H...