Jan Knippers

Jan Knippers
Universität Stuttgart · Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design

About

311
Publications
251,933
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3,354
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2000 - present
Universität Stuttgart
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (311)
Article
Structural members made of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) attract increasing attention in the development of novel architectural systems that challenge the standard design methodologies. Cylindrical surfaces constitute one of the typical geometric sets obtained with the FRP component fabrication. This paper explores the influences of two geometric...
Article
Though capable of allowing multi-directional spans, timber products such as cross-laminated timber are primarily utilized uni-directionally using linear supports like walls or beam elements. Recent building designs increasingly show punctual supports but with narrow column grid layouts. Support beams and narrow grids limit the design space for mult...
Article
Full-text available
Coreless filament winding is an emerging fabrication technology in the field of building construction with the potential to significantly decrease construction material consumption, while being fully automatable. Therefore, this technology could offer a solution to the increasing worldwide demand for building floor space in the next decades by opti...
Article
The applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites extend rapidly along with the development of new manufacturing techniques. However, due to the complexities introduced by the material and fabrication processes, the application of conventional structural design methods for construction members has been significantly challenging. This pa...
Article
Full-text available
Coreless filament winding (CFW) is a novel fabrication technique that utilises fibre-polymer composite materials to efficiently produce filament wound structures in architecture while reducing manufacturing waste. Previous projects have been successfully built with glass and carbon fibre, proving their potential for lightweight construction systems...
Article
Fiber-reinforced composite structures manufactured by coreless filament winding (CFW) are adaptable to the individual load case and offer high, mass-specific mechanical performance. However, relatively high safety factors must be applied due to the large deviations in the structural parameters. An improved understanding of the structural behavior i...
Article
Full-text available
In coreless filament winding, resin-impregnated fibre filaments are wound around anchor points without an additional mould. The final geometry of the produced part results from the interaction of fibres in space and is initially undetermined. Therefore, the success of large-scale coreless wound fibre composite structures for architectural applicati...
Article
Coreless filament winding is a robotic fabrication technique in which conventional filament winding is modified to reduce the core material to its minimum. This method was showcased and developed through a series of pavilions demonstrating its potential to create lightweight structures. The latest project, Maison Fibre, goes one step further and ad...
Article
The presented research describes the holistic development of a modular lightweight timber shell. So-called segmented timber shells approximate curved geometries with the use of planar plates, thus combining the excellent structural performance of double curved shells with the resource-efficient prefabrication of timber modules using only planar ele...
Article
Recent efforts on the research of bending- and tensile-active structures have shown the vast range of aesthetic and performative opportunities that elastic structures can offer for generating innovative architectural solutions. In this context, the task of conceptualizing and representing elastic structures is not trivial due to the presence of lar...
Conference Paper
This research demonstrates the development of a hybrid FRP-timber wall and slab system for multi-story structures. Bespoke computational tools and robotic fabrication processes allow for adaptive placement of material according to specific local requirements of the structure thus representing a resource-efficient alternative to established modes of...
Article
Recent development in research and practice for curved cross-laminated timber (CLT) opens up novel and interesting possibilities for applications of slender surface-active shell structures in architecture. Such typologies provide advantageous structural behaviour allowing for efficient and lightweight structures while simultaneously determine the e...
Article
Full-text available
A hemispherical research demonstration pavilion was presented to the public from April to October 2019. It was the first large-scale lightweight dome with a supporting roof structure primarily made of carbon- and glass-fiber-reinforced composites, fabricated by robotic coreless filament winding. We conducted monitoring to ascertain the sturdiness o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an agent-based method for the design of complex timber structures. This method features a multi-level agent simulation, that relies on a feedback loop between agent systems and structural simulations that update the agent environment. Such an approach can usefully be applied for the design of variable density timber slab systems...
Article
The BUGA Fibre Pavilion was built in 2019 in the Bundesgartenschau (National Gardening exhibition) at Heilbronn, Germany. The pavilion consists of modular fibre-polymer composite components made out of glass and carbon fibres with an epoxy resin matrix. The fabrication technique employed, called coreless filament winding (CFW), is a variant from co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the development of an actively controlled shape changing surface-like structure, where geometric adaptivity is utilised by local elastic deformation on the component level. Besides the physical development of a proof of concept demonstrator, the research proposes a digital form-driving process, a computational workflow which all...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates a novel assembly system that employs tension force to transform initially planar elements into bending-active plate structures. Tension is applied through cables connecting bending-active elements. The elements are designed through form planarization, tessellation, and stripe definition on an input geometry. The system offer...
Article
In building industries, branched load-bearing structures are used for defined load transfer and load distribution. While fiber-reinforced plastics are established as concrete formwork for straight segments, node geometries are less available. This is caused by the complex manufacturing process of spatially branched, three-dimensional textile prefor...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to define the influencing design criteria for compliant folding mechanisms with pneumatically actuated hinges consisting of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). Through simulation and physical testing, the influence of stiffness, hinge width as well as variation of the stiffness, in the flaps without changing the stiffness in the hinge z...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing the construction capacity, while at the same time significantly reducing harmful emissions and consumption of non-renewable resources, and still providing a liveable and affordable built environment, provides a great challenge for future construction. In order to achieve this, both the productivity of construction processes and the energ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In recent years, the coreless filament winding (CFW) technique has gained attraction due to its capacity to effectively realize large-scale lightweight building components out of fibre-reinforced composites. However, the sequential nature of its filament-based production process imposes a series of design constraints that restrain the use of this t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, the coreless filament winding (CFW) technique has gained attraction due to its capacity to effectively realize large-scale lightweight building components out of fibre-reinforced composites. However, the sequential nature of its filament-based production process imposes a series of design constraints that restrain the use of this t...
Article
The multi-stage filament winding (MSFW) method enables the sustainable production of lightweight fibre composites with complex geometries. Double curved components, even with undercuts, are analysed and concave areas which are not suitable for filament winding are replaced by convex temporary geometries. Permanent and temporary mandrel parts are co...
Article
de Die Herausforderung an das Bauen der Zukunft besteht darin, mehr zu bauen, dabei weniger Schadstoffe zu emittieren und weniger endliche Ressourcen zu verbrauchen und trotzdem eine qualitätsvolle und lebenswerte gebaute Umwelt zu schaffen. In einem sich wechselseitig beeinflussenden Prozess müssen hierfür sowohl die Produktivität der Bauprozesse...
Article
Adaptive shading devices are of special interest in the context of global need for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce mechanical complexity of kinetic architectural applications, the investigation of bio-inspired compliant mechanisms has proven to be a promising approach. Thus, a coherent integrative design framework for bio-inspired kine...
Article
The BUGA fibre pavilion built in April 2019 at the Bundesgartenschau in Heilbronn, Germany, is the most recent coreless fibre winding research pavilion developed from the collaboration between ICD/ITKE at the University of Stuttgart. The research goal is to create lightweight and high-performance lattice composite structures through robotic fabrica...
Chapter
Applying lessons learned from nature in engineering design is very old – Vitruvius mentions it, and the form of Smeaton's Eddystone lighthouse was inspired by a tree trunk. Looking for applications of natural phenomena – biomimetics – has led to many remarkable ‘inventions’, for example, exploiting the means by which a gecko can walk upside down ac...
Article
Within the framework of a biomimetic top-down approach, our study started with the technical question of the development of a hinge-free and compliant actuator inspired by plant movements. One meaningful biological concept generator was the opening and closing movements of the leaf halves of grasses. Functional morphological investigations were car...
Chapter
Faserverbundwerkstoffe, auch als faserverstärkte Kunststoffe bezeichnet, haben wegen ihrer hervorragenden Werkstoffeigenschaften schon seit Langem einen festen Platz in der Luft‐ und Raumfahrttechnik, der Sportgeräte‐ und Automobilindustrie etc. Im Bauwesen sind sie noch selten, finden aber zunehmend Anwendung in Brücken, Fassaden, Windrädern oder...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computational design and digital fabrication for architecture focuses increasingly on advanced robotic machine control for the shaping and assembly of pre-engineered building materials to produce structures with complex functional geometries. Intelligent digital planning methods and machine material feedback make processes of additive, subtractive...
Chapter
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Synergy between academia and industry stands at the core of the BUGA Fibre Pavilion, a research-driven project focused on a novel, robotically-fabricated composite building system suitable for long-span architectural applications. Lightweight, load-bearing elements were fabricated entirely out of Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (G/CFRP),...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ziel des Exzellenzclusters „IntCDC - Integrative Computational Design and Construction for Architecture“ an der Universität Stuttgart ist es, die methodischen Grundlagen für eine umfassende Modernisierung des Bauschaffens zu legen. Ein Schwerpunkt ist die Entwicklung einer übergeordneten Methodologie des „Co-Design“ von Planungsmethoden, Bauprozess...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent advancements in structural engineering, computational design, and digital fabrication, as well as a growing awareness for sustainable construction, have led to a renaissance of structural timber in architecture. Its favourable elastic properties allow bending of timber for use in free-form curved beam structures. Such complex geometries nece...
Chapter
Full-text available
Active bending is calling for a paradigm shift in the way structures are designed and built. It is in this context that natural materials, like bamboo, can play a significant role in the development of more sustainable and economical material practices in architecture. Here, we present the results of a two-weeks workshop held in Quito, Ecuador, tha...
Chapter
With fibrous joints for lightweight segmented timber shells we introduce novel techniques for three-dimensional placement and curing of CFRP-Tows within prefabricated plywood plates to create differentiated fibrous bending-resistant timber plate joints. Density, orientation, and position of the fibrous joints can be informed by the calculated local...
Article
Regarding modern, daylight-flooded buildings with large window façades, appropriate shading systems to improve the energy consumption of climate controlling systems are becoming more relevant. Building envelopes contribute largely to the temperature control and should be at best installed on the outside to prevent the interior from heating up. Pref...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Platforms that integrate developments from multiple disciplines are becoming increasingly relevant as the complexity of different technologies increases day by day. In this context, this paper describes an integrative approach for the development of architectural projects. It portrays the benefits of applying such approach by describing its impleme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this research is to challenge the prevalent separation between (digital) design and (physical) operation processes of adaptive and interactive architectural systems. The linearity of these processes implies predetermined material or kinetic behaviors, limiting performances to those that are predictable and safe. This is particularly rest...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a series of physical and digital experiments concerning the design of multiple state adaptive gridshells actuated by strategically applied point loads. A gridshell made of bending active rods is actuated through the placement of weights (point loads) at different positions on the grid. This results in an adaptive structure that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines the design, simulation and construction of a bending-active tensile hybrid structure, designed as cantilevered roof, part of the 'ITECH Research Demonstrator 2017-18', a collaborative project between ITKE and ICD. The hybrid structure, which will be referred to as 'pringle' for the continuation of this paper, investigates the co...
Conference Paper
Segmented timber shells offer the possibility of constructing long span, double curved shell structures efficiently and economically. This was demonstrated with the Landesgartenschau Exhibition Hall 2014 in Schwäbisch Gmünd [1], a prefabricated segmented timber shell made of planar beech plywood plates. However, the application of this construction...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The introduction of curved cross-laminated timber (CLT) in architecture opens up a vast range of novel applications for timber as slender single-curved shells. These shells can be composed of cylindrical surfaces which form a folded structural system by their interpenetration with linear or rotational compositions in plan and in horizontal or verti...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coreless filament winding is a technique where glass and carbon fibre filaments impregnated with epoxy resin are wound freely between two rotating winding scaffolds by a robotic arm. The load induction in the connections of coreless filament FRP components is one of the major challenges when designing with this novel structural system. An efficient...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Pavilion, manufactured using core-less fibre wound (CFW) reinforced polymers was exhibited in the Bundesgartenschau 2019 (BUGA) in Heilbronn from the 17th of April until the 6th of October 2019. The load bearing structure of this Pavilion is the latest endeavour, developed as a collaborative effort of the ICD and ITKE institutes at the University...
Article
Compliant mechanisms of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) have been developed to reduce the mechanical complexity of kinetic systems. In a further step, pneumatic actuation was integrated into the set-up of the FRP, offering lightweight, slender, and inconspicuous actuation. Inflation of an integrated cushion causes rotation through the asymmetric mat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This research showcases the integrated design process and development of an ultra-light-weight, composite dome structure as a case study for the investigation of high-performance, long-span, fibre-reinforced-polymer (FRP) based building systems. Particular emphasis is given to the exploration of design strategies and the exposure of multidirectiona...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The current work presents a novel method to form find efficient funnel shell structures beyond the constraints of funicularity. The so-called Bending-driven Dynamic Corrugation method is introduced within the framework of corrugated shell design and that of integrated computational form finding workflows. The hereby presented method employs the ana...
Chapter
Im Laufe der Evolution haben sich Seeigel an unterschiedlichste Lebensräume im Meer angepasst. Besonders auffällig sind Entwicklungen im Bau ihrer Skelette, die zum Teil sehr spezifisch an die Umweltbedingungen gekoppelt sind. Die Schalen müssen vielen Anforderungen gerecht werden, um z. B. Strömungen, Sturmereignissen und Räuberangriffen zu widers...
Chapter
Materials and structures adapt automatically when their environment changes. A dream? No. In living nature, this goes without saying. In particular, plants that are tied to their location have developed different adaptive mechanisms in the course of evolution and can therefore react to changes in environmental conditions. Often overlooked, but of s...
Chapter
In the course of evolution, sea urchins have adapted to a wide range of habitats in the ocean. Particularly conspicuous are the developments in the construction of their skeletons, which feature specific adaptations to their ambient environmental conditions. The sea urchin shells thus have developed many different charakteristics in order to withst...
Chapter
In architectural research, pavilions play a special role because, as temporary structures, they present an opportunity to investigate specific issues without having to fulfill all requirements for permanent buildings. The findings resulting from this investigation can then be utilized in the design and implementation of permanent buildings. In this...
Chapter
Bridges and roofs are often supported by branched steel columns. Their production is usually expensive and consumes a great deal of energy. In nature, plants manage to form similarly strong and frequently even more complex branch systems through natural growth processes. They can effortlessly withstand mechanical loads, such as their own weight, wi...
Chapter
Branched loadbearing structures have a long tradition in architecture. After centuries of application, the principle of this construction method is still valid today and results in good structural systems. It is obvious why this is so: owing to the form-active design, slender branched columns are effective supports for roofs and floor decks.
Chapter
Plants have neither muscles nor “classic” local joints-and yet they can move. In the course of evolution, efficient movement mechanisms and esthetic movement forms have developed. Architects and engineers, in cooperation with biomechanists, are benefiting from this botanical “offering” and drawing inspiration for the development of new types of fac...
Chapter
Biology can provide exciting ideas for the development or improvement of technical products. As a rule, the underlying principles are first investigated using a feasibility demonstrator, which does not represent a finished technical product but nevertheless, on the whole, is intended to “function” like the finished product. However, there is a long...