Jan Johanson

Jan Johanson
Uppsala University | UU · Department of Business Studies

Professor

About

113
Publications
257,453
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47,144
Citations
Citations since 2017
5 Research Items
14328 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500

Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Multinational business enterprises (MBEs) have created and/or discovered opportunities to improve on their businesses, by engaging in technological change and establishing presence by ownership or cooperation with local parties on foreign markets. This development has increased the level of complexity to managers dramatically. Accordingly, the MBEs...
Article
A well-established interpretation of the Uppsala model is that it predicts a slow internationalization. Research has shown that it is not inevitable. It shows that rapid internationalization can happen in some cases, suggesting that the model needs to be reassessed. In an attempt to respond to this challenge, we return to the model as it was propos...
Article
In our award-winning 2009 article, we further developed the model that we originally presented in 1977. We observed that firms form relationships and that those relationships become networks, and thus in the end the business macro environment consists of networks of relationships between firms. Those relationships have far-reaching consequences, es...
Article
The original Uppsala model that was published in 1977 explains the internationalization process of firms. We have further developed the model several times in the intervening years. The present article is our latest effort: a general model of the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE), from early steps abroad to being a global fir...
Chapter
Full-text available
Perhaps the most striking institutional change over the last 30 years is the transition from some kind of state-governed and planned economy to a more open economic system governed by the market. This development has occurred or is currently occurring in countries that are often labelled transition economies or emerging markets. Included among thes...
Chapter
Psychic distance is a behavioural concept capturing the uncertainty of decision makers due to lack of knowledge about foreign markets. This uncertainty is a consequence of overall social and economic factors in the foreign markets and of the experience of the decision makers. It has been used with success to explain firms’ market selection and entr...
Chapter
The growing academic interest in cooperative strategies in international business has, during the last decades, focused mainly on formal cooperation as reflected in studies on international joint ventures, licensing, management contracts and strategic alliances [Contractor and Lorange 1988]. Parallel to this development, however, there has been a s...
Chapter
In the early 1960s, Sune Carlson, who came to the new Department of Business Studies after staying 10 years in the UN, started a research program on international business. The initiation of this program was considered against the background of the accelerating European economic integration that was expected to have important consequences for diffe...
Chapter
Full-text available
In furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the internationalization of firms, process models have played a significant role [Bilkey and Tesar 1977; Cavusgil 1980, 1984; Czinkota 1982; Johanson and Vahlne 1977, 1990; Luostarinen 1980; Reid 1983]. In these models, market-specific experiential knowledge is central in explaining the firm’s inte...
Chapter
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The theme of the book suggests that international interdependence between firms and within industries is of great and increasing importance. Analyses of international trade, international investments, industrial organisation and international business behaviour attempt to describe, explain and give advice about these interdependencies. The theoreti...
Chapter
In 1986, SKF, the Swedish ball-bearing company was reorganized into a multi-divisional structure (M-form) and a speciality bearing division was formed. At the same time the US ball-bearing company MRC with a strong position in some speciality bearing lines was acquired. The headquarters (HQ) of the speciality bearing division were placed in the USA...
Chapter
Competence development in the multinational corporation (MNC) is driven by competition in local industrial clusters, and the operating units engaged in those clusters are critical in the development of the MNC, as Porter, Sölvell, and Zander (1990) posit. They assume that the operations of the single, unique subsidiary in relation to its unique ind...
Chapter
Full-text available
In several studies it has been observed that single business relationships can play a critical role in the early international expansion of SME firms (Chetty and Blankenburg Holm, 2000; Child et al., 2002; Ellis, 2000; Hilmersson and Jansson, 2011; Johanson and Vahlne, 2003; Sharma and Blomstermo, 2003). It has also been shown that network construc...
Chapter
Full-text available
Much has changed since our model of the internationalization process of the firm was published in the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977). In fact, the economic and regulatory environments have changed dramatically. Company behavior is also different in some respects. The research frontier has moved too. There...
Chapter
Full-text available
A network approach, as it is developed by some Swedish researchers in industrial marketing and international business (see e.g. Hägg 6 Johanson (ed.), 1982 and Hammarkvist, Håkansson & Mattsson, 1982) is compared with the transaction cost approach associated with Oliver Williamson (e.g. Williamson, 1975, 1979, 1981). The reason we make such a tompa...
Book
This book presents more than four decades of research in international business in the Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University. Gradually, this research has been recognized as “The Uppsala School.” The work in Uppsala over the years reflects a broad palette of issues and approaches. There are, though, some common characteristics for most...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper we describe the evolution of the Uppsala model, which we see as a gradual substitution of economics-type assumptions with ones derived from the behavioral theory of the firm and from empirical studies of international firm behavior. We rely upon them to introduce a new version of the Uppsala model. To decrease the traditional focus on...
Article
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This paper analytically and graphically examines the Uppsala model's risk formula (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977) in its two variables: commitment and uncertainty. The graphical treatment of the variables demonstrates the internationalization mechanism's consistency with the risk formula. In particular, commitment manipulation develops a risk management...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper seeks to offer a model on the evolution of the multinational business enterprise (MBE). It is meant to be an alternative to the eclectic paradigm, the preeminent theoretical tool applied in studies of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and foreign direct investment. The label MBE aims at moving focus from structure of productio...
Article
Studies of international knowledge transfer usually focus on the transfer of knowledge without loss between organizational units. However, this research has frequently been inconclusive because of the tacit nature of knowledge and the difficulties of measuring the results of knowledge transfer. Therefore, we suggest a paradigmatic shift of research...
Article
We conceptualize the global firm as being a loosely coupled network of far-flung subsidiaries with hierarchically acting headquarters (HQ) that design a global organization to ensure support of its global strategic agenda. We argue that the process of HQ management in the global firm is a process characterized by uncertainty. Drawing on the Uppsala...
Article
Full-text available
The globalization of a firm is a time-consuming and incremental process similar in nature to the internationalization process. We adapt the Uppsala Internationalization Process Model ( [17] and [18]) to explain the globalization process. We define globalization as an effort to optimize a business in terms of its configuration and coordination syste...
Article
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When firms cross-borders it is, by definition, internationalization. We believe that often internationalization should be seen as either a by-product of a firm’s efforts to improve its position within its network or networks, or as the result of an entrepreneurial action. We consider three theoretical approaches as a starting point and breathe life...
Article
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Based on empirical studies of firm exchange activities in business markets, this paper outlines a business network view of the firm-market relationship, which differs fundamentally from the view assumed by neo-classical economic theory. We define business networks as sets of connected business relationships. Thus business relationships and connecti...
Article
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The Uppsala internationalization process model is revisited in the light of changes in business practices and theoretical advances that have been made since 1977. Now the business environment is viewed as a web of relationships, a network, rather than as a neoclassical market with many independent suppliers and customers. Outsidership, in relation...
Article
Why are division headquarters of multinational corporations in some cases located abroad? In the multinational corporation the physical location of division headquarters is a problematic issue because of the need for close links both to corporate headquarters and the foreign subsidiaries. This paper develops a model explaining this location as a co...
Article
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Abstract – Firms entering transition markets are typically ignorant about those markets, and the markets, owing to the transition from a planned to a market economy, are typically turbulent. Consequently the entry process involves discoveries that could not have been predicted in advance. This position is supported by a longitudinal study in real...
Article
Purpose In 1982 two books published in Sweden suggested a network perspective on markets and marketing. The purpose of this paper is to explain the emergence in Sweden of the network perspective. Design/methodology/approach Provides an examination of research in industrial marketing and related fields during the 1970s and the roles of the societal...
Article
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Abstract – This paper starts from the observation that the internationalisation process (IP) model frequently is interpreted as a model of risk reduction in the internationalization of the firm. The dominating view of the model seems to be that commitment is the dependent variable and experience is the independent variable. A basic assumption of...
Article
'Forsgren, Holm, and Johanson have been among the leaders in developing the idea of the multinational firm as a network that spans different country environments. This perspective cautions the easy prescription that a multinational firm can do everything easily, if it just has the right organizational form. Relationships matter, as do the legitimac...
Chapter
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During the last few decades entrepreneurship has attracted a growing interest in both the business world and academia. It seems to be a general agreement that accelerating technological development and globalization require that national economies and industries grow rapidly enough to be competitive in this new world order. It is also believed that...
Chapter
This book project was initiated by thoughts on firms’ growth and development on one hand and networks on the other. The connection is based on the belief for a need for deeper notion to understand network dynamic. Dividing the network relationship into the standardized/institutionalized which pertains to stability and the new uncertain interactions...
Article
This paper addresses the question of whether the dyadic approach to international business relationships should, in some situations, be extended to a triadic one. In studies of business relationships the common view is that the relationship consists of two parties, one selling party and one buying party. However, in some, especially international b...
Chapter
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Article
The objective of this paper is to formulate a theoretical framework for studies of antecedents and consequences of discoveries during international expansion. By introducing market discovery it seems to be possible to offer a richer understanding of the pattern and pace of the international expansion of a firm. Market discovery is the result of bot...
Article
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This paper is based on a case study of an international venture and on the observations reported by a number of researchers that the received models of the internationalization process of the firm do not capture some important phenomena in the modern international business world. As several researchers argue that networks play an important role in...
Article
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This article examines the effect of variation in the geographical scope of international business operations on experiential knowledge development in the internationalization of the firm. Based on learning theory, this article develops five hypotheses on the effects of variation on three interrelated components of international experiential knowled...
Article
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A structural model of business relationship development in a business network context is formulated and tested on data from the European International Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) project. The empirical analysis demonstrates a causal chain from business network connection through mutual commitment and mutual dependence to value creation in the re...
Article
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Using a behavioral approach, this study identifies and delineates components of experiential knowledge in the internationalization process. Three hypotheses are developed and tested. They center around the lack of knowledge in the areas of foreign business, foreign institutions and firm internationalization, as well as the effect that this lack of...
Article
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While foreign market entry and expansion has attracted much international business research, few have studied the contraction of foreign market operations and exit from foreign markets when MNCs face market turbulence and decline. This article uses a process perspective to examine the responses of three Swedish MNCs to the dramatic changes in the I...
Article
One of the advantages of the multinational corporation (MNC) is that it can exploit new product ideas globally in a rapid manner. This raises the issue of control of MNC new product introductions. It has been demonstrated that control over MNC subsidiaries differs depending on the strategic role assigned to the subsidiary. But, in addition to its r...
Article
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Cooperative relationships between firms can be better understood if they are examined in the context of a network of connected business relationships. Based on research on business relationships and business networks, this paper formulates a LISREL model that analyses cooperation in international business relationships between suppliers and custome...
Article
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Based on exchange network theory and business network concepts this paper hypothesizes that five kinds of network connections affect three different dimensions of the atmosphere of dyadic business relationships. In other relationship studies these atmosphere dimensions have been regarded as important links between relationship antecedent and outcom...
Article
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In business-to-business settings, dyadic relationships between firms are of paramount interest. Recent developments in business practice strongly suggest that to understand these business relationships, greater attention must be directed to the embedded context within which dyadic business relationships take place. The authors provide a means for u...
Article
In business-to-business settings, dyadic relationships between firms are of paramount interest. Recent developments in business practice strongly suggest that to understand these business relationships, greater attention must be directed to the embedded context within which dyadic business relationships take place. The authors provide a means for u...
Chapter
Full-text available
Philip Kotler, in a speech to the trustees of the Marketing Science Institute, said that the paradigmatic orientation of marketing moves from transactions to relationships to networks [Kotler 1991]. From this perspective, it is worth considering a network approach to marketing developed by Swedish marketing researchers during the last decade. This...
Article
To view internationalization as a process has been fruitful. The propositions suggested within the stream of research based on this notion have received wide empirical support (Johanson and Vahlne, 1977, Johanson and Vahlne, 1990, Bilkey, 1978; Cavusgil, 1980, Cavusgil,1984; Dichtl et al., 1984; Denis and Depelteau, 1985; Kogut and Singh, 1986). Le...
Article
Based on the contingency theory of organization, a structural model of product exchange, inter firm social structure, inter firm adaptation, and relationship age in dyadic business relationships is formulated and analyzed with regard to different customer technologies. Relationships with unit and mass production technology customers are found to ha...
Article
On the basis of social exchange theory and the resource-dependence model, a structural model of interfirm adaptation is formulated. The model accounts for mutual adaptation as a consequence of trust-building as well as for unilateral adaptation due to imbalanced dependence between the parties. The view that interfirm adaptations are elements in a s...
Article
On the basis of social exchange theory and the resource-dependence model, a structural model of interfirm adaptation is formulated. The model accounts for mutual adaptation as a consequence of trust-building as well as for unilateral adaptation due to imbalanced dependence between the parties. The view that interfirm adaptations are elements in a s...
Article
Banks are important institutions by reason of their role as intermediaries between the holders of surplus capital and those in need of financial resources. They are therefore often mentioned as vital nodes in modern economies, with substantial power positions in relation to their clients. In recent years deregulation and the development of informat...
Article
Full-text available
The contemporary relevance of the so-called Uppsala Internationalisation Model is discussed. This is a framework advanced by a number of Swedish colleagues describing the typical process of “going international”. Johanson and Vahlne respond to the criticisms of the model they proposed in the 1970s and relate it to the Eclectic Paradigm Model and th...
Article
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Previous studies of the internationalisation process of firms have focused on the internationalisation of manufacturing firms. This article analyses the internationalisation of technical consultansy firms, a service industry. On the basis of two Swedish case studies the article concludes that the firms' networks of relationships with other firms ha...
Article
Full-text available
A network approach, as it is developed by some Swedish researchers in industrial marketing and international business (see e.g. Hägg & Johanson (ed.), 1982 and Hammarkvist, Håkansson & Mattsson, 1982) is compared with the transaction cost approach associated with Oliver Williamson (e.g. Williamson, 1975, 1979, 1981). The reason we make such a compa...
Article
A large and increasing share of company resources is devoted to marketing activities. To a large extent those activities are of a long term nature. There are long term, intertemporal dependence relations between marketing activities and their consequences. It is important both for marketing practice and marketing theory to develop tools for analyse...
Article
This article analyzes the marketing strategies of industrial suppliers in five Western European countries. The strategies are characterized in a quality dimension and a customer adaptation dimension. In the quality dimension the strategies are found to be related to characteristics of the industrial environment of the supplier country. In the adapt...

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