Jan Karem Höhne

Jan Karem Höhne
University of Duisburg-Essen | uni-due · Political Science Department

Doctor of Philosophy

About

40
Publications
2,458
Reads
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252
Citations
Introduction
Jan Karem Höhne is postdoc researcher in the POLITSOLID project of the European Resarch Council at the University of Duisburg-Essen and research fellow at the Research and Expertise Centre for Survey Methodology at the University of Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. He was Fulbright fellow at Stanford University and research fellow at the University of Michigan. His research combines political psychology and sociology with computational social science.

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
A large body of studies estimate the measurement quality of survey questions using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) experiments. In these experiments, respondents are asked (nearly) identical questions at least twice. Most commonly, this is done within the same survey by, for instance, changing the response scale characteristics. However, it has frequ...
Article
The ever-growing number of respondents completing web surveys via smartphones is paving the way for leveraging technological advances to improve respondents’ survey experience and, in turn, the quality of their answers. Smartphone surveys enable researchers to incorporate audio and voice features into web surveys, that is, having questions read alo...
Article
Full-text available
Images might provide richer and more objective information than text answers to open‐ended survey questions. Little is known, nonetheless, about the consequences for data quality of asking participants to answer open‐ended questions with images. Therefore, this paper addresses three research questions: (1) What is the effect of answering web survey...
Article
The rapid increase in smartphone surveys and technological developments open novel opportunities for collecting survey answers. One of these opportunities is the use of open‐ended questions with requests for oral instead of written answers, which may facilitate the answer process and result in more in‐depth and unfiltered information. Whereas it is...
Article
Technological advancements and changes in online survey participation pave the way for new data collection methods. Particularly, the increasing smartphone rate in online surveys facilitates a re-consideration of prevailing communication channels to, for instance, naturalize the communication process between researchers and respondents and to colle...
Article
Full-text available
Digital health data that accompany data from traditional surveys are becoming increasingly important in health-related research. For instance, smartphones have many built-in sensors, such as accelerometers that measure acceleration so that they offer many new research possibilities. Such acceleration data can be used as a more objective supplement...
Article
Full-text available
Many study designs in social science research rely on repeated measurements implying that the same respondents are asked the same (or nearly the same) questions at least twice. An assumption made by such study designs is that respondents second answer does not depend on their first answer. However, if respondents recall their initial answer and bas...
Article
Political knowledge can affect measures obtained in public opinion research and political science. When asked political knowledge questions, some respondents look up the answers online, inflating political knowledge scores. This response behavior is detectable in web surveys using paradata. This study investigates whether and to what extent respond...
Technical Report
This repository provides the source codes of the “SurveyVoice (SVoice)” tool developed by Jan Karem Höhne, Konstantin Gavras, and Danish Daniel Qureshi. SVoice enables researchers to record respondents’ voice answers to survey questions in (mobile) web surveys. It is based on different program languages, such as JavaScript and PHP, and licensed und...
Article
The measurement of respondents' attitudes is key in social science research and many adjacent research fields. A common method to measure this information is to use Likert-type questions that consist of a statement that is evaluated with a rating scale. As shown by previous research, the scale design of Likert-type questions can have a profound imp...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that question characteristics, such as the shape of rating scales, can affect how respondents interpret and respond to questions. For example, earlier studies reported different response distributions for questions employing rating scales in the form of a ladder and in the form of a pyramid. The current experiment, imple...
Article
The rise of smartphone surveys, coupled with technological advancements, provide new ways for measuring respondents’ political attitudes. The use of open questions with requests for voice answers instead of text answers may simplify the answer process and provide nuanced information. So far, research comparing the measurement quality of text and vo...
Article
It is common practice in behavioral and social sciences to repeat questions, such as in pretest–posttest designs. However, if respondents recall their first answer to a repeated question and use it to decide their second answer, this may cause memory effects, affecting empirical findings. So far, only a few studies have investigated respondents’ re...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing volume of "Big Data" produced by sensors and smart devices can transform the social and behavioral sciences. Several successful studies used digital data to provide new insights into social reality. This special issue argues that the true power of these data for the social sciences lies in connecting new data sources with surveys. Wh...
Article
Millennials (1982 to 2003) witnessed a set of events during their lives that differentiated them from older age cohorts (Generation X, Boomers, and Silents). Thus, one can also expect that Millennials’ web survey participation differs from that of older cohorts. The goal of this study is to compare Millennials to older cohorts on different aspects...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilizes acceleration data from smartphone sensors to predict motion conditions of smartphone respondents. Specifically, we predict whether respondents are moving or nonmoving on a survey page level to learn about distractions and the situational conditions under which respondents complete smartphone surveys. The predicted motion conditi...
Chapter
Der Einfluss der Antwortskalenrichtung auf das Antwortverhalten ist ein bekanntes Phänomen in der quantitativen empirischen Sozialforschung. Es existieren verschiedene theoretische Erklärungsansätze für das Auftreten solcher Effekte, so dass die Literatur unterschiedliche empirische Befunde berichtet. Allerdings hat die Umfrageforschung gezeigt, da...
Technical Report
This repository provides the source codes of the “SurveyImage (SImage)” tool developed by Jan Karem Höhne (University of Mannheim; RECSM-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Danish Daniel Qureshi (University of Frankfurt), and Konstantin Gavras (University of Mannheim). SImage enables researchers to collect respondents’ answers to survey questions in the for...
Article
Measuring respondents' attitudes is a crucial task in numerous social science disciplines. A popular way to measure attitudes is to use survey questions with rating scales. However, research has shown that especially the design of rating scales can have a profound impact on respondents' answer behavior. While some scale design aspects, such as scal...
Article
In recent years, the number of surveys, especially online surveys, has increased dramatically. Due to the absence of interviewers in this survey mode (who can motivate the respondents to continue answering), some researchers and practitioners argue that online surveys should not be longer than 20 min. However, so far, there has been little research...
Article
Full-text available
Embedded Client Side Paradata (ECSP) is a tool that is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). It is based on different program languages, such as JavaScript and HTML. In general, ECSP can be implemented in web-based survey software solutions that provide access to...
Article
The use of web surveys is a common and popular data collection method in behavioral and social research. Compared to other established survey modes, web surveys are frequently cheaper and less time consuming, because they are commonly self-administered. They also allow respondents to take part with few time and location restrictions. However, resea...
Article
The effects of scale direction on response behavior are well known in the survey literature, where a variety of theoretical approaches are discussed, and mixed empirical findings are reported. In addition, different types of survey completion devices seem to vary in their susceptibility to scale direction effects. In this study, we therefore invest...
Article
Full-text available
In social science research, unipolar and bipolar scales are commonly used methods in measuring respondents’ attitudes and opinions. Compared to other rating scale characteristics, scale polarity (unipolar and bipolar) and its effects on response behavior have rarely been addressed in previous research. To fill this gap in the literature, we investi...
Book
Diese Festschrift zu Ehren Steffen M. Kühnels versammelt eine Vielzahl von Beiträgen zu verschiedenen Themengebieten, mit denen sich der renommierte Soziologe in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten beschäftigt hat. In rund 35 Artikeln diskutieren deutsche und internationale Expertinnen und Experten zentrale Fragen der empirischen Sozialforschung. Die inhal...
Article
Web surveys are an established data collection mode that use written language to provide information. The written language is accompanied by visual elements, such as presentation formats and shapes. However, research has shown that visual elements influence response behavior because respondents sometimes use interpretive heuristics to make sense of...
Article
Web surveys are a common self-administered mode of data collection using written language to convey information. This language is usually accompanied by visual design elements, such as numbers, symbols, and graphics. As shown by previous research, such elements of survey questions can affect response behavior because respondents sometimes use inter...
Article
The increased use of smartphones in web survey responding did not only raise new research questions but also fostered new ways to research survey completion behavior. Smartphones have many built-in sensors, such as accelerometers that measure acceleration (i.e., the rate of change of velocity of an object over time). Sensor data establish new resea...
Article
Participation in web surveys via smartphones increased continuously in recent years. The reasons for this increase are a growing proportion of smartphone owners and an increase in mobile Internet access. However, research has shown that smartphone respondents are frequently distracted and/or multitasking, which might affect completion and response...
Chapter
Antwortskalen sind ein zentraler Bestandteil standardisierter Fragebögen. In der Surveyforschung wird häufig zwischen endpunktbenannten und vollverbalisierten Antwortskalen unterschieden. Bei ersteren werden nur die beiden Pole, bei letzteren alle Kategorien einer Antwortskala verbalisiert. Bei vollverbalisierten Skalen ist eine häufige Empfehlung,...
Article
In social research, the use of agree/disagree (A/D) questions is a popular method for measuring attitudes. Research has shown that A/D questions require complex cognitive processing and are susceptible to response bias. Thus, some researchers recommend the use of item-specific (IS) questions. This study examines the processing of A/D and IS questio...
Article
The use of agree/disagree (A/D) questions is a common technique to measure attitudes. For instance, this question format is employed frequently in the Eurobarometer and International Social Survey Programme (ISSP). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that A/D questions require a complex processing. Therefore, many survey researchers have r...
Article
Full-text available
Embedded Client Side Paradata (ECSP) is a tool that is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). It is based on different program languages, such as JavaScript and HTML. In general, ECSP can be implemented in web-based survey software solutions that provide access to...
Article
In empirical social research, using questions with an agreement scale, also known as agree/disagree (A/D) questions, is a popular technique for measuring attitudes and opinions. Methodological considerations, however, suggest that such questions require effortful cognitive processing and are prone to response bias, such as acquiescence. Therefore,...
Article
Measuring attitudes and opinions employing agree/disagree (A/D) questions is a common method in social research because it appears to be possible to measure different constructs with identical response scales. However, theoretical considerations suggest that A/D questions require a considerable cognitive processing. Item-specific (IS) questions, in...
Article
Web surveys are commonly used in social research because they are usually cheaper, faster, and simpler to conduct than other modes. They also enable researchers to capture paradata such as response times. Particularly, the determination of proper values to define outliers in response time analyses has proven to be an intricate challenge. In fact, t...
Article
The effect of the response scale direction on response behavior is a well-known phenomenon in survey research. While there are several approaches to explaining how such response order effects occur, the literature reports mixed evidence. Furthermore, different question formats seem to vary in their susceptibility to these effects. We therefore inve...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the context stability of questions on political issues in cross-national surveys. For this purpose, we conducted three replication studies (N1 = 213; N2 = 677; N3 = 1,489) based on eight split-ballot design experiments with undergraduate and graduate students to test for question order effects. The questions, which wer...
Article
Full-text available
Response order effects are a well-known phenomenon that can occur when answering survey questions with multiple response categories. Although various theoretical explanations exist, the empirical evidence is contradictory. Moreover, different scale types produce different effect sizes. In the current study, we investigate the occurrence and causes...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
This ERC Consolidator Grant project POLITSOLID investigates the micro-foundations of political solidarities in fast-changing European polities. It analyses why some ordinary citizens show a high overall willingness to shoulder costs of public redistribution to other people in a polity, while others do not; and why ordinary citizens have multiple levels of willingness to shoulder costs depending on who receives the benefit. Relevance: Having high levels of political solidarities is important for modern democracies to deal with exogenous shocks and long-term structural changes in their societies, which create pressures on the political system. Recent exogenous shocks in Europe that brought the necessity of political solidarities to light were the financial crisis (2007/8) with its extensive transnational bail-out policies across the European Union and the large refugee intake (2015/16). Relevant long-term structural changes are population ageing, rising income inequality and mass immigration. POLITSOLID answers the overarching research question: What drives political solidarities in modern European democracies? Objectives • To create a novel theoretical and empirical framework that allows simultaneous modelling of multiple political solidarities and that includes the individual as well as the macro levels to enable better predictions about how people behave. • To test causal mechanisms with a range of mostly experimental methods to get a better understanding of causality where observational studies have so far dominated. • To isolate effective levers that political actors can pull to create political solidarities. Data: POLITSOLID collects and analyses new data from (1) lab experiments & online surveys, (2) a simulated artificial state ‘Novaland’ in which volunteers from Austria, Germany & Switzerland act as citizens in an online environment, with experimental treatments applied, (3) an international panel survey in six countries and (4) field experiments in collaboration with real political actors.