Jan Havlicek

Jan Havlicek
Charles University in Prague | CUNI · Department of Zoology (PF)

About

275
Publications
182,126
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,933
Citations

Publications

Publications (275)
Article
Mate choice appears to be driven by a set of mate preferences. It is, however, unclear how preferences for individual characteristics are integrated into actual mate choice decisions. According to the Additive model, the most desirable partner is the one with the highest overall sum of relevant characteristics. In contrast, the Threshold model pred...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of depression is influenced by social relationships, however, most studies focus on individuals, not couples. We aimed to study how depressive symptoms of couples evolve over time and determine, which characteristics are associated with their distinct trajectories. A multi-centric cohort sample of 11,136 heterosexual couples (mean ag...
Article
Full-text available
Studies show that specific vocal modulations, akin to those of infant-directed speech (IDS) and perhaps music, play a role in communicating intentions and mental states during human social interaction. Based on this, we propose a model for the evolution of musicality—the capacity to process musical information—in relation to human vocal communicati...
Article
The aim of this report is to present the research project „Effect of parental characteristics on mate choice“ supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GA18–15168S). It is a multidisciplinary project involving not only psychological but also biological and chemical methods, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of the studied phenomen...
Article
According to the congruency hypothesis, relationship satisfaction is predicted by the congruency (or non-congruency) between current use of oral contraceptives (OC) and their use during relationship formation. This is based on reports that OC may alter women’s mate preferences, so that attraction to their partner may have changed in non-congruent w...
Article
Full-text available
Human childrearing is characterized by cooperative care and grandmothers are usually the most prominent alloparents. Nevertheless, it has been argued that limited resources may intensify competition among kin. The effect of grandmothers’ presence on child survival may thus crucially depend on the family’s socioeconomic status. We evaluate the impac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies show that specific vocal modulations, akin to those of infant-directed speech and perhaps music, play a role in communicating intentions and mental states during human social interaction. Based on this, we propose a model for the evolution of musicality –the capacity to process musical information– in relation to human vocal communication....
Article
CZECH ABSTRACT | Zahájení kojení je komplexní proces ovlivňovaný nejen fyziologickými procesy a chováním matky, ale i reakcemi novorozence. Při vyhledávání prsu novorozencem hrají, mimo taktilních, vizuálních a chuťových vodítek, klíčovou roli čichové podněty z mateřského mléka a sekrece žláz nacházejících se na areole. Hlavním cílem tohoto přehled...
Article
Previous studies have shown that women perceive male faces with a more reactive immune system as more attractive, but whether body odor might likewise provide cues to immune function has not been investigated yet. These two studies tested a possible relationship between body odor quality and immunoreactivity (Study 1) and immune system function (St...
Article
Full-text available
Vyhýbání se sexu s příbuznými neboli incestu je považováno za univerzální jev. Jednotlivé obory se však liší vysvětlením vzniku zábrany incestu. Cílem této přehledové studie je představit teorie vyhýbání se incestu z perspektivy kulturní a evoluční antropologie, a přispět tak k pochopení komplexity celé problematiky. Důvodem nízkého výskytu incestu...
Article
Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is a condition that affects women around the world. Previous studies show that NVP is associated with dietary changes and aversions towards certain kinds of food. It has been suggested that these changes could have adaptive functions, such as protecting the embryo from harmful teratogenic substances in cer...
Poster
Full-text available
Men look different than women, well that is not a big surprise, but we wanted to study the phenomena of sexual dimorphism of human faces more thoroughly. Every human face can be represented as a position in a 144-dimensional space. That is a start. We collected face shapes in 8 different cultures, In Cameroon, Namibia, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Repub...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual selection, including mate choice and intrasexual competition, is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborated and sexually dimorphic traits in animals. Although there is sexual dimorphism in the shape of human faces, it is not clear whether this is similarly due to mate choice, or whether mate choice affects only part of the...
Article
Full-text available
Odhady výskytu incestu se značně rozcházejí. Výsledky mohou být ovlivněny zdrojem, ze kterého jsou data čerpána (např. soudní záznamy), ale také rozdílným chápáním pojmu incest. Zároveň není zřejmé, které faktory jsou pro výskyt incestu specifické. Cílem této přehledové studie je představit výskyt incestního chování a okolnosti, které ho obvykle do...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the relative contribution of economic, personal, and affective power bases to perceived relationship power. Based on evolutionary studies, we predicted that personality dominance and mate value should represent alternative personal power bases. Our sample was comprised of 84 Czech heterosexual couples. We measured the economic power bas...
Article
Evidence suggests that personality may influence romantic relationship quality in several ways. Quality of relationship can be affected by an individual's personality (actor effect), partner's personality (partner effect), by discrepancy between ideal and actual partners' personalities (discrepancy effect), or by similarity between partners' person...
Article
Full-text available
Behaviorální imunitní systém představuje vedle tělesného imunitního systému další obranný nástroj organismu. Jeho hlavní funkcí je detekce a vyhnutí se potenciálně ohrožujícím podnětům, jež mohou vést k přenosu patogenů. Včasná vyhýbavá reakce organismu významně snižuje energii, jež by jinak byla vydána na metabolicky náročné reakce tělesného imuni...
Article
Full-text available
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a core part of the adaptive immune system. As in other vertebrate taxa, it may also affect human chemical communication via odour-based mate preferences, with greater attraction towards MHC-dissimilar partners. However, despite some well-known findings, the available evidence is equivocal and made compl...
Article
Although anthropologists frequently report the centrality of odours in the daily lives and cultural beliefs of many small-scale communities, Western scholars have historically considered the sense of smell as minimally involved in human communication. Here, we suggest that the origin and persistence of this latter view might be a consequence of the...
Article
Full-text available
Dominance hierarchy is often established via repeated agonistic encounters where consistent winners are considered dominant. Human body odour contains cues to psychological dominance and competition, but it is not known whether competition outcome (a marker of a change in dominance hierarchy) affects the hedonic quality of human axillary odour. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
Now published in Chemical Senses doi: 10.1093/chemse/bjaa041. Recent anecdotal and scientific reports have provided evidence of a link between COVID-19 and chemosensory impairments such as anosmia. However, these reports have downplayed or failed to distinguish potential effects on taste, ignored chemesthesis, generally lacked quantitative measure...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in olfactory perception observed in cross-sectional studies may not reflect actual ongoing change within individuals. The aim of the present study was to assess intra-individual as well as inter-individual variation in olfactory scores in preschoolers across five waves over a two-year period. The participants were 157 children (79 boys) ag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexual selection, including mate choice and intrasexual competition, is responsible for the evolution of some of the most elaborated and sexually dimorphic traits in animals. Although there is clear sexual dimorphism in the shape of human faces, it is not clear whether this is similarly due to mate choice, or whether mate choice affects only part o...
Article
Full-text available
Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) is a multielement combat sport where fighters need to quickly react to an opponent’s movements under fatigued conditions. Research indicates that fast reaction time is important in many sports, but the effect of fatigue has shown negative, null, or even positive influences on reaction time. However, few studies have been co...
Chapter
Mate poaching is a behavior intended to lure someone away from their current romantic relationship to form either temporary or permanent relationships with them.Mate poaching appears to be a ubiquitous behavior found in various regions of the world. Schmitt et al. (2004) conducted a survey with 53 nations on 5 continents and found that more than ha...
Article
Full-text available
The function of mate retention strategies is to preserve the bond between romantic partners and to prevent desertion, which is also why such behaviours are often elicited by the presence of a potential rival. Most existing studies on mate retention are based on self‐reports, which are prone to various biases. In this study, we observed non‐verbal b...
Article
Full-text available
Perceived vocal attractiveness and measured sex-dimorphic vocal parameters are both associated with underlying individual qualities. Research tends to focus on speech but singing is another highly evolved communication system that has distinct and universal features with analogs in other species, and it is relevant in mating. Both speaking and sing...
Conference Paper
Mate choice is assumed to either follow the Additive Model, which predicts that a potential partner with the highest sum of preferred characteristics will be chosen over a candidate with a lower overall score. Alternatively, the Threshold Model predicts that individuals have a certain threshold for each characteristic and potential partners who do...
Article
Femininity-masculinity affects perceived attractiveness and indicates biosocial qualities. Physiological and morphological femininity-masculinity is primarily influenced by reproductive hormones; however, its perception is mediated biopsychosocially, and it is not clear if self- and other-rated femininity-masculinity is associated. We examined poss...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent research suggested that individuals weigh obnoxious traits in a potential partner (i.e., dealbreakers) more severely than the preferred characteristics (i.e., dealmakers). In our previous studies we identified the most important 7-7 relationship dealbreakers and dealmakers. Following the established “budget allocation” paradigm our aim was t...
Article
Full-text available
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 19% of all mothers, with detrimental effects on both mother and child. The antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of plasma oxytocin are well-documented, but it is still disputable whether synthetic oxytocin (synOT) may protect women against postpartum mood alterations. The current study examined the associa...
Article
Full-text available
In non-genetic systems, such as culture, inheritance is often non-particulate. Owing to blending and consequent loss of variability, however, selection in such systems has been considered ineffective. The issue of loss of variability was solved by the Galton–Pearson model, which assumes a constant offspring variability and predicts gradual adaptati...
Article
There is substantial evidence for assortative partner preferences in humans based on physical characteristics. In contrast, evidence suggests that olfactory preferences tend to be disassortative, with people preferring body odour of potential partners who are dissimilar at key genetic loci, perhaps to gain fitness advantage through offspring hetero...
Article
Previous studies on various vertebrates have shown that quantity and quality of food intake affect odour attractiveness as perceived by potential mates. In humans, the quality of body odour is similarly affected by ingested foods, such as by variation in meat and garlic intake. Nevertheless, it is not known whether quantity of food has an impact on...
Data
Sample of successful roar FFT spectral peak frequency.
Data
Sample of highly formidable utterance.
Data
Sample of failed roar F0 measurement spectrogram.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objective. Sexual Strategies Theory (SST) suggests that men and women have different benefits when engaging in long- and short-term relationships with multiple distinguished objectives (e.g., acquiring good genes or resources). Several previous studies tested variation in mating strategies using preferred characteristics with inconclusive results....
Article
Full-text available
In non-genetic systems, such as culture, inheritance is often non-particulate. Owing to blending and consequent loss of variability, however, selection in such systems has been considered ineffective. The issue of loss of variability was solved by the Galton-Pearson model, which assumes a constant offspring variability and predicts gradual adaptati...
Article
There is evidence across a range of bi-parental species that physiological changes may occur in partnered males prior to the birth of an infant. It has been hypothesised that these hormonal changes might facilitate care-giving behaviours, which could augment infant survival. The mechanism that induces these changes has not been identified, but evid...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, antagonistic interactions have been a crucial determinant of access to various fitness-affecting resources. In many vertebrate species, information about relative fighting ability is conveyed, among other things, by vocalization. Previous research found that men's upper-body strength can be assessed from voice. In the present study, w...
Article
Conducting interviews about children’s olfactory behaviours offers a feasible way of learning about the earliest perceptions and knowledge of one’s odour world. However, little is known about the stability and development of such self-reports. Here we present the first longitudinal study to repeatedly test children’s odour awareness in five waves o...
Article
Full-text available
Mate value is a construct that can be measured in various ways, ranging from complex but difficult-to-obtain ratings all the way to single-item self-report measures. Due to low sample sizes in previous studies, little is known about the relationship between mate value and demographic variables. In this article, we tested the Mate Value Scale, a rel...
Article
Full-text available
Facial perception plays a key role in various social interactions, including formidability assessments. People make relatively accurate inferences about men's physical strength, aggressiveness, and success in physical confrontations based on facial cues. The physical factors related to the perception of fighting ability and their relative contribut...
Data
Dataset for Athletes measurements.
Data
Dataset for formidability rating.
Data
Sample of 360° head rotation.
Data
Factor analysis; Exploratory correlation matrix.
Chapter
Humans were once considered to be microsmatic, but recent research suggests that we can use our sense of smell to detect important, socially relevant information about conspecifics. However, much of the research conducted todate has investigated natural, fragrance free human body odours. While this is important in order to understand the evolution...
Article
It has been suggested that coupled individuals tend to adjust their ideal partner preferences according to their actual partner. In Study 1, we developed a mate preference trait-list and found a four-factor structure (Physical attractiveness, Status/Resources, Vitality, and Warmth/Trustworthiness), which we confirmed in Study 2. In Study 3, we comp...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in social perception traditionally use as stimuli frontal portrait photographs. It turns out, however, that 2D frontal depiction may not fully capture the entire morphological diversity of facial features. Recently, 3D images started to become increasingly popular, but whether their perception differs from the perception of 2D has not been...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. Temperament affects olfaction in cross-sectional studies. However, it is not clear whether it is linked to olfactory development. Here we examined the links between temperament and olfaction over a nearly 2-year period, expecting that children showing higher levels of negative affectivity would exhibit greater odor awareness across re...
Chapter
Full-text available
When organisms are competing for the same resource there are multiple strategies that each individual might take. They might cooperate, they might try to scramble to outcompete, they might leave and seek alternative sources, or they might aggressively compete (Duntley 2005). This last choice is a decision to inflict costs on the other and is likely...
Poster
Full-text available
Previous studies have suggested possible association between immune function and facial attractiveness in humans. Mating with individuals with more reactive immune system could lead to higher reproductive success and thus it is possible that visual cues facilitating detection of such individuals may have evolved. The main aim of the present study...
Article
Full-text available
The emotion of disgust plays a key role in the behavioral immune system, a set of disease-avoidance processes constituting a frontline defense against pathogenic threats. In the context of growing research interest in disgust, as well as recognition of its role in several psychiatric disorders, there is need for an improved understanding of behavio...
Poster
Full-text available
The concept of mate value involves laypeople’s understanding of how much they are ‘worth’ as potential romantic partners. Although it is a useful concept, there is no agreement in how to measure it. Moreover, there is much theorizing but not so much data about its relationship with demographic variables. Study 1 tested the convergent and discrimina...