Jan Kornelis Dijkstra

Jan Kornelis Dijkstra
University of Groningen | RUG · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

105
Publications
32,817
Reads
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3,338
Citations
Citations since 2017
44 Research Items
2156 Citations
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Publications

Publications (105)
Article
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Longitudinal studies of criminal networks are rare yet necessary to assess the adaptation and recovery of criminal networks after disruptions. We study the structural and individual effects of law enforcement disruption on criminal networks using longitudinal data on two Dutch jihadi networks (n1 = 57; n2 = 26). We expect that actors in criminal ne...
Article
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In this study, we investigated the relation between the different stages of women trafficking (i.e. recruitment, entrance, accommodation, labor, and finance) and the structure of five criminal networks involved in women trafficking in the Netherlands ( Ns ranging from 6 to 15). On the one hand, it could be argued that for efficiency and avoidance o...
Article
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This study examined the differential effects of two forms of adolescents' perceptions of peers' prosociality, aggression , and popularity, on friendship selection. Individuals' reports of their peers' behaviors (dyadic perceptions) and the aggregated classmates' reports (reputational perceptions) were disentangled. The findings indicated that adole...
Article
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This study investigates the extent to which defending victims of bullying depends on liking and disliking and its relation with the classroom bullying norm (descriptive and popularity) in a sample of 1,272 students (50.8% boys) in 48 fifth-grade classrooms. Social network analysis with bivariate exponential random graph modelings showed that childr...
Article
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Prosocial peer relationships, such as defending against victimization, are beneficial for integration. Using the concept of multiple categorization, this study considers the extent to which similarity in gender, being in the same classroom, and similarity in network position regarding bullying or victimization contributes to the formation of cross-...
Article
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Homophobic attitudes and behavior are a widespread problem among adolescents, but what the role of peer relationships such as friendships and antipathies is in shaping these attitudes remains unclear. Therefore, this study examined to what extent homophobic attitudes are influenced by friends' and foes' homophobic attitudes, and whether homophobic...
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people report poorer mental health than heterosexual people. However, there is heterogeneity in this disparity, and a racial/ethnic minority identity can contribute to this heterogeneity. When studying the intersecting effect of sexual identity and race/ethnicity on mental health, research often limits race/ethnicit...
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This study investigates three important aspects of the classroom context in shaping adolescents' classroom engagement trajectories: (a) teacher support, (b) peer norms (i.e., descriptive and popularity norms), and (c) ethnic classroom composition (i.e., ethnic heterogeneity and proportion of majorities). An ethnically diverse sample of 730 adolesce...
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Prior work has shown that popular peers can set a powerful norm for the valence and salience of aggression in adolescent classrooms, which enhances aggressive friendship processes (selection, maintenance, influence). It is unknown, however, whether popular peers also set a norm for prosocial behavior that can buffer against aggressive friendship pr...
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Whereas previous research suggests that adolescents’ aggressive behavior in itself does not highlight ethnic boundaries, it remains unclear whether classmates’ responses to same- and cross-ethnic aggression strengthen ethnic boundaries. This study examined how adolescents’ aggression toward same- and cross-ethnic peers relates to the positive (frie...
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Similar peers are more likely to become friends, but it remains unclear how the combination of multiple characteristics, known as multidimensional similarity, influences friendships. This study aimed to investigate whether similarity in gender (attribute) and bullying or victimization (network position) contributes to friendships. The school-level...
Article
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Sexual minority youth report poorer mental health than heterosexual youth. According to the minority stress framework, this results from sexual minority individuals being societally marginalized, which for sexual minority youth may include being poorly integrated in the peer context. A sociometric approach was used to test whether peer relationship...
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Although peer victimization in school mainly takes place between children in the same classroom or grade and bullying is generally seen as a group process, little is known about how stability and change in classroom composition affect peer victimization. Hence, this study addressed the following questions: (1) Are newcomers in the classroom more li...
Article
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How the interplay between peer relationships and behaviors unfolds and how this differs between classrooms is an understudied topic. This study examined whether adolescents befriend or dislike peers whom they consider as aggressor or victim and whether these results differ in classrooms that received an intervention to promote prosocial behavior co...
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Using data on 32 actors and ties among them drawn from available court files, we combine analytical sociology with statistical models for networks in order to analyse a case of a counterfeit alcohol distribution network from the Czech Republic. We formulate a theory of action and identify relational mechanisms which could explain how the structure...
Article
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Previous work has shown that during adolescence, classrooms vary greatly in the extent to which aggression is rewarded with popularity (the ‘popularity norm’). Aggressive popularity norms may promote the proliferation of aggression and negatively affect the classroom climate. It is, however, unknown how these norms emerge in the first place. This l...
Preprint
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This study investigates the dynamic interplay between bullying relationships and friendships in a sample of 481 students in 19 elementary school classrooms (age 8-12 years; 50% boys). Based on a relational framework, it is to be expected that friendships would be formed when two children bullied the same person and that children would start to bull...
Data
Supporting Information to: ‘Bullying as a Group Process in Childhood: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis’ Authored by: Ashwin Rambaran, Jan Kornelis Dijkstra, René Veenstra
Article
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Although peer victimization mainly takes place within classrooms, little is known about the impact of the classroom context. To this end, we examined whether single-grade and multigrade classrooms (referring to classrooms with one and two grades in the same room) differ in victim-bully relationships in a sample of elementary school children (646 st...
Data
Supporting Information to: ‘Peer Victimization in Single-Grade and Multi-Grade Classrooms’ Authored by: Ashwin Rambaran, Marijtje van Duijn, Jan Kornelis Dijkstra, René Veenstra
Article
This paper examined the association between friendship and academic networks and how the connections these networks have with academic performance and school misconduct differ when comparing three types of classrooms where students were grouped based on their academic ability (i.e., high-, low-, and mixed-ability). The sample was composed of 528 se...
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This study examined the association of friendships and popularity with adolescents’ first-time involvement in a romantic relationship (referred to as romantic relationship debut). The aim of this article was twofold: first, to disentangle the unique effects of friendships and perceived popularity; second, to separate same- and cross-gender peer nom...
Article
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The aim of this study was to unravel the interrelatedness of friendship and help, and to examine the characteristics of friendship and help networks. The effects of mutual versus one‐sided help relations on friendship initiation and maintenance, and vice versa, were examined. Friendship and help networks were analyzed (N = 953 students; 41 classroo...
Article
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This study examined the coevolution of prosocial and aggressive popularity norms with popularity hierarchy (asymmetries in students’ popularity). Cross‐lagged‐panel analyses were conducted on 2,843 secondary school students (Nclassrooms = 120; Mage = 13.18; 51.3% girls). Popularity hierarchy predicted relative change in popularity norms over time,...
Preprint
This study examined the co-evolution of prosocial and aggressive popularity norms with popularity hierarchy (asymmetries in students’ popularity). Cross-lagged-panel analyses were conducted on 2,843 secondary school students (Nclassrooms = 120; Mage =13.17; 51.3% girls). Popularity hierarchy predicted relative change in popularity norms over time,...
Article
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This study examined how classroom peer relations can be described in terms of the network of help relations among students, and the positions students take up in this help network, and whether the structure of adolescent classroom help networks and individual network positions were associated with academic achievement. Help networks were based on t...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether young people’s peer networks can be an asset in finding employment during the transition from school to work. It examines whether peer networks size and peers’ self-efficacy regarding their own job search are associated with job seekers’ career-relevant behaviors and outcomes, i.e., the n...
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The present study examined to what extent selection and influence processes for physical aggression and prosociality in friendship networks differed between sex-specific contexts (i.e., all-male, all-female, and mixed-sex classrooms), while controlling for perceived popularity. Whereas selection processes reflect how behaviors shape friendships, in...
Article
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Objective Self‐esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self‐esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self‐esteem and peer status...
Article
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This study examined to what extent adolescents’ and their friends’ risk behaviors (i.e., delinquency and alcohol use) hinder or promote their academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]), and vice versa. Longitudinal data were used (N = 1,219 seventh- to ninth-grade adolescents; Mage = 13.69). Results showed that risk behaviors negatively affec...
Chapter
This handbook chapter considers the dynamic interplay between the individual and his or her ever-changing environment. It presents the extensive progress that peer researchers have made on the life course, social networks, and social norms. The central message of the chapter is that one must first recognize the within-person variability in and inte...
Article
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In deze studie onderzoeken wij of agressieve peer-normen, meer specifiek populariteitsnormen en descriptieve normen, een versterkende rol spelen in de mate waarin jongeren hun vrienden uitkiezen op basis van agressief gedrag en in de mate waarin jongeren door hun vrienden worden beïnvloed in agressie (N = 1.134 eerstejaars leerlingen van middelbare...
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Music Marker Theory posits that music is relevant for the structuring of peer groups and that rock, urban, or dance music preferences relate to externalizing behavior. The present study tested these hypotheses, by investigating the role of music preference similarity in friendship selection and the development of externalizing behavior, while takin...
Article
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Weight-based stigma compromises the social networks of overweight children. To date, research on the position of overweight children in their peer network has focused only on friendship relations, and not on negative relationship dimensions. This study examined how overweight was associated with relations of friendship and dislike (antipathies) in...
Article
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This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades (i.e., language, exact, and social cluster). Data wer...
Article
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This study examined whether peer norms for aggression within the classroom impact friendship selection, maintenance, and socialization processes related to aggression across the 1st year of secondary school (N = 1,134 students from 51 classes, Mage = 12.66). As hypothesized, longitudinal social network analyses indicated that friendship selection a...
Article
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This longitudinal study examined the extent to which the development of prosocial and aggressive peer norms was related to individual prosocial and aggressive behavior development across the first year of secondary education (three waves, n = 1,134 adolescents from 51 classes, Mage = 12.66). A distinction was made between descriptive norms (the agg...
Article
We investigated adolescent prosocial relations by examining social networks based on the question "Who helps you (e.g., with homework, with repairing a flat [bicycle] tire, or when you are feeling down?)." The effects of individual characteristics (academic achievement, symptoms of depressive mood, and peer status) on receiving help and giving help...
Article
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This study investigated the social status (i.e., popularity, likeability, and friendships) of adolescents with an early onset of externalizing behavior (i.e., alcohol use, tobacco use, and antisocial behavior). Building on Moffitt’s dual-taxonomy model, it was hypothesized that early onset adolescents were more popular, but not necessarily more lik...
Article
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual orientation and depressive symptoms was estimated from...
Article
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This study examined friendship (de-)selection processes in early adolescence. Pubertal development was examined as a potential moderator. It was expected that pubertal development would be associated with an increased tendency for adolescents to select their friends based on their similarities in externalizing behavior engagement (i.e., delinquency...
Article
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We examined the interplay between friendship (best friend) and antipathy (dislike) relationships among adolescents (N = 480; 11–14 years) in two US middle schools over three years (grades 6, 7, and 8). Using longitudinal multivariate network analysis (RSiena), the effects of friendships on antipathies and vice versa were tested, while structural ne...
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This study investigates the types and behavioral associations of peer status in school-bound young adults in the Netherlands. We argue that adolescent peer popularity and its link with aggressive and norm-breaking behavior result from adolescents' desire to create an image of maturity among their peers. We expect that in young adults who are approa...
Article
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Objectives One explanation for the increase in delinquency in adolescence is that young people are trapped in the so-called maturity gap: the discrepancy between biological and social maturation, which motivates them to engage in delinquency as a temporary means to bridge this gap by emphasizing their maturity. In the current study, we investigated...
Article
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Peer cliques form an important context for the social development of adolescents. Although clique members are often similar in social status, also within cliques, status differences exist. How differences in social status between clique members are related to behaviors of its individual members is rather unknown. This study examined to what extent...
Article
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This social network study investigated the moderating role of self-control in the association between friendship and the development of externalizing behavior: Antisocial behavior, alcohol use, tobacco use. Previous studies have shown inconsistent findings, and did not control for possible friendship network or selection effects. We tested two comp...
Article
Although status inconsistency was a major research topic in the previous century, only a handful of recent studies have addressed how a mismatch between individuals’ positions in different status hierarchies affects their well-being. With the present study, we aim to reinstate status inconsistency as an important predictor for strain-related outcom...
Article
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Peer victimization is a common and pervasive experience in childhood and adolescence and is associated with various maladjustment symptoms, including internalizing, externalizing, and somatic problems. This variety suggests that peer victimization is multifinal where exposure to the same risk leads to different outcomes. However, very little is kno...
Article
This study investigated the significance of classroom-level norm salience, calculated as the within-classroom correlation between a behavior and peer-nominated popularity, by examining the extent to which norm salience moderated the relation of individual classroom behaviors (academic achievement, prosocial behavior, and bullying) with peer accepta...
Article
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Gene–environment studies on adolescents’ peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction...
Article
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Gene–environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the interaction...
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This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at shortterm gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one’s situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with wha...
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The quality of adolescents' relationships with peers can have a lasting impact on later psychosocial adjustment, mental health, and behavior. However, the effect of peer relations on later problem behavior is not uniformly strong, and genetic factors might influence this association. This study used four-wave longitudinal (11-19 years) data (n = 1,...
Article
This study examined how status (popularity) and friendship relations affected the development of adolescents’ dislike relations (i.e., antipathy networks) over time. Three competing hypotheses were formulated about the role of status: antipathy relations result from either similarity in status (competition hypothesis) or dissimilarity in status whe...
Article
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Researchers have become increasingly interested in disentangling selection and influence processes. This literature review provides context for the special issue on network–behavior dynamics. It brings together important conceptual, methodological, and empirical contributions focusing on longitudinal social network modeling. First, an overview of m...
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This study examined whether classroom norms based on status explained between-class variations in selection processes and particularly influence processes on adolescents’ risk attitudes in a sample of 1092 adolescents (age 12–13) across 47 classrooms. Based on the association between status (popularity) and risk attitudes (norm salience), it was hy...
Article
This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to...
Article
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The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line with the hypotheses, derived from integrating a go...