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Jan Copeland

Jan Copeland
UNSW Sydney | UNSW · National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre

PhD, BSc Psych (Hons)

About

228
Publications
54,969
Reads
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8,333
Citations
Citations since 2017
35 Research Items
3534 Citations
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Publications

Publications (228)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and aims There is increasing interest and evidence for the use of cannabinoid medications in the treatment of cannabis use disorder, but little examination of the correlates of successful treatment. This paper is a secondary analysis of a randomised placebo-controlled trial of nabiximols for the treatment of cannabis use disorder (CUD)...
Article
Background Mood, sleep and pain problems are common comorbidities among treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent patients. There is limited evidence suggesting treatment for cannabis dependence is associated with their improvement. This study explored the impact of cannabis dependence treatment on these comorbidities. Methods This is a secondary analy...
Article
Introduction and Aims Previous studies suggest cannabinoid agonist treatment is effective in reducing cannabis use in dependent treatment seekers, however few studies have reported on post-treatment outcomes. We examine cannabis use outcomes 12 weeks after cessation of treatment from a randomised placebo-controlled trial of nabiximols for the treat...
Article
Background Cannabis use is more common among adults with anxiety. Cannabis legalization is occurring rapidly across the United States (US) and individuals may use cannabis to cope with anxiety. This study investigated whether cannabis use across the US has changed differentially by anxiety status and by state cannabis legalization for medical (MML)...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction and aims: The Australian Treatment Outcomes Profile (ATOP) was developed as a clinical tool for monitoring the substance use, health and wellbeing of clients in alcohol and other drug treatment. This is the first psychometric validation of the ATOP in a cannabis-dependent treatment population. Design and methods: A total of 128 indi...
Article
Background: Cannabis use has significant negative consequences for youth. Depression is associated with greater cannabis use among adults but less is known about cannabis use and depression among youth. This study investigated whether depression is associated with increased cannabis use among youth in the United States (US), overall and by demogra...
Article
In Reply Kleinman and Ostacher assert that in our article,¹ we “have switched primary outcomes between study registration and publication, thereby inaccurately portraying the trial results.” The study registration listed the primary end point as 4-week point prevalence abstinence by combining self-reported data from researcher interviews with the o...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Smartphone applications (apps) offer a promising alternative to face-to-face treatment due to their ease of access and convenience. However, there is a lack of evidence-based apps for cannabis users wishing to reduce their use. Objectives: The current study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone app intervention...
Article
Full-text available
Following publication of the original article (Albertella et al. 2019), the authors have flagged an error concerning the reference to the ‘follow-up Mann-Whitney U test’ in the Results section of the article.
Article
Background: Although people who inject performance- and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) report fewer unsafe injecting practices, stigma and discrimination may negatively impact their access to help and information. Engagement with health care services, compared with social networks (friends, relatives, and gym associates) and the Internet and media (...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Young Australians (16-25 years) have some of the highest rates of past month cannabis use in the world. Cannabis use increases the risk of alcohol and other drug disorders, depressive disorders and has a robust dose-response association with psychotic experiences (PEs) and disorders. PEs are subthreshold positive psychotic symptoms, incl...
Article
Background: Young Australians (16-25 years) have the highest rates of past-month cannabis use in the world. Cannabis use increases the risk of alcohol and other drug disorders and depressive disorders, and has a robust dose-response association with psychotic experiences (PEs) and disorders. PEs are subthreshold positive psychotic symptoms, includ...
Article
Full-text available
Importance There are no effective medications for treating dependence on cannabis. Objective To examine the safety and efficacy of nabiximols in the treatment of patients with cannabis dependence. Design, Setting, and Participants This parallel double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing nabiximols with placebo in a 12-week, multisite outpat...
Article
Introduction: Despite increasing use of cannabis, it is unclear how cannabis use is related to cigarette transitions. This study examined cannabis use and smoking initiation, persistence, and relapse over one year among a nationally representative sample of United States (US) adults. Methods: Data were from US adults (18+) who completed two wave...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined whether age and frequent cannabis use interact to influence the trajectories of positive and negative schizotypy over time. Participants were 155 cannabis users, aged 15-24 years old, assessed over a 12-month period at 6-monthly intervals. The analyses examined the influence of age, frequent use, and time on positive and...
Article
Background: Cannabis use is on the rise in the United States (US) and is disproportionately common among cigarette smokers. Cannabis use disorder (CUD) occurs among a small subset of cannabis users and may impact cigarette use. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in the prevalence of CUD among daily, non-daily, former, and never cig...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpat...
Article
Objectives To 1) estimate changes in the prevalence of daily and non-daily cigarette smoking among current (past 30-day) daily, non-daily, and non-cannabis users in the United States (U.S.) population; 2) examine time trends in current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking in daily, non-daily, and non-cannabis users ages 12+ from 2002 to 2015. Methods D...
Data
Appendix 1 CENTRAL search strategy Appendix 2. Forest Plots ‐ Cannabinoids vs. placebo Appendix 3. Question: Cannabinoids compared to placebo in patients receiving palliative treatment
Article
Objective: The current study prospectively investigated the relationship between cannabis use and cigarette smoking initiation, persistence, and relapse during a 3-year period among adults in the United States. Methods: Analyses included respondents who completed Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcoh...
Article
Full-text available
We provide a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoids in palliative medicine. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and http:// clinicaltrials.gov, and a selection of cancer journals were searched up until 15th of March 2017. Of the 108 s...
Chapter
Despite its continued widespread use, relatively few individuals with cannabis use disorders present to treatment services. Compared to other substance use and dependence, there is a dearth of research examining explanations for this observed underutilization of cannabis treatment. The aim of this chapter is to examine these barriers and discuss ho...
Chapter
Technology-assisted substance use interventions, such as, telephone counseling (referred to as low technology) and online computer-based treatments (referred to as high technology) are unique in the breadth of their accessibility, and typically lower cost. This chapter offers a review of the literature on technology-assisted cannabis-specific inter...
Article
Objectives: To estimate changes in the prevalence of daily cannabis use among current, former, and never cigarette smokers from 2002 to 2014 in the United States. Methods: The National Survey on Drug Use and Health is a nationally representative cross-sectional study conducted annually among persons aged 12 years and older in the United States....
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the relationship between early onset cannabis use (before age 16) and different schizotypy dimensions, and whether gender moderates these associations. Participants were 162 cannabis users, aged 15–24 years, who completed an online assessment examining alcohol and other drug use, psychological distress, and schizotypy. Pa...
Article
Aim: To assess the feasibility of the use of cannabidiol (CBD) for the management of cannabis withdrawal. Patients & methods: Eight participants were admitted to an in-patient detoxification facility for a 7-day open-label trial of CBD. Five participants received 600 mg of CBD and three participants received 1200 mg of CBD. Participants returned fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background As policy responses to cannabis use and availability change internationally, the prevalence of cannabis use disorder (CUD) and the number of individuals seeking treatment for cannabis-related problems may increase. Purpose of the ReviewOur aim was to provide a narrative review of developments in the treatment of CUD over the past 5 years...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The current study examined whether cognitive control moderates the association between (non-drug) reward-modulated attentional capture and use of alcohol and other drugs (AOD). Methods: Participants were 66 university students who completed an assessment including questions about AOD use, a visual search task to measure value-modulat...
Article
Objectives: The current study was a two arm randomised trial aimed at testing the short term effectiveness of a brief and extended feedback version of Grassessment, a brief online intervention for cannabis users that provides individualised feedback regarding use, motives, and harms. Methods: Participants (n=287) reporting at least one symptom o...
Article
Introduction and aims: Needle and syringe program (NSP) workers have highlighted that people who inject image and performance enhancing drugs (IPED) in Australia are a younger and more culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) group compared with other groups who inject drugs. Previous research has found riskier injecting practices and faster H...
Article
Objective: Changes to national and some state’s policy on the cultivation and prescription of cannabis for medicinal purposes will soon directly impact Australian medical practitioners. We investigate differences in demographics, use patterns and the perceptions held by individuals who use cannabis for medicinal or recreational purposes and non-u...
Article
Background: Globally, cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated illicit drug. The rates of use appeared to be stable in Australia at the time of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, but levels of cannabis use disorder are rising and treatment seeking is increasing internationally. Objective: This article describes the...
Article
Background: As policy responses to cannabis use and availability change internationally, levels of cannabis use disorder rise and treatment seeking increases. Diversion to cannabis treatment from the criminal justice system also increases demand in the system. At a time of developing treatment systems in response to this demand, an understanding o...
Article
Background: A range of indicators point to an international increase in the prevalence of performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) use, predominantly among young men. Attention to PIEDs-related benefits, adverse health effects, information and health service access are needed. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 605 men who inject PIEDs was c...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship between cannabis use, sex, and attentional inhibition in a sample of 325 young Australians (194 women and 131 men) aged 14 to 24 years. Participants completed an online assessment, which included self-report measures of alcohol and other drug use, psychological distress, schizotypy, and location-based negative p...
Chapter
Full-text available
Background: Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated drug in the world, with increasing trends of use being reported in the US, Australia, Asia, and Africa. Evidence has shown a decrease in the age of commencement of cannabis use in some developed countries and a prolongation of risk of initiation to cannabis use beyond adolescence among more re...
Article
Background and Aims: Cannabis-induced cerebral perfusion deficits cause reduced electroencephalogram spectral power. In previous work, spectral power did not recover with cannabis abstinence. This study uses EEG to explore moderators of recovery during cannabis abstinence. Methods: A within-subject prospective community-based cannabis abstinence st...
Article
Urinary 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (Carboxy-THC) concentrations, normalised to creatinine output, have been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the interpretation of the results of a series of urine tests for cannabis. These tests, often termed historical data, can be used to identify potential chronic cannabis users who may...
Article
The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative p...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep problems during withdrawal from cannabis use are a common experience. The details regarding how abstinence from cannabis impacts sleep are not well described. This paper reviews the literature including a measure of cannabis withdrawal and sleep in humans. A literature search using a set of cannabinoid and sleep-related terms was conducted ac...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite being illegal in Nepal, cannabis grows wild, is cultivated, readily available and often consumed during religious festivals, such as those in honour of the Hindu god Shiva. Holy men (sadhus) also consume cannabis to aid meditation, and many are believed to suggest that as a substance favoured by Lord Shiva, and, as such, should...
Article
Cannabis is a common recreational drug that is generally considered to have low addictive potential. However an increasing number of cannabis users are seeking treatment for dependence on the drug. There is interest in using agonist (substitution) pharmacotherapies to treat cannabis dependence and here we outline a novel approach involving a buccal...
Article
Full-text available
Studies examining the ability of motivational enhancement therapy (MET) to augment education provision among ecstasy users have produced mixed results and none have examined whether treatment fidelity was related to ecstasy use outcomes. The primary objectives of this multi-site, parallel, two-group randomized controlled trial were to determine if...
Article
Background Debate continues about the consequences of adolescent cannabis use. Existing data are limited in statistical power to examine rarer outcomes and less common, heavier patterns of cannabis use than those already investigated; furthermore, evidence has a piecemeal approach to reporting of young adult sequelae. We aimed to provide a broad pi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these...
Article
Introduction and aims: Over the past decade, there has been significant investment in dedicated cannabis-only treatment clinics in New South Wales. This study aims to describe the characteristics of clients and compares first-time treatment seeking history and treatment completion rates between dedicated and non-dedicated clinics. Design and meth...
Article
Full-text available
Background The existence of an ecstasy dependence syndrome is controversial. We examined whether the acute after-effects of ecstasy use (i.e., the “come-down”) falsely lead to the identification of ecstasy withdrawal and the subsequent diagnosis of ecstasy dependence. Methods The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Disorders: Research Vers...
Article
The respiratory health effects from tobacco smoking are well described. Cannabis smoke contains a similar profile of carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke but is inhaled more deeply. Although cannabis smoke is known to contain similar harmful and carcinogenic substances to tobacco smoke, relatively little is understood regarding the respiratory h...
Article
Background: Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. Methods: In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their expe...
Article
Objective Cannabis causes lower mortality and morbidity than alcohol and tobacco so it is clinically important if quitting cannabis is associated with substitution with these substances. This study tests if cannabis is substituted with alcohol and/or tobacco during cannabis abstinence, and factors predicting such substitution. Method: A secondary a...
Article
Understanding the patterns of workforce substance use is crucial for workplace and public health policy and practice. This paper provides an investigation of substance use in the Australian workforce by examining data from the 2007 and 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey. It was revealed that while illicit drug use increased and alcohol us...
Article
Sativex® is an oromucosal spray used to treat spasticity in multiple sclerosis sufferers in some European countries, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand. The drug has also recently been registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Sativex® contains high concentrations of Δ9-tetrah...
Article
The second most commonly used group of illicit substances are amphetamine-type stimulants, which includes ecstasy. Chronic ecstasy use is associated with dependence, as well as cognitive and psychological impairments. When taken for self-medication purposes, chronic use may be supported by ecstasy’s immediate antidepressant-like effects. Interestin...
Article
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, with the highest rates of use seen in New Zealand, North America and Australia. There is evidence of a decrease in the age of commencement of cannabis use in some developed countries, and a prolongation of risk of initiation to cannabis use beyond adolescence in more recent cohorts of user...
Article
Full-text available
Importance There are no medications approved for treating cannabis dependence or withdrawal. The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal.Objective To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nabiximols in treating cannabis withdrawal.Design, Setti...
Article
Background: Peer-led, ecstasy-related harm reduction efforts have become increasingly popular but their efficacy has rarely been rigorously evaluated. Methods: A quasi-experimental study design was utilised over three Australian study sites. The experimental group (n=278) received a unique ecstasy-related health message and usual drug-related infor...
Article
Issue addressed: Australians' use of cannabis has been increasing. Over a third of Australians (35.4%) have used cannabis at some time in their lives and 10.3% are recent users. Almost two-thirds of cannabis users combine cannabis with tobacco. The aim of this study was to understand the process of mulling - smoking tobacco and cannabis together -...
Article
Purpose of review: The aim of this review was to examine current trends in cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) among youth, and to investigate recent findings concerning the relationship between cannabis use and mental health concerns, with a focus on how use during adolescence may interact with related mental health disorders. Recent fi...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed f...
Article
Full-text available
Self-help strategies offer a promising way to address problems with access to and stigma associated with face-to-face drug and alcohol treatment, and the Internet provides an excellent delivery mode for such strategies. To date, no study has tested the effectiveness of a fully self-guided web-based treatment for cannabis use and related problems. T...
Article
This study aimed to identify patterns of health concerns associated with long-term use of cannabis and tobacco individually, as well as in combination. We recruited 350 adults aged 40 or over who smoked cannabis but not tobacco (cannabis-only group, n=59), smoked both cannabis and tobacco (cannabis/tobacco group, n=88), smoked tobacco but not canna...
Article
We welcome an opportunity to respond to Tucker's commentary [1] on our manuscript [2]. The author raised several criticisms of the internal and external validity of our findings. First, Tucker [1] stated that the majority of interested respondents were excluded. The authors would like to highlight that the majority of interested respondents were in...
Article
This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of cannabis use, cannabis use disorders and its treatment. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug internationally. While use is decreasing in the developed world, it appears to be stable or increasing in developing countries and some indigenous communities. Early initiation and regular...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were u...
Article
This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of cannabis use, cannabis use disorder and its treatment. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug internationally, although global consumption patterns and trends are unevenly distributed. Early initiation and regular adolescent use have been identified as particular risk factors for lat...