Jan Buitelaar

Jan Buitelaar
Radboud University | RU · Department of Cognitive Neuroscience

About

520
Publications
96,501
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
11,814
Citations

Publications

Publications (520)
Article
Antisocial and aggressive behaviors show considerable heritability and are central to disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), but are also frequently observed in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While the amygdala is implicated as a key neural structure, it remains unclear whether common genetic variants underlie this brain-behavior a...
Article
Full-text available
To advance understanding of the heterogeneity in the course of ADHD, joint symptom trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity from childhood to young adulthood were modelled and associated with genetic, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Data were obtained from the NeuroIMAGE cohort which includes 485 individuals with ADHD, t...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas it is well documented how parents experience the diagnostic process of their child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), less is known about parental experiences with the course of the early identification process and first steps in receiving care for their child with ASD symptoms. This mixed-method study investigated these experiences as we...
Article
Background Dietary patterns have been associated with variations in behavior. However, evidence has been limited and mixed, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Objective Extend a previous study reporting significant associations between food patterns and behavioral disinhibition and explore whether low-grade inflammation is linked to dis...
Article
Background Studying the neural processing of faces can illuminate the mechanisms of compromised social expertise in autism. To resolve a longstanding debate, we examined whether differences in configural face processing in autism are underpinned by quantitative differences in the activation of typical face processing pathways, or the recruitment of...
Article
Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder that requires continuous multidisciplinary treatment. Early onset schizophrenia (EOS, onset before 18) is associated with poorer outcomes than the adult-onset type. The transition from adolescent to adult mental healthcare services (AMHS) poses various challenges for maintaining c...
Article
Iron and zinc have been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), executive functioning, and response to methylphenidate, given their link with the dopaminergic system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of withdrawing methylphenidate after long-term treatment on serum levels of ferritin and zinc; and if baseline (pre...
Preprint
The excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) imbalance hypothesis posits that an imbalance between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission contributes to autism symptomatology. Whether this is due to altered GABAergic or glutamatergic functioning, or both, remains largely unknown. We integrated genetic, brain structure and brain chemistry data to investig...
Article
Full-text available
Background Variation in the longitudinal course of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coincides with neurodevelopmental maturation of brain structure and function. Prior work has attempted to determine how alterations in white matter (WM) relate to changes in symptom severity, but much of that work has been done in smaller cr...
Article
Full-text available
Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is a promising intervention addressing core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with parent involvement as key component. Parent group-delivered PRT may be an effective treatment model, but currently the evidence is limited. Also, little attention has been paid to therapeutic involvement of multiple importan...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the development of the neuronal circuitry underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical to shed light into its etiology and for the development of treatment options. Resting state EEG provides a window into spontaneous local and long-range neuronal synchronization and has been investigated in many ASD studies, but...
Article
Background The cerebellum contains more than 50% of the brain neurons and is involved in social cognition. Cerebellar anatomical atypicalities have repeatedly been reported in individuals with autism. However, studies have yielded inconsistent findings, likely because of a lack of statistical power, and did not capture the clinical and neuroanatomi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Social attention affords learning opportunities across development and may contribute to individual differences in developmental trajectories, such as between male and female individuals, and in neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism. Methods: Using eye-tracking, we measured social attention in a large cohort of autistic (n =...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Sensory atypicalities are particularly common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Nevertheless, our knowledge about the divergence of the underlying somatosensory region and its association with ASD phenotype features is limited. METHODS We applied a data-driven approach to map the fine-grained variations in functional connectivity of t...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: Compulsivity often develops during childhood and is associated with elevated glutamate levels within the frontostriatal system. This suggests that anti-glutamatergic drugs, like memantine, may be an effective treatment. Objective: Our goal was to characterize the acute and chronic effect of memantine treatment on compulsive behavior a...
Article
Full-text available
Small average differences in the left-right asymmetry of cerebral cortical thickness have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing controls, affecting widespread cortical regions. The possible impacts of these regional alterations in terms of structural network effects have not previously bee...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise interventions in mental disorders have evidenced a mood-enhancing effect. However, the association between physical activity and affect in everyday life has not been investigated in adult individuals with ADHD, despite being important features of this disorder. As physical activity and affect are dynamic processes in nature, assessing thos...
Article
Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental condition that is associated with significant difficulties in adaptive behavior and variation in clinical outcomes across the life span. Some individuals with ASD improve, whereas others may not change significantly, or regress. Hence, the development of "personalized medic...
Preprint
Mechanisms underpinning age-related variations in cortical thickness in the human brain remain poorly understood. We investigated whether inter-regional age-related variations in cortical thinning (in a multicohort neuroimaging dataset from the ENIGMA Lifespan Working Group totalling 14,248 individuals, aged 4-89 years) depended on cell-specific ma...
Preprint
Objectives The male preponderance in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) prevalence is among the most pronounced sex ratios across different neurodevelopmental conditions. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between autism and typical sex-differential neuroanatomy, cognition, and related gene expression. Methods Using a novel deep learning f...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often develop early onset substance use disorder (SUD) and show poor treatment outcomes. Both disorders show similar reward-processing alterations, but it is unclear whether these are associated with familial vulnerability to SUD. Our aim was to investigate effects of family history of S...
Preprint
Background Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition with pronounced behavioural, cognitive, and neural heterogeneities across individuals. Here, our goal was to characterise heterogeneity in autism by identifying patterns of neural diversity as reflected in BOLD fMRI in the way individuals with autism engage with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Although many studies have explored atypicalities in gray and white matter (GM, WM) morphology of autism, most of them rely on unimodal analyses that do not benefit from the likelihood that different imaging modalities may reflect common neurobiology. We aimed to establish multimodal brain patterns that differentiate between autism and t...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The prevalence of somatic insulinopathies, like metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is higher in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Dysregulation of insulin signalling has been implicated in these neuropsychiatric disorders, and shared gene...
Article
Full-text available
The striatum receives dense dopaminergic projections making it a key region of the dopaminergic system. Its dysfunction has been implicated in various conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD) and substance use disorder. However, the investigation of dopamine-specific functioning in humans is problematic as current MRI approaches are unable to...
Article
Full-text available
While pharmacological treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) is a first line intervention for ADHD, its mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated. We here seek to identify the white matter tracts that mediate MPH's effect on beta oscillations. We implemented a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, where boys diagnosed with ADHD under...
Article
Full-text available
Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is considered to be an empirically supported parent-mediated treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but research on parental experiences is lacking. This qualitative study examined the perspectives of parents of young children with ASD who participated in a 14-week PRT with parent group training...
Preprint
Full-text available
An increasing number of large-scale multi-modal research initiatives has been conducted in the typically developing population, as well as in psychiatric cohorts. Missing data is a common problem in such datasets due to the difficulty of assessing multiple measures on a large number of participants. The consequences of missing data accumulate when...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder and is associated with structural grey matter differences in the brain. We investigated the genetic background of some of these brain differences in a sample of 899 adults and adolescents consisting of individuals with ADHD and healthy controls. Previous work in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neuroimaging studies on functional connectivity (FC) in autism have been hampered by small sample sizes and inconsistent findings with regard to whether connectivity is increased or decreased in individuals with autism, whether these alterations affect focal systems or reflect a brain-wide dysfunction, and whether these are age- and/or sex-dependen...
Article
Full-text available
Disruptive behavior during childhood and adolescence is heterogeneous and associated with several psychiatric disorders. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups might help identify different underlying pathways and tailor treatment strategies. Children and adolescents (aged 8–18) with disruptive behaviors (N = 121) and healthy controls (N...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Background Major depressive disorder is a severe illness that frequently manifests before the age of 18 years, often recurring later in life. Paediatric medical treatment options are scarce. The melatonin receptor agonist and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptor antagonist agomelatine is used to treating adults and could offer a new therapeutic o...
Article
Full-text available
Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) is promising for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but more methodologically robust designed studies are needed. In this randomized controlled trial, forty-four children with ASD, aged 9-15 years, were randomly allocated to PRT (n = 22) or treatment-as-usual (TAU; n = 22). Measurements were obtained afte...
Article
Background Major depressive disorder is a severe illness that frequently manifests before the age of 18 years, often recurring later in life. Paediatric medical treatment options are scarce. The melatonin receptor agonist and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptor antagonist agomelatine is used to treat adults, and could offer a new therapeutic option for...
Preprint
Background: Variation in the longitudinal course of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coincides with neurodevelopmental maturation of brain structure and function. Prior work has attempted to determine how alterations in white matter (WM) relate to changes in symptom severity, but much of that work has been done in smaller c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Poor working memory, lower IQ and maladaptive behaviour form a triple disability known to have negative effects on the academic and social development of children with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF; IQ: 70 < IQ < 85) and neuropsychiatric disorders [attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism spectrum disord...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with white matter (WM) microstructure. Our objective was to investigate how WM microstructure is longitudinally related to symptom remission in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Methods: We obtained diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from 99 participants at two ti...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a spectrum of social and communication impairments and rigid and stereotyped behaviors that have a neurodevelopmental origin. Although many imaging studies have reported structural and functional alterations in multiple brain regions, clinically useful diagnostic imaging biomarkers for ASD remain u...
Article
The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from adolescence into adulthood shows large variations between individuals; nonetheless determinants of interindividual differences in the course are not well understood. A frequent problem in ADHD, associated with worse outcomes, is emotion dysregulation. We investigated whether emotion...
Conference Paper
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that could persist into adulthood with known abnormalities in brain structure. Genetics also play an important role in the etiology of the disorder and could affect the disorder trajectory. In this study, we investigated the prediction power of brain image and genomic...
Article
Full-text available
Structural brain alterations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are heterogeneous, with limited effect sizes overall. In this study, we aimed to identify subgroups in ASD, based on neuroanatomical profiles; we hypothesized that the effect sizes for case/control differences would be increased in the newly defined subgroups. Analyzing a large data set...
Article
Full-text available
There is mixed evidence on the association between headache and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as headache and ADHD medications. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the co-occurrence of headache in children with ADHD, and the effects of ADHD medications on headache. Embase, Medline and PsycInfo were searc...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioral disinhibition is observed to be an important characteristic of many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have linked dietary quality to levels of behavioral inhibition. However, it is currently unclear whether brain factors might mediate this. The current study investigates whether cortical and subcortical brain v...
Article
Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied by highly individualized neuroanatomical deviations that potentially map onto distinct genotypes and clinical phenotypes. This study aimed to link differences in brain anatomy to specific biological pathways to pave the way toward targeted therapeutic interventions. Methods: The authors ex...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder. Neuroanatomic heterogeneity limits our understanding of ADHD's etiology. This study aimed to parse heterogeneity of ADHD and to determine whether patient subgroups could be discerned based on subcortical brain volumes. METHODS Using the large ENIG...
Article
Background: Alterations in brain structure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show considerable overlap with those observed in substance use disorder (SUD). These overlapping structural alterations in ADHD and SUD might be explained by family history (FH-trait) effects of SUD, and/or substance misuse (state) effects. Our aim was to...
Article
Full-text available
Lay abstract: Autism spectrum disorders are complex, with a strong genetic basis. Genetic research in autism spectrum disorders is limited by the fact that these disorders are largely heterogeneous so that patients are variable in their clinical presentations. To address this limitation, we investigated the genetics of individual dimensions of the...
Article
Full-text available
Sensitivity to external demands is essential for adaptation to dynamic environments, but comes at the cost of increased risk of adverse outcomes when facing poor environmental conditions. Here, we apply a novel methodology to perform genome-wide association analysis of mean and variance in ten key brain features (accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippo...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing evidence for altered brain resting state functional connectivity in adolescents with disruptive behavior. While a considerable body of behavioral research points to differences between reactive and proactive aggression, it remains unknown whether these two subtypes have dissociable effects on connectivity. Additionally, callous-...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion dysregulation is common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is highly prevalent in young adult ADHD and related to reduced well-being and social impairments. Neuroimaging studies reported neural activity changes in ADHD in brain regions associated with emotion processing and regulation. It is however unknown whether defic...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a general decrease of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during adolescence, these may persist in some individuals but not in others. Prior cross-sectional studies have shown that parenting style and their interaction with candidate genes are associated with ADHD symptoms. However, there is a lack of longitudinal resea...
Article
Full-text available
Predictive Processing accounts of autism claim that autistic individuals assign higher precision to their prediction errors than non-autistic individuals, that is, autistic individuals update their predictions more readily when faced with unexpected sensory input. Since setting the level of precision is a fundamental part of perception and learning...
Article
Full-text available
Pathological aggression is a debilitating feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders, and cingulate cortex is one of the brain areas centrally implicated in its control. Here we explore the specific role of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in the development of pathological aggression. To this end, we investigated the structural and functional degeneratio...
Article
Full-text available
Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often diagnosed with comorbid substance misuse (SM), which is associated with poor treatment efficacy. Although literature indicates similar inhibitory control deficits in both conditions, it is unclear whether SM in ADHD exaggerates pre-existing deficits, with additive or distinct i...
Article
Full-text available
Pivotal response treatment (PRT) is a promising intervention focused on improving social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since robots potentially appeal to children with ASD and may contribute to their motivation for social interaction, this exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted comparing...
Article
Full-text available
Genomewide association studies have found significant genetic correlations among many neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, we know much less about the degree to which structural brain alterations are similar among disorders and, if so, the degree to which such similarities have a genetic etiology. From the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics throug...
Article
Full-text available
Background The global COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on European health and social care systems, with demands on testing, hospital and intensive care capacity exceeding available resources in many regions. This has led to concerns that some vulnerable groups, including autistic people, may be excluded from services. Methods We r...
Article
Repetitive behavior is a core symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and has been associated with impairments in cognitive control. However, it is unclear how cognitive control and associated neural circuitry relate to the development of repetitive behavior in children with these disorders. In a multicent...
Preprint
Full-text available
The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is higher among patients with somatic insulinopathies, like metabolic syndrome (MetS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dysregulation of insulin signalling has been implicated in these neuropsychiatric disorders, and shar...
Article
Full-text available
Social-communication (SC) and restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are autism diagnostic symptom domains. SC and RRB severity can markedly differ within and between individuals and may be underpinned by different neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms. Modeling SC-RRB balance could help identify how neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms map ont...
Preprint
Full-text available
Small average differences in the left-right asymmetry of cerebral cortical thickness have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing controls. Although these alterations affect multiple and widespread cortical regional asymmetries, the extent to which specific structural networks might be affec...
Presentation
Full-text available
Background: Previous research reports that increased attention towards social stimuli (i.e., Social Attention, SA) in autistic females may modulate exposure to social contingencies, thereby reducing social interaction difficulties and symptom severity. Therefore, heightened SA could relate to specific manifestations of Autism in females, in relatio...
Article
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important factor for prenatal neurodevelopment whereby its neurotrophic actions can be regulated through maternal-fetal interactions. We explored if maternal 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with clinical and cognitive measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in ty...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Family mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) targets child self-control, parenting and parental mental health, but its effectiveness is still unclear. Methods: MindChamp is a pre-registered randomised controlled trial comparing an 8-week family MBI (called 'MYmind') in addition...