Jan Balaz

Jan Balaz
Institute of Experimental Physics SAS · Department of Space Physics

PhD, academician IAA,

About

83
Publications
17,743
Reads
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380
Citations
Introduction
Contribution to the Space Exploration Missions: ACTIVE/ SPE-1, RU 1989; CORONAS-I/ SONG-E, RU 1994; INTERBALL-T/DOK-2X, RU 1995; INTERBALL-A /DOK-2A, RU 1996; MARS-96/ SLED-2, RU 1996; MIR-PRIRODA/ SPE-1M, RU 1996; MIR-STEFANIK/ DOSIM., SK+RU 1999; CORONAS-F/ SONG-EM, RU 2001; ROSETTA/ ESS, ESA 2004; DOUBLE STAR/ NUADU, CN+ESA 2004; HOTPAY/ PEEL, NO 2008; SPEKTR-RADIOASTRON/ MEP-2, RU 2011; BEPICOLOMBO/ PICAM, ESA 2018; JUICE/PEP, ESA 2023; LUNA26/ASPECT-L, RU 2025?; RESONANCE/DOK-M, RU 2026?
Additional affiliations
May 2000 - July 2004
National University of Ireland, Maynooth
Position
  • research engineer in space technology
Description
  • Rosetta, Double Star
December 1998 - present
Institute of Experimental Physics SAS
Position
  • Engineer
Description
  • Design, development, testing, calibration, qualification of spaceborne scientific devices for space research
September 1986 - December 1998
Institute of Experimental Physics SAS
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (83)
Preprint
Compilation of papers presented by the JEM-EUSO Collaboration at the 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC), held on July 12-23, 2021 (online) in Berlin, Germany.
Article
Transient luminous events (TLE) are phenomena which are currently on the rise in terms of sightings. However, there is no widespread uniform method of their observation and subsequent image processing. Therefore, our project focuses on the design and construction of hardware that can record TLE. It consists of a low gain, colour, CMOS camera with a...
Article
The Institute of Experimental Physics has more than fifty years of experience in the preparation of scientific space missions, especially within the Russian “Interkosmos” space flight program. Despite the fact that Slovakia is still not a full member of ESA, the institute significantly contributed to the preparation of several missions, this is tha...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-021-00809-8
Article
Full-text available
The ESA-JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury will provide simultaneous measurements from two spacecraft, offering an unprecedented opportunity to investigate magnetospheric and exospheric particle dynamics at Mercury as well as their interactions with solar wind, solar radiation, and interplanetary dust. The particle instrument suite SERENA (Search...
Chapter
Full-text available
Slovak research in space physics, geophysics and astronomy for period 2018-2019
Chapter
Full-text available
Space experiments with Slovak participation for period 2018 - 2019.
Article
The night time airglow is a dynamic phenomenon that acts as a background for the detection of the extensive air shower (EAS) fluorescence. It is a mandatory task to monitor this background for the ground-based telescopes and for the planned space-based telescopes, dedicated to observe the EAS events induced by the ultra-high energy cosmic rays. To...
Article
Full-text available
During a series of substorm events on November 12 2004, the Neutral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) flying onboard the TC-2 spacecraft observed, close to perigee, bright low-altitude Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) emissions from both north and south poles. Through utilizing high temporal and spatial resolution data inversion techniques we present here a g...
Article
Full-text available
During a series of substorm events on November 12 2004, the Neutral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) flying onboard the TC-2 spacecraft observed, close to perigee, bright low-altitude Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) emissions from both north and south poles. Through utilizing high temporal and spatial resolution data inversion techniques we present here a g...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rosetta entered into history of astronautics as the first human-made robotic probe that performed landing on the comet (12 November 2014). Institute of experimental physics (IEP) contributed to the mission in cooperation with Space Technology Ireland (STIL) laboratory in years 2000-2001, when the Rosetta spacecraft and lander Philae were built. IEP...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
After ten years of cruising the Solar system and passing over six billions of kilometers, the Rosetta probe reached its target - the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Since then, Rosetta is accompanying the comet nucleus, watching its waking up from the frozen state, the perihelion passage in August 2015 and return to cold regions of Solar system. O...
Article
Comprehensive records are available in ENA data of ring current activity recorded by the NUADU instrument aboard TC-2 on 15 May, 2005 during a major magnetic storm (which incorporated a series of substorms). Ion fluxes at 4-min temporal resolution derived from ENA data in the energy ranges 50–81 and 81–158 keV are compared with in situ particle flu...
Article
Full-text available
The Electrical Support System (ESS), which was designed and built in Ireland, handled commands transmitted from the Rosetta spacecraft to the Command and Data Management System (CDMS) aboard its Lander Philae during a ten year Cruise Phase to comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as well as at the comet itself. The busy Cruise Phase included three Earth...
Article
Full-text available
Composition and tasks of the PLAZMA-F experiment onboard the SPEKTR-R satellite are described in this paper. A record high time resolution is a feature of solar wind plasma flux and energetic particle flux measurements. It allowed detecting a number of new and significant properties and parameters.
Article
A new type of variability in the foreshock and magnetosheath is revealed with the recent energetic particle experiments monitor of electrons and protons (MEP) onboard Spectr-R spacecraft and solid-state telescope onboard Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms spacecraft, which have high time resolution. Oscillations of...
Article
Full-text available
The article overviews a big series of researches in the field of solar-terrestrial relationship using Spacecraft developed and manufactured by Lavochkin Association. The specified researches have made a significant contribution to the knowledge of Sun’s disturbances, interplanetary medium as well as the Earth’s magnetosphere.
Article
Full-text available
Composition and tasks of PLAMA-F experiment, performing onboard SPEKTR-R spacecraft, are described in the article. The special feature of solar wind plasma fluxes and energetic particles fluxes measurements is their record high timing resolution, which allowed detecting a number of new significant properties and characteristics.
Article
Full-text available
Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) are generated within the Earth's magnetosphere through charge exchange between magnetically trapped energetic ions and cool neutral gasses. An ENA imager can potentially record the arrival directions and energies of magnetospheric ENAs, as well as provide (indirectly) global images of the spatial and energy distributio...
Article
Full-text available
The instrument PEEL recorded low flux of precipitating energetic electrons during the flight of the HotPay-2 sounding rocket launched from Andoya Rocket Range (Lat. 69°.18’N, Long. 16°.01’E) on 31-JAN-2008 at 19:14:00 UT. After the brief description of the instrument, its possibilities and limitations to measure energetic electron flux in the upper...
Article
Full-text available
The energetic particle experiment MEP-2 onboard the Spectr-R high apogee satellite is briefly described. The instrument measures fluxes and spectra of electrons (30 keV–350 keV) and ions (30 keV–3.2MeV), using two pairs of silicon detectors. The example of first observations upstream from the bow shock illustrates its successful operation in space....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The dynamics of energetic particles in the magnetosphere is of interest since the discovery of trapped radiation. There are many experimental results clarifying mechanisms of magnetospheric charged energetic particle sources, transport and losses, based on the data on low altitude polar orbiting satellites as well as on high apogee satellites inclu...
Article
Full-text available
In the paper there are described some results of the experiment PLASMA-F, that is working onboard spacecraft SPECTR-R. These results are obtained by the two main instruments - monitor of energetic particles MEP and plasma-energy-spectrometer BMSW. The main peculiarity of these devices is the very high time resolution of measurements that allows us...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of the Hakamada Akasofu-Fry, version 2 (HAFv.2) numerical model, which provides predictions of solar shock arrival times at Earth, was subjected to a statistical study to investigate those solar/interplanetary circumstances under which the model performed well/poorly during key phases (rise/maximum/decay) of solar cycle 23. In addit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The SPECTRUM-Radioastron (Spektr-R) space exploration mission is conducted by Space Research Institute (IKI) of Russian Academy of Sciences. In parallel with essential radioastronomical scientific objectives, interesting space physics projects are conducted on board of the spacecraft using its favourable orbit crossing the Earth’s magnetosphere. Th...
Article
Full-text available
The Neutral Atom Detector Unit (NUADU) aboard the TC-2 spacecraft recorded energetic neutral atom (ENA) image data for >3 h during part of the main and recovery phases of a major magnetic storm on 15 May 2005. A custom designed, constrained linear inversion method was applied to retrieve ring current ion distributions in the ENA records out to L =...
Article
Full-text available
An outstanding flare on 20 January 2005 was accompanied by a coronal mass ejection which arrived at the magnetopause at ∼1712 UT, 21 January, and produced a strong compression-pressure pulse. Enhanced magnetospheric activity was stimulated. The associated development between 02.19 UT on 21–22 January, 2005 of a ring current disturbance in energetic...
Article
‘Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances’ (SERENA) is an instrument package that will fly on board the BepiColombo/Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). It will investigate Mercury's complex particle environment that is composed of thermal and directional neutral atoms (exosphere) caused by surface release and charge-exchange proc...
Article
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Design and development of spaceborne scientific devices for operation on board of the spacecraft rank among to special science & technology activities due to extraordinary challenging demands for high reliability in hostile space environment. The development requires experienced and qualified personnel, expensive space-qualified components and expe...
Article
Full-text available
SERENA (`Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances') is an instrument package that will fly on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) it will investigate the Mercury's complex particle environment that surrounds the planet. Such an environment is composed by thermal and directional neutral atoms (exosphere) origi...
Article
Full-text available
A method is presented for retrieving the magnetospheric ion distribution from Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) measurements made by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft. Based on the already well-established method of constrained linear inversion, an iterance technique suitable for the low count ENA measurements has been developed which is toler...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Neutral atom images of plasma structures in geospace are formed by integrating emissions made along lines of sight linking the location of ENA production to the vantage-point of a particular imager flown aboard a spacecraft. Parent pitch angle distributions can, thereafter, be retrieved from the data in several ways. The main source of ENAs in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Neutral Atom Imagers (NAIK) to be flown aboard KuaFu-B1 and KuaFu-B2 are identical instruments with the capability to differentiate between H and O at LENA (10 eV-3 keV) and HENA (10-300 keV) energies. The data obtained by NAIK during continuous and partially conjugate measurements will be individually analyzed as well as co-ordinated with reco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data recorded by PEEL instrument during the flight of the HotPay-2 sounding rocket launched from Andoya Rocket Range (Lat. 69°.18’N, Long. 16°.01’E) on 31-JAN-2008 at 19:14:00 UT are discussed. After the brief description of the instrument, its possibilities and limitations to measure energetic electron flux in the upper atmosphere, the profile of...
Conference Paper
SERENA (‘Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances’) is an instrument package that will fly on board the BepiColombo/Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO); it will investigate the Mercury’s complex particle environment that surrounds the planet. Such an environment is composed by thermal and directional neutral atoms (exosphere) orig...
Article
Full-text available
A method has been developed for extracting magnetospheric ion distributions from Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) measurements made by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft. Based on a constrained linear inversion, this iterative technique is suitable for use in the case of an ENA image measurement, featuring a sharply peaked spatial distribution...
Article
Full-text available
A 3-D, kinematic, solar wind model (Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 (HAFv.2)) is used to predict interplanetary shock arrivals at Venus, Earth, and Mars during a sequence of significant solar events that occurred in the interval 5-14 December 2006. Mars and Venus were on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth during this period. The shocks from the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data recorded by PEEL instrument during the flight of HotPay2 are discussed. After the description of the instrument, its possibilities and limitations to measure energetic electron flux in the upper atmosphere, the profile of counting rate obtained by the three detectors in four energy channels is presented. During the epoch of solar activity mini...
Chapter
Space Weather (K. Kudela); Energetic particles in space: Particles accelerated beyond Earth's Magnetosphere (K. Kudela); Energetic particles in space and Earth's Magnetosphere (K. Kudela); ENA-imaging: A panoramatic imaging of Earth's Magnetosphere and other planets by energetic neutral atoms (J. Balaz); Low-energy Cosmic rays and Earth's atmospher...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Hot Pay-2 atmospheric and ionospheric sounding rocket project was conducted by Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) and Arctic Lidar Observatory for Mid-Atmospheric Reserach (ALOMAR), Norway in the frame of 6th EU framework. The project had wide international (EU) background and involved launch of variety of scientific instruments for atmospheric and iono...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) on TC-2 has the capability to image Energetic Neutral Atoms in the energy range ~ 45-300 keV over a 4PI solid angle. Sixteen, fully depleted, solid state detectors (SSDs) are mounted over four levels in the sensor head. The detectors have, individually, equal fields of view 11.5º × 2.5º (fwhm), regularly distr...
Article
Full-text available
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) instrument aboard TC-2 recorded 4л solid angle images of charged particles (E >180 keV) spiraling around the magnetic field lines in the near-Earth plasma sheet (at ∼ −7 R E, equatorial dawn-to-night side) during a geomagnetic storm (Dst =−219 nT) on August 24, 2005. Energetic ion beam events characterized by...
Presentation
Full-text available
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit/NUADU) flown on China’s TC-2 spacecraft has the capability to image Energetic Neutral Atoms in the overall range ~ 45-300 keV over a 4π solid angle. It has been in operation since its commissioning (shortly after the launch of TC-2 in 2004) and on through the extended mission phase. A method for retrieving the...
Conference Paper
SERENA (`Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances') is an instrument package that will fly on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) it will investigate the Mercury's complex particle environment that surrounds the planet. Such an environment is composed by thermal and directional neutral atoms (exosphere) origi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the first on orbit commission, with the deflection high voltage zero, the NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) instrument aboard TC-2, with its high temporal-spatial resolution recorded 4d solid angle images of energetic particles spiraling around the geomagnetic field lines with different configuration at high northern magnetic latitude L>10....
Article
Full-text available
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) experiment aboard TC-2 recorded, with high temporal and spatial resolution, 4p solid angle images of electrons (~50-125 keV) spiraling around geomagnetic field lines at high northern magnetic latitudes (L>10), during its in-orbit commissioning phase (September 2004). The ambient magnetic field, as well as elec...
Article
Full-text available
The spacecraft potential of Double Star TC-1 is positive in large parts of the orbits due to the photo-effect from solar EUV irradiation. These positive potentials typically disturb low energy plasma measurements on board. The potential can be reduced, and thereby the particle measurements improved, by emitting a positive ion beam. This method has...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
China’s Explorer-2 spacecraft (TC-2) was launched into an elliptical orbit (700 x 39,000 km) around the Earth at an inclination of 90deg on 25 July, 2004. Included in the payload is an Energetic NeUtral Atom (ENA) imager NUADU, which can provide a full 4π image on the completion of each spacecraft spin in the energy range 45 - > 158 keV. In late 2...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) instrument aboard TC-2, recorded 4 ð solid angle images of particles of different energies spiraling around the geomagnetic field lines at high northern latitudes. The ambient magnetic field was measured by the magnetometer experiment (FGM). The spiraling particles concentrate toward the geomagnetic field line...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are produced in the Earth’s magnetosphere when energetic magnetospheric ions undergo charge exchange collisions with the population of thermal, neutral, hydrogen atoms that make up the geo-corona. In such an interaction, an energetic ion can acquire the electron of an hydrogen atom. Since most of the energetic ions co...
Conference Paper
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) on TC-2 is designed to remotely sense 4� distributions of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the range 45 - > 158 keV through employing 16 solid state detectors and exploiting spacecraft spin. In the present paper a technical account of this instrument is provided. Shortly after the commissioning of NUADU, very...
Conference Paper
The NUADU (NeUtral Atom Detector Unit) experiment aboard TC-2 recorded, with high temporal and spatial resolution, 4PI solid angle images of electrons (~50– 125 keV) spiraling around geomagnetic field lines at high northern magnetic latitudes (L>10), during its in-orbit commissioning phase (September 2004). The ambient magnetic field, as well as el...