Jamie Zeitzer

Jamie Zeitzer
Stanford Medicine | Stanford · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

PhD

About

212
Publications
27,454
Reads
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8,125
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2001 - March 2021
Stanford Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 1996 - March 2021
VA Palo Alto Health Care System
Position
  • Health Science Specialist
Education
September 1993 - June 1999
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Neurobiology
September 1989 - June 1993
Vassar College
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (212)
Article
The recent article by Chang et al. (1) adds to the growing literature that exposure to even seemingly dim light at night can have a negative impact on sleep. There have been several articles published in recent years indicating that the seemingly innocuous light emitted from consumer electronics devices has the capacity to increase alertness at nig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Beyond image-forming (IF) effects, light can evoke changes in subcortical functions including circadian timing and sleep drive. Non-image forming (NIF) functions of light are subserved by a network of rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. The physiology of NIF photoreception remains incompletely understood. NIF funct...
Article
Full-text available
The human circadian timing system is most sensitive to the phase-shifting effects of light during the biological nighttime, a time at which humans are most typically asleep. The overlap of sleep with peak sensitivity to the phase-shifting effects of light minimizes the effectiveness of using light as a countermeasure to circadian misalignment in hu...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The 'diurnal slope' of salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of stress and circadian function in a variety of reports with several detailing its association with cancer progression. The relationship of this slope, typically a negative value from high morning concentrations to low evening concentrations, to the underlying daily...
Article
To determine if there is a specific pattern of gross motor activity associated with apathy in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD). Examination of ad libitum 24-hour ambulatory gross motor activity patterns. Community-dwelling, outpatient. Ninety-two individuals with AD, 35 of whom had apathy. Wrist actigraphy data were collected and examined us...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to characterize the impact of the timing and duration of missing actigraphy data on interdaily stability (IS) and intradaily variability (IV) calculation. The performance of three missing data imputation methods (linear interpolation, mean time of day (ToD), and median ToD imputation) for estimating IV and IS was also t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Inadequate sleep is a problem for teens world-wide. Identifying the biological and cultural factors that underlie this phenomenon is dependent on tools that can accurately query sleep-related behaviors. While there are many sleep-related questionnaires available in English, there are a paucity of validated Chinese language versions. As s...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Test whether Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) was non-inferior to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for treating symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among veterans via a parallel randomised controlled non-inferiority trial. Setting Outpatient Veterans Affairs healthcare centre. Participants 85 veterans (75 men, 61% white, mean...
Article
Wrist-worn consumer sleep technologies (CST) that contain accelerometers (ACC) and photoplethysmography (PPG) are increasingly common and hold great potential to function as out-of-clinic (OOC) sleep monitoring systems. However, very few validation studies exist because raw data from CSTs are rarely made accessible for external use. We present a de...
Chapter
Light is the preeminent external influence in determining the position of the internal circadian clock relative to the outside world. In this chapter, we discuss the different parameters of light that impact how it influences the human circadian clock. We detail how the timing (phase), intensity, duration and temporal structure, and spectral compos...
Article
Introduction Given the increasing use of consumer, wrist-worn devices with triaxial accelerometry (actigraphy), understanding whether 24-hr activity patterns are associated with specific mental and physical health deficits is of paramount importance. The UK Biobank, a community-based sample of adults in the United Kingdom, provides an opportunity t...
Article
Introduction Isolated REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), the loss of motor inhibition during REM sleep, is a symptom of prodromal Lewy body disease, with over 80% of iRBD patients eventually phenoconverting to Parkinson’s disease or Dementia with Lewy bodies. Rest-activity rhythm disruption, also an established predictor of Parkinson’s disease, ha...
Article
Introduction The measurable aspects of brain function derivable from polysomnography (PSG) that are correlated with sleep satisfaction are poorly understood. Previously, a weak association of PSG measures with subjectively rated sleep depth and restfulness was shown. Using recent developments in automated sleep scoring, which remove the within- and...
Article
Introduction As individuals age, the circadian-driven timing of their sleep shifts to an earlier hour. Whether such a shift moderates the effectiveness of insomnia treatment on sleep disturbances and mood in older adults is unknown. Methods We tested the hypothesis that circadian preference moderates improvements in mood and insomnia symptoms foll...
Article
Introduction The 24-hour rest and activity behaviors are fundamental human behaviors essential to health and well-being. Functional principal component analysis (fPCA) is a flexible approach for characterizing rest-activity rhythms and does not rely on a priori assumptions about the activity shape. The objective of our study is to apply fPCA to a n...
Article
Full-text available
Background Emotion regulation (ER) is a key process underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet, little is known about how ER changes with PTSD treatment. Understanding these effects may shed light on treatment processes. Methods We recently completed a non-inferiority design randomised controlled trial demonstrating that a breathing-base...
Article
Full-text available
Background The 24-h rest and activity behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep) are fundamental human behaviors essential to health and well-being. Functional principal component analysis (fPCA) is a flexible approach for characterizing rest-activity rhythms and does not rely on a priori assumptions about the activity shape...
Article
Full-text available
The melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are characterized by a delayed off-time following the cessation of light stimulation. Here, we exploited this unusual physiologic property to characterize the exquisite sensitivity of the human circadian system to flashed light. In a 34 h in-laboratory between-su...
Article
Full-text available
Light at night can improve alertness and cognition. Exposure to daytime light, however, has yielded less conclusive results. In addition to direct effects, daytime light may also mitigate the impact of nocturnal light exposure on alertness. To examine the impact of daytime lighting on daytime cognitive performance, and evening alertness, we studied...
Article
Full-text available
Study Objectives The measurable aspects of brain function (polysomnography, PSG) that are correlated with sleep satisfaction are poorly understood. Using recent developments in automated sleep scoring, which remove the within- and between-rater error associated with human scoring, we examine whether PSG measures are associated with sleep satisfacti...
Article
Full-text available
The central pacemaker of flies, rodents, and humans generates less robust circadian output signals across normative aging. It is not well understood how changes in light sensitivity might contribute to this phenomenon. In the present study, we summarize results from an extended data series (n = 5681) showing that the locomotor activity rhythm of ag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Emotion regulation (ER) is a key process underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet, little is known about how ER changes with PTSD treatment. Understanding these effects may shed light on treatment processes. Methods We recently completed a randomised controlled trial demonstrating that a breathing-based yoga practice (Sudars...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep and activity patterns have been linked to physical performance in older adults. Traditional parametric models of 24-hour activity rhythms fail to adequately capture specific diurnal sleep and wake patterns; functional principal components analysis (fPCA) is a non-parametric approach that addresses this limitation. Using fPCA, we modeled accel...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bipolar disorder presents with significant phenotypic heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar disorder, type I (BDI) subjects could be meaningfully classified into homogeneous groups according to activity, sleep, and circadian characteristics using latent profile analysis (LPA). We hypothesized that distin...
Article
Altered 24-hour rest-activity rhythms may be associated with cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence from prospective studies is limited. Non-parametric methods were used to assess actigraphy-based activity patterns in 2,496 older men. Incident cognitive impairment was assessed four times over 12 years using the Modified Mini Mental Stat...
Article
Study objectives: Persons > 65 years with short sleep duration (≤ 6 hours) are at risk for adverse outcomes, but the accuracy of self-reported sleep duration may be affected by reduced symptom awareness. We evaluated the performance characteristics of self-reported versus objectively-measured sleep duration in this age group. Methods: In 2,980 m...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire was originally developed and published in English and has served as a valid and effective tool for the assessment of adolescents' experiences with sleepiness in a variety of situations. To allow for comparisons between sleepiness in adolescents from different cultures, and with different l...
Article
Full-text available
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is commonly used to examine subjective daytime sleepiness in clinical populations; the physiologic correlates of this scale, however, are not well understood. Furthermore, how well this scale correlates with parallel objective and subjective concepts of daytime sleepiness is not well described. As such, we used machine...
Article
Full-text available
Since its description in the 19th century, narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been considered as a model sleep disorder, and after the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset in the disorder, a gateway to understanding REM sleep. The discovery that NT1 is caused by hypocretin/orexin deficiency, together with neurochemical studies of this system,...
Article
Study Objectives Disrupted daily rhythms are associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The specific nature of how rhythms and cognition are related, however, is unknown. We hypothesized characteristics from a nonparametric estimate of circadian rest-activity rhythm patterns would be associated to the development of MCI or dement...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is used as a clinical tool for determining excessive daytime sleepiness. However, the behavior and biology that underlie ESS scores remain to be elucidated. The main objective of this analysis is to determine objective behavioral and physiologic correlates of the ESS. Secondarily, we examine the relat...
Article
Introduction Insomnia affects 30–48% of older adults and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Numerous studies report Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT-I) as an effective non-pharmacological treatment for insomnia symptoms, with few examining the impact of CBT-I on mental and physical aspects of HRQoL. While limited research suggests tha...
Article
Introduction The prevalence of insomnia complaints in older adults is 30–48%, compared to 10–15% in the general population. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is a first-line, non-pharmacological sleep treatment for Insomnia. However, the relative impact of Behavioral (BT) and Cognitive (CT) components compared to that of CBT-I in ol...
Article
Aims Accumulating evidence suggests Gulf War illness (GWI) is characterised by autonomic nervous system dysfunction (higher heart rate [HR], lower heart rate variability [HRV]). Yoga – an ancient mind-body practice combining mindfulness, breathwork, and physical postures – is proposed to improve autonomic dysfunction yet this remains untested in GW...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Theory and research suggest that social dominance is important for multiple forms of psychopathology, and yet few studies have considered multiple dimensions of psychopathology simultaneously, and relatively few have used well-validated behavioral indices. Method: Among 81 undergraduates, we used a well-validated experimental approac...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective The Child and Adolescent Sleep Checklist (CASC) for parents was originally developed and published in Japanese and has served as a valid and effective tool for the assessment of a parent’s perspective of their adolescent child’s sleep behaviors. To allow for comparisons of such perspectives among parents of different cultur...
Article
The circadian wake drive is a mathematic representation of the observed increased propensity to stay awake late in the day, peaking in the hours just before anticipated bed time. It has been called the “forbidden zone” due to the difficulty in initiating sleep during this time and is responsible for the problems initiating sleep when traveling east...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background. To facilitate accurate actigraphy data analysis, inactive periods have to be distinguished from periods during which the device is not being worn. The current analysis investigates the degree to which off-wrist and inactive periods can be automatically identified. (2) Methods. In total, 125 actigraphy records were manually scored fo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Circadian rhythms are endogenous, near 24-hour oscillations that underlie nearly all facets of our health and behavior. The daily cycle of sleep and wake is the most conspicuous circadian-influenced behavior in humans. This chapter introduces the circadian rhythms in humans that give rise to our daily cycling of sleep and alertness, including their...
Article
This paper discusses the rise of human-centric lighting and its current status in lighting. We summarise the human benefits associated with light and lighting and show that human-centric lighting has sound motivations, despite being tainted by misleading marketing claims. The phrase integrative lighting avoids the hype and encapsulates what lightin...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Actigraphs are wrist-worn devices that record tri-axial accelerometry data used clinically and in research studies. The expense of research-grade actigraphs, however, limit their widespread adoption, especially in clinical settings. Tri-axial accelerometer-based consumer wearable devices have gained worldwide popularity and hold potent...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Many shift workers have difficulty sleeping during the daytime owing to an inappropriately timed circadian drive for wakefulness. Objective To determine whether a dual hypocretin receptor antagonist would enable shift workers to have more daytime sleep. Design, Setting, and Participants This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized...
Article
Introduction Recent studies highlight prevalent obstructive sleep apnea after moderate to severe TBI during a time of critical neural repair. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and comparative effectiveness of traditional sleep apnea screening tools in TBI neurorehabilitation admissions. Methods This...
Article
Introduction Many shift workers have an inability to sleep during the daytime following a night shift not due to insomnia or lack of sleep pressure, but because a circadian signal promoting wakefulness is hampering their ability to maintain sleep. We have previously hypothesized that the neuropeptide hypocretin-1 is, in part, responsible for the ph...
Article
Objectives: There has been a proliferation in the use of commercially-available accelerometry- and heart rate-based wearable devices to monitor sleep. While the underlying technology is reasonable at detecting sleep quantity, the ability of these devices to predict subjective sleep quality is unknown. We tested whether the fundamental signals from...
Article
STUDY OBJECTIVES When arising in the morning, many older people experience dizziness and difficulty maintaining proper balance, as the cardiovascular system is not able to compensate to the postural shift (standing) and maintain sufficient blood flow to the brain. Such changes in cardiovascular function are observed in young individuals exposed to...
Article
Introduction: Sleep is increasingly recognizes as a crucial component to rapid and successful rehabilitation, especially from traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Assessment of longitudinal patterns of sleep in a hospital setting, however, are difficult and often the expertise or equipment to conduct such studies are not available. Actigraphy (wrist wo...
Article
Background Flattened diurnal salivary cortisol patterns predict shorter subsequent survival with breast, lung, and renal cell carcinomas. The underlying cause of this flattened slope is undetermined, though it has been hypothesized to be secondary to a deficit in the amplitude of the circadian clock. To gain greater insight into the portions of the...
Article
Full-text available
Study Objectives Inadequate sleep is pervasive among teens worldwide, resulting in daytime sleepiness and, in some cases, depressive symptoms. In addition to their own behavioral choices, parent perceptions may also play a role in adolescent sleep. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of the antecedents and consequences of sleep factors am...
Article
The human circadian pacemaker entrains to the 24-h day, but interindividual differences in properties of the pacemaker, such as intrinsic period, affect chronotype and mediate responses to challenges to the circadian system, such as shift work and jet lag, and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions such as light therapy. Robust characterization...
Article
This paper presents updated analyses on the genetic associations of sleep disruption in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We published previously a study of the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in eight genes related to circadian rhythms and objective measures of sleep-wake disturbances in 124 individuals wi...
Article
Full-text available
In older adults, desynchronized circadian rhythms have been associated with medical illness, including Alzheimer Disease. Activity, which can be easily measured using actigraphy over consecutive 24-hour periods, is a valid marker of entrained sleep phase and correlates with entrained endogenous circadian phase. We compare results of both parametric...
Article
Objective: To determine the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and comparative effectiveness of traditional sleep apnea screening tools in traumatic brain injury (TBI) neurorehabilitation admissions. Design: Prospective diagnostic comparative effectiveness trial of sleep apnea screening tools relative to the gold standard, attended Level 1 p...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Owing to biological, behavioral, and societal factors, sleep duration in teenagers is often severely truncated, leading to pervasive sleep deprivation. Objective To determine whether a novel intervention, using both light exposure during sleep and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), would increase total sleep time in teenagers by enabli...
Preprint
Full-text available
The melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive ipRGCs responsible for the synchronisation of the circadian clock with the environmental light-dark cycle are characterised by a delayed off-time following cessation of light exposure. In this work, we exploited this unusual physiologic property and interrogated how a sequence of flashes of bri...
Article
Full-text available
Background One of the most common ways to examine the daytime impact of sleep loss is the use of the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). PVT metrics, including median reaction time (RT) and number of lapses, have been examined in a variety of studies in which both acute and chronic sleep times are manipulated. Most of these studies involve young, hea...
Article
Recent work suggests that the circadian pacemaker responds optimally to millisecond flashes of light, not continuous light exposure as has been historically believed. It is unclear whether these responses are influenced by the physical characteristics of the pulsing. In the present study, Drosophila (n = 2199) were stimulated with 8, 16 or 120 ms f...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Chronotype (morningness/eveningness) is associated with preference for the timing of many types of behavior, most notably sleep. Chronotype is also associated with differences in the timing of various physiologic events as well as aspects of personality. One aspect linked to personality, prosocial behavior, has not been studied before...
Article
Introduction Emerging research links gut microbial health with sleep. One common sleep disorder in which the microbiome may play a role is restless legs syndrome (RLS). While the pathogenesis of RLS is not fully understood, a relative state of brain iron deficiency has been described in patients with RLS and appears to induce changes in several pat...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Sleep disturbances in TBI population can have negative consequences on physical, psychological and cognitive recovery. While polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for evaluating sleep disorders, actigraphy has been widely used to screen for sleep-wake disorders, especially ones that change longitudinally. In a small sample of TBI...