Jamie Bartram

Jamie Bartram
University of Leeds · School of Civil Engineering

PhD

About

476
Publications
335,857
Reads
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24,491
Citations
Citations since 2017
134 Research Items
13596 Citations
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Introduction
Jamie Bartram is a Professor at the University of Leeds; at UNC he was Don and Jennifer Holzworth Distinguished Professor and Director of the Water Institute (2009-2019) and is now an emeritus professor. Jamie coordinated Water, Sanitation, Hygiene and Health at WHO Headquarters (1999-2009.) He received an honorary doctorate from UEA, 2021; the University of Surrey Vice-Chancellor's Alumnus Lifetime Achievement Award, 2019; and the International Water Association Grand Award, 2004.
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
University of Leeds
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 2009 - present
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 1998 - May 2009
World Health Organization WHO
Position
  • Coordinator: Water Sanitation, Hygiene and Health
Education
August 1987 - June 1996
University of Surrey
Field of study
  • Environmental and Public Health
September 1982 - July 1985
University of Surrey
Field of study
  • Microbiology

Publications

Publications (476)
Article
Full-text available
Background Safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) is important for health, livelihoods, and economic development, but WaSH programs have often underdelivered on expected health benefits. Underperformance has been attributed partly to poor ability to retain effectiveness following adaptation to facilitate WaSH programs' implementation in diverse...
Article
Full-text available
Sanitation is intended to reduce the spread and burden of diseases transmitted from excreta. Pathogen reduction from excreta before sludge or effluent discharge to the environment would seem a logical and useful performance indicator for sanitation systems. However, the relative magnitudes of pathogen release from common sanitation technologies are...
Article
Full-text available
The strength of the 'enabling environment' for development is often considered to be one of the key elements in whether development initiatives fail or succeed. Attempts to strengthen the enabling environment have resulted in a series of checklists and frameworks that imagine it largely to be fixed, static, and separated from 'beneficiaries'. In th...
Article
Full-text available
In sub-Saharan Africa, over half of the population is exposed to contaminated drinking water. The WHO recommends both sanitary inspection and water quality analysis to assess the risk of water source contamination, but the relationship between these tools is poorly understood. We explore the relationship between sanitary inspection and water qualit...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) contribute to patient morbidity and mortality with an estimated 1.7 million infections and 99,000 deaths costing USD $28–34 billion annually in the United States alone. There is little understanding as to if current environmental surface disinfection practices reduce pathogen load, and subsequently HAIs, in c...
Article
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At the interface of environmental health science and engineering with policy, programming, and practice, multiple actors and social processes support communication and decisions. Understanding this interface would help accelerate public health improvements and the effectiveness of interventions, especially in managing the contextual factors that le...
Article
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Community management has remained the dominant paradigm for managing rural water supplies in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a widespread perception that community participation principles are inherently embedded in the community management model. In this paper, we analyze how an international nongovernmental organization engages rural communities in...
Article
Guided by a ‘logic of the situation’ approach our research investigated a problematic situation in community to identify and critically reflect on how consumer marketplaces and self-sufficiency meet consumption needs. In doing so, we reflect on how a situational understanding allowed the researchers to form a more complete view of how consumption n...
Article
Full-text available
Safe water storage protects household drinking water from microbial contamination, maintaining water quality and preventing diarrhea and other water-borne diseases. However, achieving high adoption and sustained use of safe storage is challenging. Systematic adaptation can address these challenges by improving contextual fit while retaining core fu...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental health services (EHS) are critical for safe and functional healthcare facilities (HCFs). Understanding costs is important for improving and sustaining access to EHS in HCFs, yet the understanding of costs is poor and no tools exist to specifically support costing EHS in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries. We developed a toolkit...
Article
Contaminated drinking water causes morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Drinking water quality has been studied extensively in household settings, but little research is available on drinking water quality in schools. School settings are of particular importance, because children are more susceptible th...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental health services (EHS) are critical for safe and functional healthcare facilities (HCFs). Understanding costs is important for improving and sustaining access to EHS in HCFs, yet the understanding of costs is poor and no tools exist to specifically support costing EHS in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries. We developed a toolkit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) are critical for providing a safe, functional healthcare environment, but little is known about their costs. Poor understanding of costs impedes progress towards universal access of EHS in HCFs. We developed frameworks of essential expenses required to provide EHS and co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Exposure to toxic metals (TMs) such as lead can cause lifelong neurodevelopmental impairment and other adverse outcomes. TMs enter drinking water from human activity, geogenic contamination, and corrosion of water system components. Several studies report TM contamination in piped systems and private wells in high-income countries (HIC...
Presentation
Full-text available
One of the Targets of the Sustainable Development Goal to ensure universal water and sanitation access is to “support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management”. Despite using community-centric language, the Indicator of this Target reads: the “proportion of local administrative units with es...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted cost effectiveness analyses of four different CLTS interventions implemented in Ethiopia and Ghana. In each country, a pilot approach in which additional local actors were trained in CLTS facilitation was compared to the conventional approach. Data were collected using bottom-up costing, household surveys, and observations. We assessed...
Article
Adequate environmental conditions, comprising sufficient environmental hygiene items (e.g. gloves, soap, and disinfectant), adequate infrastructure (e.g. sanitation facilities, water supply), a clean environment, and hygienic behaviors in healthcare facilities (HCFs) are necessary for safe care in maternity wards. Few data are available describing...
Article
Full-text available
A hygienic environment is essential to provide quality patient care and prevent healthcare-acquired infections. Understanding costs is important to budget for service delivery, but costs evidence for environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) is lacking. We present the first systematic review to evaluate the costs of establ...
Book
Full-text available
Sufficient quantities of water for household use, including for drinking, food preparation and hygiene, are needed to protect public health and for well-being and prosperity. This second edition reviews the evidence about the relationships between water quantity, water accessibility and health. The effects of water reliability, continuity and price...
Technical Report
Full-text available
https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015241
Article
Full-text available
The sustainable developments goals (SDGs) introduced monitoring of drinking water quality to the international development agenda. At present, Escherichia coli are the primary measure by which we evaluate the safety of drinking water from an infectious disease perspective. Here, we propose and apply a framework to reflect on the purposes of and app...
Article
Improving access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) and menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in schools is important to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 3 and 6. Inadequate WaSH and MHM in schools adversely affect student health and educational performance, as well as teacher satisfaction. However, there is little evidence describin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report describes efforts to develop and test a framework to quantify, on a national scale, the unsafe return of excreta to the environment. In other words, this work attempts to estimate the fraction of excreta returned to the environment with significant potential to spread disease. The report describes the development and field-testing of mo...
Article
In 2019, 30,000 people were forced to leave their homes due to conflict, persecution, and natural disaster each day. Eighty-five percent of refugees live in developing countries, and they often face underfunded and inadequate environmental health services. Many displaced persons live in camps and other temporary settlements long after the displacem...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to toxic metals and metalloids (TMs) such as arsenic and lead at levels of concern is associated with lifelong adverse health consequences. As exposure to TMs from paint, leaded gasoline, canned foods, and other consumer products has decreased in recent decades, the relative contribution of drinking water to environmental TM exposure and a...
Article
Reliable safe water supply is a pillar of society and a key to public health. The Nordic countries have an abundance of clean fresh water as a source for drinking water supplies. They have followed developments in safeguarding water, both the recommendations of the World Health Organization framework for safe drinking water and European legislation...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic placed hygiene at the centre of disease prevention. Yet, access to the levels of water supply that support good hand hygiene and institutional cleaning, our understanding of hygiene behaviours, and access to soap are deficient in low-, middle-and high-income countries. This paper reviews the role of water, sanitation and hygie...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic placed hygiene at the centre of disease prevention. Yet, access to the levels of water supply that support good hand hygiene and institutional cleaning, our understanding of hygiene behaviours, and access to soap are deficient in low-, middle- and high-income countries. This paper reviews the role of water, sanitation and hygi...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous, safely managed water is critical to health and development, but rural service delivery faces complex challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We report the first application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods to improve the microbial quality of household water for consumption (HWC) and the functionality of wa...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic placed hygiene at the centre of disease prevention. Yet, access to the levels of water supply that support good hand hygiene and institutional cleaning, our understanding of hygiene behaviours, and access to soap are deficient in low-, middle- and high-income countries. This paper reviews the role of water, sanitation and hygi...
Article
Adaptation to drought is particularly challenging on remote island atolls, such as those found in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), a nation of 58,000 populating 29 low-lying coral atolls spread over >2 million km². Exposure to consecutive atmospheric hazards, such as meteorological floods and droughts diminish scarce water resources and...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) are critical for safe care provision, yet their availability in low-and middle-income countries is low. A poor understanding of costs hinders progress towards adequate provision. Methods are inconsistent and poorly documented in costing literature, suggesting opportunities to impro...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Deficient environmental health (EH) conditions and infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities (HCFs) contribute to the spread of HAIs, but microbial sampling of sou...
Article
Sanitary inspection is used in low-, medium- and high-income settings to assess the risk of microbial contamination at water sources. However, the relationship between sanitary inspection and water quality is not well understood. We conducted a critical literature review and synthesized the findings of 25 studies comparing the results of sanitary i...
Article
Delivering water and sanitation services are challenging in data poor rural settings in developing countries. In this paper we develop a Bayesian Belief Network model that supports decision making to increase the availability of safe drinking water in five flood-prone rural communities in the Solomon Islands. We collected quantitative household sur...
Article
Full-text available
Many healthcare facilities (HCFs) in low-income countries experience unreliable connectivity to energy sources, which adversely impacts the quality of health service delivery and provision of adequate environmental health services. This assessment explores the status and consequences of energy access through interviews and surveys with administrato...
Article
Full-text available
Translational research applies scientific techniques to achieve practical outcomes, connecting pure research and pure practice. Many translational research types have arisen since the mid-1900s, reflecting the need to better integrate scientific advancement with policy and practice. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) development efforts have aim...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) is a global partnership addressing challenges to universal water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) access. Shortly following adoption of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, the Research and Learning (R&L) constituency of SWA undertook a systematic study to determine global research priori...
Article
Water Safety Plans (WSPs) are a management tool to identify and prioritize risks and implement appropriate control measures throughout the water supply chain, from catchment to consumer. WSPs have been implemented in over 90 countries; yet, costs, benefits and the enabling environment elements necessary for WSP implementation are under-studied. To...
Article
Full-text available
Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was adopted by the 193-member states of the United Nations in September 2015. It includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are accompanied by 169 targets, 107 of which are considered output targets and 62 are designated ‘means of implementation’. While the SDGs are as...
Article
Many healthcare facilities (HCFs) in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack safe, sufficient water supplies. We sought to understand which factors affect water quality in rural HCF in LMICs. In Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, doctors and...
Article
In Urban Africa, water and sanitation utility companies are facing a huge backlog of sanitation provision in the informal settlement areas. In order to clear this backlog, new investment is required. However, to select appropriate sanitation technologies, lifecycle costs need to be assessed. The aim of this research was to establish lifecycle costs...
Article
Adequate environmental health conditions in penal institutions are necessary to protect and promote the health of prisoners and prison workers. We conducted a scoping systematic review to: describe the environmental health conditions in penal institutions and the associated exposures and health outcomes; identify effective approaches to prevent env...
Article
Full-text available
Background: To develop updated estimates in response to new exposure and exposure-response data of the burden of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, malnutrition, schistosomiasis, malaria, soil-transmitted helminth infections and trachoma from exposure to inadequate drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene behaviours (WASH) with a focus on low- and m...
Article
Establishing and maintaining safe and sufficient environmental health (EH) conditions in health care facilities (HCFs) is important to prevent and control infections. In 2018, the Government of Malawi finalized an environmental health policy that defines specific targets and programs for EH in healthcare settings. This and other related policies ha...
Article
The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals initiated in 2016 reiterated the need for safe water and healthy lives across the globe. The tenth anniversary meeting of the International Water and Health Seminar in 2018 brought together experts, students, and practitioners, setting the stage for development of an inclusive and evidence-based res...
Preprint
The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals initiated in 2016 reiterated the need for safe water and healthy lives across the globe. The tenth anniversary meeting of the International Water and Health Seminar in 2018 brought together experts, students, and practitioners, setting the stage for development of an inclusive and evidence-based res...
Article
Achieving sufficient, safe, continuously-available drinking water services in rural areas is a challenge, in high- and especially low-and middle-income countries. External support programs (ESPs) - which may include administrative, financial, and technical assistance - have been hypothesized to contribute to sustainable rural water services. While...
Article
Full-text available
Participatory approaches are an important component of institutional frameworks for the governance of water resources and services. Studies on public participation in water management provide evidence for the outcomes of public participation and insights into the types of methods and the contexts under which participation can be meaningful. However...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization has recommended Water Safety Plans (WSPs), a holistic risk assessment and risk management approach, for drinking-water suppliers across low-, middle- and high-income countries, since publishing its 2004 Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. While rapid WSP adoption has occurred, capacity is still catching up to implem...
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act required states to develop source water assessment programs identifying existing and potential contamination sources; however, comprehensive risk prioritization and management approaches for surface water supplies have seen limited application. This participatory study assessed which permutation(s) of risk managemen...
Data
Appendix S1. External utility interview guide and input from participating utility survey with reviewed literature. Table S1. Ranked criteria out of 12 multiple‐choice options based on four participating utility responses to the baseline survey question “How important are the following criteria to your utility when selecting a source water protect...
Article
Background: Adequate hygiene behaviors and environmental health conditions are fundamental to children's health, development, and well-being. They are especially important in institutional care settings for orphaned and abandoned children, a particularly vulnerable population whose basic needs are often not met. Objectives: We systematically review...
Article
Background: There are well-established relationships between health and homelessness, and shelters can facilitate the transmission of diseases and contribute to their prevention. Adequate environmental health conditions and hygiene behaviors in homeless shelters are fundamental to the health of their clients, a marginalized population. We report t...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the patterns, trends, and factors associated with functional community water points in rural Ethiopia and identifies potential areas of improvement in terms of practitioner response to functionality and functionality monitoring. It was part of an integrated WaSH and nutrition program implemented by UNICEF Ethiopia and the Govern...
Article
Motivation Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) is a global partnership addressing universal water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) access. Shortly after the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations, the research and learning (R&L) constituency of SWA undertook a systematic study to determine global research priorities...
Article
Full-text available
We examine factors associated with the use of basic water supply and sanitation services as part of an integrated community-based nutrition programme which included a drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) intervention and emphasise findings related to health risk perceptions. Data were collected from 2658 households in four regions in Ethio...
Article
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Despite recent progress extending access to drinking water supplies globally, ensuring long-term functionality of rural water infrastructure remains challenging. Past research on rural water project outcomes has used two principal approaches: large-N statistical studies estimating average effect sizes, or case studies providing causal description....
Article
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Introduction Access to improved sources of drinking water remains a complex challenge in Sierra Leone and other low and middle income countries. We aimed to qualitatively examine consumer perceptions and purchasing behaviors of packaged water products in Sierra Leone. Methods We conducted 25 focus groups with 178 consumers and petty traders of pac...
Article
Full-text available
Background Modern energy enables health service delivery. Access to electricity is, however, unreliable in many health facilities in developing countries. Little research has explored the relationships between energy and service delivery. Methods Based on extensive literature searches and iterative discussions within the research team, we first de...
Article
Aims: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for water and sanitation seeks to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water and access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene. This article examines what governments are doing to achieve this, paying particular attention to actions that governments report tak...