James Stigler

James Stigler
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Psychology

About

128
Publications
139,719
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13,899
Citations
Citations since 2016
27 Research Items
4758 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (128)
Article
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Background People of lower social status tend to have greater emotional responses to stress. The present study assessed whether lower social status was related to greater emotional responses in anticipation of a naturalistic stressor: academic exams among college students. Methods College students in an introductory statistics class (N = 252; 75.8...
Article
We developed an interactive online textbook that interleaves R programming activities with text as a way to facilitate students’ understanding of statistical ideas while minimizing the cognitive and emotional burden of learning programming. In this exploratory study, we characterize the attitudes and experiences of 672 undergraduate students as the...
Article
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Introductory statistics students struggle to understand randomness as a data generating process, and especially its application to the practice of data analysis. Although modern computational techniques for data analysis such as simulation, randomization, and bootstrapping have the potential to make the idea of randomness more concrete, representin...
Conference Paper
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For students to acquire flexible knowledge in STEM domains, it is important to find ways to help them attend to underlying structures of the domain and practice making connections between these structures. Traditional analogy studies focus on connecting a single type of representation to examples drawn from different contexts. Complex STEM domains,...
Conference Paper
Jupyter notebooks have great potential to facilitate the teaching of statistics and data science. However, setting up Jupyter for classroom use is intimidating for many college and high school instructors. nbteach is an extension for Jupyter and JupyterHub designed to make it easy for instructors to create, share, collect, and grade Jupyter noteboo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Simulation can be a powerful tool for teaching and learning statistics. Yet, students often struggle to understand the processes that underlie computer-based simulation activities. Recently, researchers have tried pairing computer-based simulation with more concrete, hands-on experiences to make simulation-processes more evident, but only in settin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Teachers often use drawings of the normal distribution to support explanations of related statistical concepts, assuming that the normal curve provides a common language for such discussions. However, we find that students may not understand the basic features of the normal curve. In Study 1, we showed that students who already have studied the nor...
Article
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Research suggests that expert understanding is characterized by coherent mental representations featuring a high level of connectedness. This paper advances the idea that educators can facilitate this level of understanding in students through the practicing connections framework: a practical framework to guide instructional design for developing d...
Article
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Producing content-related gestures has been found to impact students' learning, whether such gestures are spontaneously generated by the learner in the course of problem-solving, or participants are instructed to pose based on experimenter instructions during problem-solving and word learning. Few studies, however, have investigated the effect of (...
Conference Paper
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This study aims to characterize the experiences of non-computer science majors as they learn to use R as part of an introductory course in statistics. Participants were 677 students at two universities who used an interactive online textbook with embedded R programming activities as part of an introductory course in statistics. Using quantitative a...
Article
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Background/Context Despite advances in the learning sciences, a persistent gap remains between research and practice. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study In this project, we develop and try out a new approach to education research and development in which researchers, designers/ developers, and instructors collaborate to continuousl...
Conference Paper
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Questions are generally used in traditional textbooks for summative assessment and knowledge consolidation. Putting textbooks online and making them interactive enable questions to be used differently. Interleaved questions can be formative, providing not only a means for students to check for their own understanding but also a way to normalize the...
Article
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Students learn many concepts in the introductory statistics course, but even our most successful students end up with rigid, ritualized knowledge that does not transfer easily to new situations. In this article we describe our attempt to apply theories and findings from learning science to the design of a statistics course that aims to help student...
Article
In this article we propose the use of Bayesian networks as a potentially promising way to model usable knowledge. Using the Classroom Video Analysis (CVA and CVA-M) assessments as a lab model for studying teachers’ usable knowledge, we first explored whether we can identify the knowledge (pieces) underlying teachers’ written responses. In the CVA a...
Article
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In two studies we investigated whether removing opportunities to calculate could improve students’ subsequent ability to solve similar word problems. Students were first asked to write explanations for three word-problems that they thought would help another student understand the problems. Half of the participants explained typical word problems (...
Chapter
The chapter reports a comparative case-study of teachers’ beliefs about what it means to know algebra. Thus, how mathematics teaching is organized is not an immediate reflection of the subject as such, but also determined by ideas of what it means to learn and to do mathematics. Teacher interviews document significant differences in conceptions of...
Preprint
Full-text available
In two studies we investigated whether removing opportunities to calculate could improve students’ subsequent ability to solve similar word problems. Students were first asked to write explanations for three word problems that they thought would help another student understand the problems. Half of the participants explained typical word problems (...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we begin to lay out a framework and approach for studying how students come to understand complex concepts in rich domains. Grounded in theories of embodied cognition, we advance the view that understanding of complex concepts requires students to practice, over time, the coordination of multiple concepts, and the connection of thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Students of complex domains (such as statistics) gain some knowledge of a large assortment of concepts and skills, yet often fail to comprehend the core ideas that link these concepts and procedures together. In order to give students a more coherent view of a rich domain, and thus a more flexible understanding that can be applied appropriately acr...
Article
Explanations are used as indicators of understanding in mathematics, and conceptual explanations are often taken to signal deeper understanding of a domain than more superficial explanations. However, students who are able to produce a conceptual explanation in one problem or context may not be able to extend that understanding more generally. In t...
Article
We examine the distinction between teaching and teachers as it relates to instructional improvement. Drawing from work outside of education on improvement systems and from analyzing the Japanese system of lesson study, we contend that a focus on teaching can shape a coordinated system for improvement whereas a focus on teachers, common in the Unite...
Article
Attempts to improve teaching through research have met with limited success. This is, in part, due to the fact that teaching is a complex cultural system that has evolved over long periods of time—multiply determined and inherently resistant to change. But it is also true that research on teaching is difficult to carry out. Using traditional educat...
Article
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Developing understanding of fractions involves connections between nonsymbolic visual representations and symbolic representations. Initially, teachers introduce fraction concepts with visual representations before moving to symbolic representations. Once the focus is shifted to symbolic representations, the connections between visual representatio...
Article
Originating in Asia, lesson study is gradually spreading around the globe. As evident from the papers in this issue, we have much to learn as it is implemented in a variety of cultural contexts. In this article we reflect on the goals of lesson study, the organizational supports required to sustain the practice in various contexts, and the benefits...
Article
Abstract In this article we report further explorations of the classroom video analysis instrument (CVA), a measure of usable teacher knowledge based on scoring teachers’ written analyses of classroom video clips. Like other researchers, our work thus far has attempted to identify and measure separable components of teacher knowledge. In this study...
Article
Does ability cause achievement, or vice versa? This longitudinal panel study investigates the relationship between ability and achievement in a non-Western culture, among elementary schoolchildren in Taiwan. Taiwan is an interesting case because SES differences, which have proved problematic for studies in the United States, are relatively unconfou...
Article
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Digital video has exploded on the web, and many assume it will play a major role in education in the future. Just watching a video, however, does not necessarily lead to learning. Realizing the potential of video for learning will require new technologies that make video interactive, engage learners, and enable video to be embedded into routines of...
Article
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In this study, we explored the potential for machine scoring of short written responses to the Classroom-Video-Analysis (CVA) assessment, which is designed to measure teachers' usable mathematics teaching knowledge. We created naive Bayes classifiers for CVA scales assessing three different topic areas and compared computer-generated scores to thos...
Article
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In this study we explored the effects of statistical controls, single versus multiple cohort models, and student sample size on the stability of teacher value-added estimates (VAEs). We estimated VAEs for all 5th grade mathematics teachers in a large urban district by fitting two level mixed models using four cohorts of student data. We found that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability to perceive, comprehend and reason about relations (i.e., relational thinking) is central in human cognition. Relational thinking is powerful because it is structured. Specifically, relational thought allows inferences and generalizations that are constrained by the roles that elements play, rather than strictly the properties of the el...
Article
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This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...
Article
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This study explores the relationships between teacher knowledge, teaching practice, and student learning in mathematics. It extends previous work that developed and evaluated an innovative approach to assessing teacher knowledge based on teachers’ analyses of classroom video clips. Teachers watched and commented on 13 fraction clips. These written...
Article
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In a prior issue of MathAMATYC Educator, we reported on our efforts to find out what community college developmental mathematics students understand about mathematics (Stigler, Givvin, & Thompson, 2010). Our work painted a distressing picture of students’ mathematical knowledge. No matter what kind of mathematical question we asked, students tended...
Article
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This study investigates, through an experimental design, the effectiveness of a professional development program on teacher knowledge and practices and on student learning. The program consisted of a series of video-based modules designed to respond to needs of U.S. teachers, as highlighted by findings from the 1999 Third International Mathematics...
Conference Paper
If students learn multiple inter-definable relational concepts, their resulting knowledge will be more stable, flexible, and likely to be applied on transfer tasks. A videogame has been developed to teach fractions. Based on analysis of Asian curricula in mathematics, the favored instructional sequence and relative emphasis on various topics have b...
Article
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This study explores the relationship between teacher knowledge and student learning in the area of mathematics by developing and evaluating an innovative approach to assessing teacher knowledge. This approach is based on teachers’ analyses of classroom video clips. Teachers watched 13 video clips of classroom instruction and then provided written c...
Article
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The nation is facing a crisis in its community colleges: more and more students are attending community colleges, but most of them are not prepared for college-level work. The problem may be most dire in mathematics. By most accounts, the majority of students entering community colleges are placed (based on placement test performance) into "develop...
Article
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The hard work of improving teaching in the United States can't succeed without changes in the culture of teacher learning.
Article
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Many have proposed the creation of a practitioner knowledge base as a foundation for the continuous improvement of teaching. In this article, we discuss the promise, and the challenges, involved in the creation and use of such a knowledge base. We begin by reflecting on the difficulties of changing teaching, a cultural and contextual activity. We t...
Article
First and fifth graders in Beijing and Chicago were given a battery of mathematics tests. Whether tested with problems requiring solely computation or with ones requiring application of knowledge about mathematics, American children's performance was consistently inferior to that of Chinese children. Interviews with American children suggested that...
Article
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A video-based program on lesson analysis for pre-service mathematics teachers was implemented for two consecutive years as part of a teacher education program at the University of Lazio, Italy. Two questions were addressed: What can preservice teachers learn from the analysis of videotaped lessons? How can preservice teachers’ analysis ability, and...
Technical Report
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This report presents key findings from the 1999 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Video Study of eighth-grade science teaching in five countries: Australia, Czech Republic, Japan, Netherlands, and the United States. The TIMSS 1999 Video Study is a follow-up and expansion of the TIMSS 1995 Video Study. The study is the first...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This Statistical Analysis report presents findings from the 1999 Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Video Study of eighth-grade science teaching in five countries: Australia, Czech Republic, Japan, Netherlands, and the United States. The TIMSS 1999 Video Study is a follow-up and expansion of the TIMSS 1995 Video Study. The st...
Article
Differences across cultures in classroom instruction may contribute to superior performance by Asian children on mathematics achievement tests.
Article
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The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study examined eighth-grade mathematics teaching in the United States and six higher-achieving countries. A range of teaching systems were found across higher-achieving countries that balanced attention to challenging content, procedural skill, and conceptual understanding in...
Article
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This study examines the influence of a dramatic art-based history program for fifth-grade students on both their learning and enjoyment of history. The program, called "Performing History," reflects theories of effective use of drama in the classroom as well as successful ways to teach history. The program presents historical information as part of...
Article
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Analogical reasoning has long been believed to play a central role in mathematics learning and problem solving (see Genter, Holyoak, & Kokinov, 2001); however, lit- tle is known about how analogy is used in everyday instructional contexts. This arti- cle examines analogies produced in naturally occurring U.S. mathematics lessons to explore patterns...
Article
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The TIMSS video studies provide a picture of what happens in mathematics classrooms in the United States and in other countries. How does mathematics instruction differ from country to country? What do these international comparisons tell us about how to improve mathematics achievement? We have been working for 10 years on a research program aimed...
Article
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The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study sampled eighth grade mathematics lessons in seven countries including Australia. As well as describing teaching in these countries the study aimed to : develop objective, observational measures of classroom instruction to serve as appropriate quantitative indicators of t...
Article
Full-text available
To improve classroom teaching in a steady, lasting way, the teaching profession needs a knowledge base that grows and improves. In spite of the continuing efforts of researchers, archived research knowledge has had little effect on the improvement of practice in the average classroom. We explore the possibility of building a useful knowledge base f...
Article
Full-text available
To improve classroom teaching in a steady, lasting way, the profession needs a knowledge base that grows and improves over time. In spite of the continuing efforts of researchers, archived research knowledge has had little effect on the improvement of practice in the average classroom. In this paper, we explore the possibility of building a useful...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared 2 kinds of materials in the context of kindergartners' learning of number concepts: 1 using structurally organized tile patterns and the other using diverse objects in various patterns to represent each number. A total of 157 kindergartners recruited from 2 classes from each of 3 schools participated in a 5-week mathematics enri...
Article
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Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Video Study of Teaching show that many teachers in the United States believe they are changing the way they teach while they retain the core of traditional practice. Results from the video study, which also included teachers from Germany and Japan, along with comparisons of...
Article
The video component of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) provided national-level descriptions of 8th-grade mathematics teaching in 3 countries: Germany, Japan, and the United States. Based on these data, Stigler and Hiebert (1999) argued that teaching is a cultural activity, varying more across cultures than within. This...
Article
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The video survey is a promising new approach for studying classrooms and teaching across cul-tures. Drawing from experience in working with two cross-cultural video surveys, the Third In-ternational Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and its follow-up study (TIMSS-R), this article presents some of the challenges of studying classrooms across cul...
Article
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The video component of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study marked the first time that national samples of teachers were videotaped at work in their classrooms. In this article we review some of the results of the study, with special attention to the nature of the mathematics evident in these eighth-grade lessons from Germany, Japa...
Article
Teachers in Germany, Japan, and the United States pose many questions to their students, and we assumed that the kinds of questions teachers asked influenced students' opportunities to think and communicate mathematically during lessons. However, previous research comparing the effects of higher and lower order questions on student learning have re...
Article
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Video data provide a means of integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches to the study of classroom teaching. This chapter begins by discussing the usefulness of integrating quantitative and qualitative analyses, and then describes how large-scale video surveys can enable a cyclical process of generating and validating discoveries. The impo...
Article
Although video has been used for small, qualitative case studies, it has almost never been used as a medium for large-scale data collection. A major reason has been the practical problems involved in the management and analysis of video information. In this chapter a new multimedia database program, vPrism™, developed for this purpose, is described...
Article
Explores teaching as a cultural activity by focusing on U.S. and Japanese systems of teaching in the context of cultural beliefs about how students learn and the teacher's role in the learning process. Educational improvement could result from greater awareness of the cultural scripts used in teaching. (SLD)