James Steele

James Steele
Solent University

BSc (Hons), PhD

About

231
Publications
452,518
Reads
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2,988
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
ukactive
Position
  • Principal Investigator
July 2016 - present
Solent University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
October 2010 - December 2013
Southampton Solent University
Field of study
  • Exercise Physiology/Biomechanics and Chronic Low Back Pain
October 2007 - May 2010
Southampton Solent University
Field of study
  • Applied Sport Science

Publications

Publications (231)
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite its apparent intuitiveness and widespread interest across various fields, ‘effort’ is a concept that seems difficult to define. The purpose of this article is to consider and define ‘effort’ during attempted task performance. In doing so I argue for distinction between the actual effort (objective effort) required, and the perception of tha...
Preprint
Full-text available
To date no studies have compared resistance training loading strategies combined with dietary intervention for fat loss. Thus, we performed a randomised crossover design comparing four weeks of heavier- (HL; ~80% 1RM) and lighter-load (LL; ~60% 1RM) resistance training, combined with calorie restriction and dietary guidance, including resistance tr...
Presentation
Full-text available
What to expect from interventions in sport and exercise is very rarely a precise affair. Often the best we can do is make potential directional predictions due to some vague verbal theory regarding the proposed mechanism of action for the intervention. Rarely are we able to a priori deduce what to expect as a point or even interval prediction. This...
Article
Public health guidelines for resistance training emphasize a minimal effective dose intending for individuals to engage in these behaviors long term. However, few studies have adequately examined the longitudinal time-course of strength adaptations to resistance training. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the time-course of strength dev...
Article
Full-text available
Background Symptom burden remains a critical concern for individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following the completion of treatment. The most common symptom clusters, dyspnea (shortness of breath) and fatigue, can contribute to physical decline, reductions in quality of life, and a higher risk of comorbidities and mortality. Dyspnea...
Article
Full-text available
Importance: Strength training exercise is recommended for improving physical function in older adults. However, whether strength training (lifting and lowering weights under control) and power training (PT) (lifting weights fast and lowering under control) are associated with improved physical function in older adults is not clear. Objective: To...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Since many people choose to perform resistance training unsupervised, and a lack of supervision within strength training is reported to result in inadequate workout quality, we aimed to compare outcomes for resistance training with and without supervision. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed for performance/fun...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated the effectiveness of using velocity feedback to regulate resistance training load on changes in muscle strength, power, and linear sprint speed in apparently healthy participants. Academic and grey literature databases were systematically searched to identify randomised trials that compared a velocity-based training intervention to a '...
Article
Full-text available
Background Prescribing repetitions relative to task failure is an emerging approach to resistance training. Under this approach, participants terminate the set based on their prediction of the remaining repetitions left to task failure. While this approach holds promise, an important step in its development is to determine how accurate participants...
Article
Background Virtual personal training might represent an uncomplicated, accessible, and time-efficient approach to supervised strength training, particularly under government-imposed lockdown or closure of fitness facilities. However, there appears a dearth of literature evaluating the efficacy of virtual personal training. Methods The present proj...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Traditionally, the loads in resistance training are prescribed as a percentage of the heaviest load that can be lifted once (i.e., 1 Repetitions Maximum [1RM]). An alternative approach is to allow trainees to self-select training loads. The latter approach has benefits, such as allowing trainees to exercise according to their preference...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: The perception of effort (PE) provides information on task difficulty and influences physical exercise regulation and human behavior. This perception differs from other-exercise related perceptions such as pain. There is no consensus on the role of group III-IV muscle afferents as a signal processed by the brain to generate PE. OBJECT...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Virtual personal training might represent an uncomplicated, accessible, and time-efficient approach to supervised strength training, particularly under government-imposed lockdown or closure of fitness facilities. However, there appears a dearth of literature evaluating the efficacy of virtual personal training. Methods: The present stu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Consumer research is interested in the way consumers navigate consumption in the face of disruption, often using practice theory to focus on how practitioners creatively realign practice elements in order to carry on. Although recognising their significance, this research undertheorizes the significance, role and characteristics of 'meanings' in pr...
Article
Aims This study considered the effects of supervised, low volume, high intensity of effort resistance training compared to continued routine care in persons with type II diabetes. Methods We utilized a randomized parallel-group time-series design. All participants completed baseline testing (T0) and then participated in an educational training int...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To conduct a systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis of the current literature as to the effects of interval training (IT) vs moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on measures of body composition, both on a whole-body and regional level. Methods: We searched English-language papers on PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, and s...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare two different maximal intensity exercise modality training protocols of similar durations on muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower limb composition in recreationally trained men. Twenty-five trained men (28.9 ± 5.6 years) were randomly divided into Cycle ergometer (4 sets of 30 seconds sprints) a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The body of resistance training literature appears heavily focused upon investigating efficacy of interventions by dint of most incorporating supervision (SUP). Authors have suggested that a lack of SUP within strength training results in inadequate workout quality and diminished results yet, since many people choose to perform resistan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Velocity-based training (VBT) may be an effective method for monitoring resistance training load because it accounts for daily changes in an individual’s physical performance capabilities. However, the current evidence comparing VBT to alternative resistance training methods is dominated by small individual studies reporting mixed resul...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aims: The aims of this study were to consider the effects of supervised, low volume, high intensity of effort resistance training compared to continued routine care in persons with type II diabetes. Methods: This study utilized a randomized comparative interrupted time-series design. All participants completed baseline testing (T0) and then partici...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Symptom burden remains a critical concern for individuals with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following the completion of treatment. The most common symptom clusters, dyspnea (shortness of breath) and fatigue,can contribute to physical decline, reductions in quality of life, and a higher risk of comorbidities and mortality. Dyspnea...
Article
Full-text available
Background The fatigue of a muscle or muscle group can produce global responses to a variety of systems (i.e., cardiovascular, endocrine, and others). There are also reported strength and endurance impairments of non-exercised muscles following the fatigue of another muscle; however, the literature is inconsistent. Objective To examine whether non...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this multi-experiment paper was to explore the concept of the minimum effective training dose (METD) required to increase 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) strength in powerlifting (PL) athletes. The METD refers to the least amount of training required to elicit meaningful increases in 1RM strength. A series of five studies utilising mixed meth...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertrophy can be operationally defined as an increase in the axial cross-sectional area of a muscle fiber or whole muscle, and is due to increases in the size of pre-existing muscle fibers. Hypertrophy is a desired outcome in many sports. For some athletes, muscular bulk and, conceivably, the accompanying increase in strength/power, are desirable...
Article
Despite widespread use, community-based physical activity prescription is controversial. Data limitations have resulted in a lack of clarity about what works, under what circumstances, and for whom, reflected in conservative policy recommendations. In this commentary we challenge a predominantly negative discourse, using contemporary research to hi...
Article
Background: To support the strategy development for communication of the updated physical activity (PA) guidelines, the UK Chief Medical Officers' Expert Panel for Communication was created. Methods: To help inform this process, a rapid review was performed to identify and describe how other nations are communicating their PA guidelines and PA g...
Article
Full-text available
There have been calls for more enjoyable Physical Activity (PA) interventions which focus on ensuring a positive affective response. This study explored how using a narrative, characters, and music in a video-led PA session might influence the sense of immersion and impact the affective response. One hundred and thirty-six participants (boys n = 65...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionUnderstanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours...
Article
Full-text available
Resistance training (RT) is a fundamental component of exercise prescription aimed at improving overall health and function. RT techniques such as cluster set (CS) configurations, characterized by additional short intra-set or inter-repetition rest intervals, have been shown to maintain acute muscular force, velocity, and ‘power’ outputs across a R...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis of the current literature as to the effects of interval training (IT) vs moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on measures of body composition, both on a whole-body and regional level. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources: English-language searches...
Article
Background Brief advice is recommended to increase physical activity (PA) within primary care. This study assessed change in PA levels and mental well-being after a motivational interviewing (MI) community-based PA intervention and the impact of signposting (SP) and social action (SA) (i.e. weekly group support) pathways. Methods Participants (n =...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the multiple health benefits that come from engaging in physical activity, data suggests that children are moving less. Novel approaches to engaging children in physical activity are needed to address this public health concern. Recently a new definition of physical activity was proposed which emphasises, amongst other things, the fact that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Increasing children’s physical activity (PA) is a key public health concern. Recently there have been calls for more enjoyable PA interventions which focus on ensuring a positive affective response, yet this remains an under researched area. This study explored how using a narrative, characters, and music in a video-led PA session might influence t...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of asthma on physical activity (PA) in youth remains equivocal. This review synthesises the evidence regarding the influence of asthma on PA and sedentary time and evaluates the role of key moderators for this relationship. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, six electronic databases and grey literature were searched. Primary studie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Prescribing repetitions relative to task-failure is an emerging approach to resistance training. Under this approach, participants terminate the set based on their prediction of the remaining repetitions left to task-failure. While this approach holds promise, an important step in its development is to determine how accurate participant...
Preprint
Full-text available
The aim of this multi-experiment paper was to explore the concept of the minimum effective training dose (METD) required to increase 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) strength in powerlifting (PL) athletes. The METD refers to the least amount of training required to elicit meaningful increases in 1RM strength. A series of 5 studies utilising mixed methods...
Article
Full-text available
In 2014, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) called for the development of a system to collate local data on exercise referral schemes (ERS). This database would be used to facilitate continued evaluation of ERS. The use of health databases can spur scientific investigation and the generation of evidence regarding healthcar...
Preprint
Full-text available
The size principle is a theory of motor unit (MU) recruitment that suggests MUs are recruited in an orderly manner from the smallest (lower threshold) to the largest (higher threshold) MUs. A consequence of this biophysical theory is that, for isometric contractions, recruitment is dependent on the intensity of actual effort required to meet task d...
Article
Full-text available
Physical activity (PA) is considered essential to overall health, yet it is consistently reported that children worldwide are failing to meet the recommended levels. Affective responses are a potential predictor of long-term PA engagement due to their bidirectional relationship with PA. One way to influence the affective response to PA may be to in...
Article
Full-text available
This systematic review and meta-analysis set out to determine the efficacy on whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on body composition and strength parameters in non-athletic cohorts. A systematic review of the literature according to the PRISMA statement included (a) controlled trials, (b) WB-EMS trials with at least one exercise and one cont...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Public health guidelines for resistance training typically emphasize a minimal effective dose approach. The intention for such guidelines is that individuals engage in these behaviors over the long-term. However, relatively few studies have examined the longitudinal time-course of strength adaptations to resistance training and those whi...
Article
Full-text available
In resistance training, the use of predicting proximity to momentary task failure (MF, i.e. maximum effort), and repetitions in reserve scales specifically, is a growing approach to monitoring and controlling effort. However, its validity is reliant upon accuracy in the ability to predict MF which may be affected by congruence of the perception of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Brief advice is recommended to increase physical activity (PA) within primary care. This study assessed change in PA levels and mental wellbeing after a motivational interviewing (MI) community-based PA intervention and the impact of signposting [SP] and Social Action [SA] (i.e. weekly group support) pathways. Methods: Participants (n=2...
Preprint
Background: Brief advice is recommended to increase physical activity (PA) within primary care. This study assessed change in PA levels and mental wellbeing after a motivational interviewing (MI) community-based PA intervention and the impact of signposting [SP] and Social Action [SA] (i.e. weekly group support) pathways. Methods: Participants (n=2...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: There is currently limited evidence available to support the use of the isometric mid thigh pull (IMTP) within professional soccer. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between IMTP variables, with common markers of athletic performance capability. METHODS: Eleven professional development soccer players (age: 20 ± 2 year...
Preprint
Full-text available
The health benefits of physically activity (PA) are well documented; therefore, promoting PA and associated guidelines to the population is considered an important task for any government. To support the strategy development for communication of the recently updated PA guidelines, the UK Chief Medical Officers' (CMO) Expert Panel for Communication...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The cause of muscle damage and injury is often attributed to large strains. Studies have suggested that strain is the principal cause of muscle damage rather than force. Results. In this paper we show that force is the principal cause of muscle damage whereas strain is a means of increasing force. The subtle difference has important imp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: To examine whether non-local muscle fatigue occurs following performance of a fatiguing bout of exercise of a different muscle(s). Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Search and Inclusion: A systematic literature search using a Boolean search strategy was conducted with PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar in...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Behavioural economics and social marketing have potential to influence health behaviours in children, but there has been no systematic review considering the combined impact of these strategies. The aim of this research is to conduct a systematic review and narrative synthesis of both behavioural economics and social marketing strategie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine how the onset of COVID-19, and the associated ‘lockdown’, affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed resistance training RT prior to the pandemic. Design: Observational, cross-sectional. Setting: Online surveys in multiple l...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 5 month kettlebell-based training on jumping performance, balance, blood pressure and heart rate in female classical ballet dancers. It was a clinical trial study with 23 female dancers (age = 21.74 ± 3.1 years; body height = 168.22 ± 5.12 cm; body mass = 53.69 ± 5.91 kg) took part in the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The present study aimed to compare changes in muscle size when measured by ultrasound (US) muscle thickness (MT) and arm circumference (AC) using data from young men. Methods: The investigation involved data from three previous studies involving a total of 67 young men who performed resistance training (RT) for 10-12 weeks. Before an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Physical activity (PA) is considered essential to overall health yet it is consistently reported that children are failing to meet the recommended levels. Due to the bidirectional relationship between affective states and PA, affective responses are a potential predictor to long term engagement. Since late March 2020 the UK government enforced ‘loc...
Preprint
Full-text available
We describe improbable data patterns in the work of Barbalho et al.
Preprint
Physical activity (PA) is considered essential to overall health yet it is consistently reported that children are failing to meet the recommended levels. Due to the bidirectional relationship between affective states and PA, affective responses are a potential predictor to long term engagement. Since late March 2020 the UK government enforced ‘loc...
Article
Purpose: It has been suggested that the media influence beliefs regarding ideal body appearance and drive for muscularity whilst also offering recommendations for achieving this; most commonly heavy load free weight resistance training (RT). However, evidence for media effects are inconsistent in the literature. This study investigated this “lift b...