James J. Stapleton

James J. Stapleton
University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR) | UCANR · Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program

PhD
Researcher, Educator, Consultant

About

138
Publications
22,278
Reads
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3,778
Citations
Citations since 2016
36 Research Items
1487 Citations
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Introduction
Plant/pest relationships involve interactions among biological, chemical, and physical processes. The research focus of our lab is on understanding and manipulating elements of these processes to produce appropriate pest management strategies. We develop alternatives to synthetic pesticides, primarily using quantitative and qualitative manipulation of passive solar energy and knowledge-based utilization of organic materials. Appropriate technology, sustainability, and circular economy issues are emphasized.
Education
March 1981 - June 1983
University of California, Davis
Field of study
  • Plant Pathology

Publications

Publications (138)
Article
Summer solarization of six wet field soils of four different textures raised soil temperatures by 10–12°C at 15cm depth. Soil solarization increased concentrations of NO−3N and NH+4N up to six times those in nontreated soils. Concentrations of P, Ca2+, Mg2+ and electrical conductivity (EC) increased in some of the solarized soils. Solarization di...
Article
Full-text available
Pomaces from tomato paste and wine production are the most abundant fruit processing residues in California. These residues were examined as soil amendments for solarization to promote conditions conducive to soil disinfestation (biosolarization). Simulated biosolarization studies were performed in both aerobic and anaerobic soil environments and s...
Article
Aims Soil biosolarization (SBS) is a pest control technology that includes the incorporation of organic matter into soil prior to solarization. The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the initial soil microbiome on the temporal evolution of genes encoding lignocellulose‐degrading enzymes during SBS. Methods and Results SBS field e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Soil solarization is a non-chemical method for controlling soilborne pests using high temperatures produced by capturing radiant energy from the sun. Solarization leaves no chemical residues and is a simple method appropriate for the home gardener and small- or large-scale farmers. Solarization is primarily used as a broad-spectrum pest control tec...
Article
Full-text available
The 16-month, proof of concept experiment described here was done to evaluate feasibility of in-season mulching using black polyethylene film for citrus tree establishment. The factors of soil temperature, management of T. semipenetrans and weed pests, and reduced irrigation water application were considered. The working hypothesis of this case stu...
Article
Full-text available
Soil biosolarization (SBS) is an alternative technique for soil pest control to standard techniques such as soil fumigation and soil solarization (SS). By using both solar heating and fermentation of organic amendments, faster and more effective control of soilborne pathogens can be achieved. A circular economy may be created by using the residues...
Article
Full-text available
Biosolarization is a soil disinfestation technology that combines passive solar heating and organic amendments to generate multiple pest-inactivating stressors. The objectives of this study were to assess the performance of almond (Prunus dulcis) processing residues in biosolarization to control infestations of root lesion (Pratylenchus vulnus) and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
These guidelines represent the best information currently available to the authors and are intended to help you in making the best choices for an IPM program. Not all registered materials are mentioned. Always check the label and with local authorities for the most up-to-date information regarding registration and restrictions on pesticide use.
Article
Biosolarization is an integrated pest management strategy that combines soil solarization with organic amendment application. In the present study, soil samples were taken after biosolarization using tomato pomace and green waste compost (GWC) amendments and analyzed to elucidate changes to the soil microbiome, including both fungal and bacterial c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
These guidelines represent the best information currently available to the authors and are intended to help you in making the best choices for an IPM program. Not all formulations or registered materials are mentioned. Always read the label and check with local authorities for the most up-to-date information regarding registration and restrictions...
Article
Full-text available
Regulatory pressure along with environmental and human health concerns drive the development of soil fumigation alternatives such as soil biosolarization (SBS). SBS involves tarping soil that is at field capacity with a transparent film following amendment with certain organic materials. Heating via the greenhouse effect results in an increase of t...
Article
Abstract. Soil biosolarization (SBS) is a pest-control technique that could come into wider use as a sustainable alternative to highly toxic soil fumigants such as 1,3-D and chloropicrin. SBS induces biohydrothermal inactivation of soil pests by covering moist soil with clear plastic tarp to promote passive solar heating. In addition, microbial act...
Article
Full-text available
Biosolarization utilizes organic amendments to produce biopesticide compounds in soil that can work in tandem with other stresses to inactivate agricultural pests. The prospect of using by-products from industrial almond processing as amendments for biosolarization was assessed. Soil mesocosms were used to simulate biosolarization using various alm...
Presentation
Full-text available
A 4 min 21 sec, educational video was produced on dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria) biology and management. The video was posted as YouTube content on the UC Agriculture and Natural Resources (ANR) website as featured content publicizing California Invasive Species Action Week, June 1 – June 9, 2019, in collaboration with the California Department of...
Article
Current agricultural soil pathogen control methods that rely on fumigation with toxic synthetic chemicals are not sustainable. Combining soil organic matter amendment with soil hydrothermal treatment via solarization is a biological pest control alternative to chemical fumigation. The application and bioconversion of readily-available organic amend...
Article
Conventional solarization and biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing residue amendments were compared with respect to generation of pesticidal conditions and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L) plant growth in treated soils. Soil oxygen depletion was examined as a response that has previously not been measured across multiple depths...
Article
BACKGROUND. Soil biosolarization is a promising alternative to conventional fumigation. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) produced in the soil through fermentation of amended organic matter can affect pest inactivation during biosolarization. The objective was to determine how soil amended with organic wastes that were partially stabilized through either...
Article
Soil biosolarization (SBS) is a pest control technique that combines passive solar heating and fermentation of amended organic matter. The extreme soil conditions generated during SBS could decrease microbial biomass and restructure the soil microbiome, which could impact soil quality. Digestates from anaerobic digesters may harbor microbial commun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil biosolarization (SBS) is an enhanced soil disinfestation process, achieved by amending soil with organic matter (OM) prior to solarization. One reason for higher efficiency of SBS is the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of partially stabilized organic wastes on SBS by monitoring...
Article
Anaerobic digestion is an organic waste bioconversion process that produces biofuel and digestates. Digestates have potential to be applied as soil amendment to improve properties for crop production including phytonutrient content and pest load. Our objective was to assess the impact of solid anaerobic digestates on weed seed inactivation and soil...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster describes the study aiming at inactivating two pest using organic wastes stabilized under difference process. This poster won the best poster award and was done by the student Tara Randall
Article
Soil solarisation uses solar heating for management of soilborne pests including weed seeds. Because soil temperatures under solarisation fluctuate diurnally, models predicting weed seed inactivation as a function of time and fluctuating temperatures are needed to provide accurate treatment guidelines. Inactivation times for Brassica nigra (black m...
Article
In light of the negative environmental impacts of soil fumigants such as methyl bromide, soil solarization, the treatment of soil using passive solar heating, has emerged as an environmentally friendly approach to soil pest suppression. Unfortunately, traditional solarization processes remove land from cultivation for 4–6 weeks during the peak of t...
Article
The California tomato processing industry produced circa 388,856 t of tomato pomace in 2014. While currently used for animal feed, tomato pomace could be utilized for biosolarization. Primary Energy Demand (PED) and Global Warming Potential (GWP) equivalent emissions were calculated for two valorization pathways: (i) feed for cattle; and (ii) bioso...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Updates: These guidelines are updated regularly. Check with your University of California Cooperative Extension Office or the UC IPM Website for information on updates. Note to readers: These guidelines represent the best information currently available to the authors and are intended to help you in making the best choices for an IPM program. Not...
Article
Background: Biosolarization is a fumigation alternative that combines passive solar heating with amendment-driven soil microbial activity to temporarily create antagonistic soil conditions, such as elevated temperature and acidity, that can inactivate weed seeds and other pest propagules. The aim of this study was to use a mesocosm-based field tri...
Technical Report
Full-text available
UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines Cucurbits. UC ANR Publication 3445. Oakland, CA. These guidelines represent the best information currently available to the authors and are intended to help you in making the best choices for an IPM program. Not all formulations or registered materials are mentioned. Always read the label and check with local auth...
Technical Report
Full-text available
UC ANR Publication 3475, Pest Management Guidelines -- Eggplant. University of California, Oakland, CA. These guidelines represent the best information currently available to the authors and are intended to help you in making the best choices for an IPM program. Not all formulations or registered materials are mentioned. Always read the label and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Knowledge-based application of organic materials and passive solar heating can be useful as pre-plant, soil disinfestation treatments to eliminate soil pests, without using synthetic chemical applications. Solarization and biosolarization are specific, pseudo-soil fumigation techniques that are allowable under most organic certification programs. W...
Article
Solarization can provide thermal inactivation of weed seeds and phytopathogens through passive solar heating of moist soil covered with clear plastic tarp. Microbial respiration in soils, especially those with increasing levels of organic matter, can augment solarization to produce soil temperatures higher than those achieved by solar heating alone...
Article
Full-text available
A double-tent solarization technique, which accumulates higher soil temperatures than solarization of open fields, was recently approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as a nematicidal treatment for container nurseries. Due to the need for broad-spectrum pest control in container nursery settings, this technique was tes...
Article
Tent solarization is an alternative to chemical fumigation or steam treatment of soils for pest eradication. Diurnally-pulsed thermal inactivation using passive solar heating is the primary mode of action. However, biological and chemical processes are also involved, and the microbial community structure of the recolonized soil may play a role in l...
Article
Full-text available
Controlled environment experiments were done to test the effects of amending soil with dried residues of certain cultivated gramineous plants, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yolo), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv. UC337), oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Montezuma), and triticale (X Triticosecale Witt.) at ambient temperature of 21-24 o C and at a...
Article
Soil solarization is a method of soil heating used to eradicate plant pathogens and weeds that involves passive solar heating of moist soil mulched (covered) with clear plastic tarp. Various types of organic matter may be incorporated into soil prior to solarization to increase biocidal activity of the treatment process. Microbial activity associat...
Article
Plastic and cover crop mulches are widely used in a number of vegetable crop production areas, but they currently are not commonly used in California. Evaluations of the effects of silver UV reflective plastic (RP) and cool-season cover crop (CC) mulches relative to the standard, bare-ground production system (ST) on growth, yield, and costs and re...
Article
Soil solarization is a non-chemical alternative to fumigation whereby moist soil is covered with transparent plastic tarp, resulting in passive solar heating of the soil and reduction of weed, pathogen, and nematode inocula. Soil is typically solarized for four to six weeks during summer, when many crops are produced. Scheduling solarization to wor...
Article
Solar tents, which are safe, inexpensive, and easy to construct, can be used to inactivate unwanted weed plant propagative materials, onsite. During two field trials in the San Joaquin Valley of California, from Sept 2 to 7, 2010, solar tents produced diurnal temperature maxima within closed sample bags of 63.5–76.7°C. The mean maximum temperatures...
Article
Two field studies were conducted in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California in order to describe the association of arthropods and possible virus diseases with the plant canopy of early-season, bush-trained, fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Shady Lady) over three soil surface microenvironments. The experimental treatments were...
Article
Full-text available
Plastic UV reflective mulch (metalized mulch) and wheat straw mulch delayed colonization by Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring and the incidence of aphid-borne viruses in zucchini squash. No insecticides were used in either mulch treatment. The mulches were compared with a preplant treatment of imidacloprid and an untreated, unmulched control....
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were conducted in laboratory bioreactors and in field plots to test effects of certain cultivated members of the grass family (Poaceae = Gramineae), including wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yolo), barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. UC337), oats (Avena sativa cv. Montezuma), triticale (X Triticosecale), and a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bi...
Article
Full-text available
Grass cover crops can be harvested for biomass or used as a surface mulch to reduce erosion, improve soil structure, suppress weeds and conserve moisture. There is concern, however, that such plantings may affect subsequent crops. We studied the effects of sudex, a sorghum hybrid used as a cover crop, on subsequent crops of tomato, broccoli and let...
Article
Full-text available
Many plants that are candidates for refining into biofuels also possess qualities that make them potentially useful for managing soilborne pests, reclaiming polluted soils, supplementing animal feed and other purposes. Phytoremediation with these plants may provide a practical and economical method for managing the movement of trace elements into w...
Article
Wilt of almond due to Verticillium dahliae, also known as‘black heart', is an occasionally serious disease problem in orchards in California (US). Verticillium wilt is most severe on trees 2–6-year-old, and symptoms lessen as trees mature. Usually only a few trees in a young orchard are affected, though sometimes many young trees die. Severe econom...
Article
Soil in laboratory microcosm experiments was amended with dried and milled crop residues of onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Mission) or garlic (A. sativa L. cv. California Early). The amendments, along with the additional factors of amendment concentration (0, 1 or 3% (w/w)) and soil temperature (23 or 39 °C), were evaluated with respect to germination o...
Article
Mortality of weed seeds at temperatures of 39, 42, 46, 50, 60, and 70 C was recorded through time under controlled laboratory conditions similar to those of soil solarization for six weed species: annual sowthistle, barnyardgrass, black nightshade, common purslane, London rocket, and tumble pigweed. Time and temperature requirements for thermal dea...
Article
Population dynamics of epiphytic fungi associated with the summer bunch rot complex of five wine grape (Vitis vinifera) varieties in commercial vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley of California were monitored every two weeks by berry washings during 1989-1992. Vines in the five replicated experiments were subjected to basal leaf removal or left una...
Article
Full-text available
In warmer climates, solarization, a technique comprised of physical, biological, and chemical elements, may be useful for disinfesting soil of invasive weed propagules in native plant communities. During August- October 2004, the effectiveness of solarization for this purpose was demonstrated at the Fay's Wildflower Meadow area of the Rancho Santa...
Article
Full-text available
Organic farmers and limited-resource growers in the San Joaquin Valley and other agricultural areas in California—many of whom are ethnic minorities—encounter limited options and environmental constraints when seeking economically viable pest management methods. Over the past 8 years, we have conducted weed research and implementation projects on s...
Article
Full-text available
We compared reflective plastic and wheat straw mulches with conventional bare soil for managing aphid-borne virus diseases and silverleaf whitefly in cantaloupe. The occurrence of aphid-borne virus diseases was significantly reduced with both mulches as opposed to bare soil, and reflective plastic performed better than wheat straw. Silverleaf white...
Article
Full-text available
Trials were conducted in 2002 and 2003 in California's San Joaquin Valley to determine the efficiency of reflective plastic and wheat straw in managing silverleaf whitefly and aphid-borne virus diseases in late planted cantaloupes. In 2002, the incidence of aphid-borne viruses was lowest in plants growing over reflective plastic followed by those g...
Article
Two field comparisons of conservation tillage tomato production alternatives following wheat were conducted in California's Central Valley. Both studies compared: 1) standard tillage; 2) bed disk or permanent bed minimum tillage; and 3) strip-tillage following winter wheat crops that were harvested the previous June. Processing tomatoes were produc...
Chapter
Integrated pest management (IPM) refers to strategies used to minimize the application of chemical pesticides and to combat plant pests, such as insects and other arthropods , pathogens, nematodes , weeds, and certain vertebrates, without incurring economic plant damage. All plant pests (as well as other life-forms) have natural enemies, and the us...
Article
We conducted experiments in 2000 and 2001 in California’s San Joaquin Valley to evaluate the effectiveness of wheat straw and UV reflective plastic mulches for the management of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring, and several aphid-borne virus diseases of zucchini squash. The effectiveness of these mulches was compared to...
Article
A complex of aphids and several mosaic virus diseases can cause major losses in cucurbitaceous crops grown in the inland valleys of California. Three field experiments were conducted to test and compare the effectiveness of reflective polyethylene and biodegradable, synthetic latex spray mulches for management of aphids and aphid-borne virus diseas...
Article
Effectiveness of UV reflective plastic mulch for the management of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) was evaluated in selected cucurbits. The reflective mulch repelled silverleaf whitefly adults in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.). Reduced coloniz...
Article
Full-text available
A double-tent solarization technique, which accumulates higher soil temperatures than solarization of open fields, was recently approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as a nematicidal treatment for container nurseries. Due to the need for broad-spectrum pest control in container nursery settings, this technique was tes...
Article
Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing...
Article
The effects of heating, over a range of temperatures and for increasing periods of time, and of adding finely chopped broccoli leaves to soil infested by Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica on nematode infestation of melon, were studied in glasshouse experiments. There was a significant interaction between the effects of soil temperature, the per...
Article
Full-text available
Preplant soil fumigation with methyl bromide is scheduled to be phased out by 2005. Chemical and nonchemical alternatives are being researched and identified. Soil solarization and/or biofumigation can help fill the gap in certain cases. These alternative methods of soil disinfestation are also of value to organic growers, home gardeners and others...
Article
Soil solarization is a natural, hydrothermal process of disinfesting soil of plant pests that is accomplished through passive solar heating. Solarization occurs through a combination of physical, chemical, and biological mechanisms, and is compatible with many other disinfestation methods to provide integrated pest management. Commercially, it is u...
Article
Herbicides that act by inhibiting protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) have been recognized for over 30 years. Acifluorfen, oxyfluorfen, and oxadiazon are among several commercial Protox- inhibiting herbicides that have been in use for several decades, although their mode of action had not been elucidated until fairly recently. In spite of the matur...
Article
Full-text available
Observations that tomato transplants died or were severely stunted when set into unincorporated sorghum-sudan hybrid surface mulch led us to further investigate the potential allelopathic impacts of this warm-season cover crop in a series of field experiments. Survival and dry weights of tomato, lettuce, and broccoli transplants were determined in...
Article
A "double-tent" solarization (passive solar heating) technique was recently approved by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as a nematicidal treatment for container nursery soil. The treatment currently stipulates exposure of soil to a temperature of 70°C for 30 contiguous min, among other considerations. Due to the need for br...
Article
Solarization was tested during summer 1995 and 1996 for its potential to disinfest nursery soils of certain nematode and fungal pathogens which attack olive in California's inland valleys. Moist field soils naturally infested with the citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans), lesion nematode (Pratylenchus vulnus), or ring nematode (Criconemella...
Article
Full-text available
Controlled environment experiments were carried out to test the effects of amending soil with fresh and dried residues of certain cultivated and noncultivated cruciferous plants, including Brassica nigra, Brassica oleracea var. chinensis, B. oleracea var. italiensis, B. oleracea var. capitata, B. oleracea var. compacta, and Raphanus sativus; and of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: Synthetic latex spray mulch base (BASF), either nonpigmented or painted with one of six colors (black, white, red, yellow, blue, silver) was applied to planting beds and evaluated for physical properties influencing the microenvironment, as well as the growth and yield of eggplant. Results of three field experiments showed that silver-col...
Book
Papers from the International Conference on Soil Solarization and Integrated Management of Soilborne Pests. Sess. 2. Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic), 16-21 Mar 1997
Article
Full-text available
Solarization is a passive hydrothermal process of disinfesting soil which utilizes solar radiation trapped under plastic mulch to create a “greenhouse effect”, heating soil to temperatures which are deleterious or lethal to a broad spectrum of soilborne pathogens and pests. In addition to heat, other mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological...
Article
Full-text available
Two isolates of Verticillium dahliae, a black microsclerotial isolate and an isolate from potassium deficient cotton plants that forms white colonies on agar media, were examined for their effects on the potassium content of cotton plants. The potassium content of petioles from fully expanded leaves collected at random from branches 6 to 7 nodes be...
Article
Full-text available
Planting beds were treated with sprayable, synthetic latex film (BASF, Charlotte, NC, USA) and oversprayed with black, white, red, blue, yellow or silver oil-based paint to study the effect of coloured spray mulches on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Millionaire). Nonpainted mulch base and bare ground plots served as control treatments....
Article
Combining organic amendments with soil solarization is a nonchemical approach to improvement of the control of soilborne plant diseases. Pathogen control in solarized— amended soil is attributed to a combination of thermal killing and enhanced generation of biotoxic volatile compounds. Apparently, pathogen sensitivity to biotoxic volatile compounds...