James Scott

James Scott
Queensland Institute of Medical Research | QIMR · Mental Health Research Programme

Professor

About

435
Publications
176,629
Reads
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64,110
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2010 - present
Royal Brisbane Hospital
Position
  • Consultant Psychiatrist
January 2007 - September 2010
The Royal Children's Hospital
Position
  • Medical Director Child and Family Therapy Unit
January 2006 - January 2010
Lady Cilento Children’s Hospital
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (435)
Article
Background and Hypothesis The nature of the robust association between cannabis use and schizophrenia remains undetermined. Plausible hypotheses explaining this relationship include the premise that cannabis use causes schizophrenia, increased liability for schizophrenia increases the risk of cannabis use initiation (eg, self-medication), or the bi...
Article
Full-text available
A large number of early life exposures predict child maltreatment. Using data from a 30-year birth cohort study we examine 12 early life course risk factors of four types of self-reported childhood maltreatment recalled at the 30-year follow-up. Of the 7223 children in the sample at birth, 2425 responded to the Child Trauma Questionnaire at the 30-...
Article
Background Longitudinal studies examining the effect of cannabis exposure (CE) on the prognosis of adolescents with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are scarce. We examined trajectories of mental health in adolescents with PLEs and cannabis exposure. Methods The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 6552) with linkage to nationwide register dat...
Article
Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with many health problems in women during pregnancy, including depression/anxiety, gestational diabetes and adverse birth outcomes. However, unlike other health risk factors, screening for ACEs has not been widely implemented in antenatal care settings. Aims: The aim of the scoping...
Article
Cognitive impairment in psychosis is one of the strongest predictors of functional decline. Problems with decision-making processes, such as goal-directed action and reversal learning, can reflect cortico-striatal dysfunction. The heterogenous symptoms and neurobiology observed in those with psychosis suggests that specific cognitive phenotypes may...
Article
Introduction: Peer victimization and aggression in adolescence are associated with later mental health morbidity. However, studies examining this association have not controlled for adolescent substance use. We aimed to study the associations between peer victimization, peer aggression, and mental disorders in adulthood, adjusting for substance us...
Article
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A commonly suggested strategy for addressing bullying is for victims to seek help from a trusted person. Despite this recommendation, there are a group of adolescent victims who choose not to seek help. This study aimed to identify factors associated with not seeking help among adolescents who experienced bullying victimisation. A sub-sample of you...
Article
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Background: Diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) has been associated with increased risk of mortality in large register samples. However, there is less known about the association between symptoms of ADHD in adolescents and risk of mortality in general population samples. Methods: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n =...
Article
Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with both dietary fat intake and obesity in later life. There is less information on associations with metabolic risk factors and specific types of CM such as physical, sexual and emotional abuse, as well as neglect. Aims: To assess the association between five types of self-reported CM and a...
Article
Background The long-term mental and physical health consequences of childhood maltreatment have been well documented. Less known are the longer-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, specifically the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts adult life success. Objectives To prospectively assess the extent to which childhood experience...
Article
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This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of different forms of bullying victimization experiences and their association with family functioning, peer relationships and school connectedness among adolescents across 40 lower and middle income to high-income countries (LMIC-HICs). Data were drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (H...
Article
Bullying victimisation is a serious risk factor for mental health problems in children and adolescents. School bullying prevention programs have consistently produced small to moderate reductions in victimisation and perpetration. However, these programs do not necessarily help all students affected by bullying. Paradoxically whole-school programs...
Article
Objective The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists recommends screening for a range of antibodies in first-episode psychosis, including anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody–associated encephalitis occurs with high antibody titres and may cause cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psyc...
Article
Objective To identify and describe the available literature quantifying the economic burden associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods A search of five electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, EconLit, CINAHL, EMBASE) and hand searches of bibliographies was conducted to identify all relevant articles written in English and pub...
Article
Background and aims: There are few longitudinal studies assessing the association of cannabis use and subsequent onset of bipolar disorder. We aimed to measure the association between early cannabis exposure and subsequent bipolar disorder. Design, setting, and participants: Observational study linking a sample from the Northern Finland Birth Co...
Article
Objective: Clozapine is the most effective medication for treatment refractory schizophrenia; however, it is associated with severe cardiac adverse events including myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. To aid treatment decision making for clinicians, patients, and their carers, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify potential ri...
Article
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Aim This study examines 3 years of child and adolescent health data from Australian onshore and offshore immigration detention centres from 2014 to 2017, quantifying the health presentation data of children and adolescents in Australian immigration detention and comparing rates between onshore and offshore detention. Methods This study utilised th...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to estimate the global level prevalence of different forms of bullying victimization experiences and their association with family functioning, peer relationships and school connectedness among adolescents across 40 lower and middle income to high-income countries (LMIC-HICs). Methods: Data were drawn from the Health B...
Article
Experiences of ‘climate anxiety’ are considered an adaptive response to a real threat, as well as a potential cause of impairment. To date, little attention has been paid to how children and adolescents may be uniquely predisposed to climate anxiety, despite being an age cohort particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. This Review u...
Article
Objective Mental health service use by individuals without a diagnosed mental disorder is sometimes termed ‘met un-need’. However, provision of services for this group may be necessary to provide appropriate assessment, referral and early intervention. This study quantified child and adolescent use of, and perceived need for, mental health services...
Article
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Background Schizophrenia is a persistent psychotic disorder often accompanied by severe disability and premature mortality. New pharmacological treatments are urgently needed. Sodium benzoate, a common food preservative holds potential to be an effective, accessible treatment for schizophrenia, though the optimal dosing and mechanism of action of t...
Article
Full-text available
Epidemiological surveys measuring the prevalence of child maltreatment generate essential knowledge that is required to enhance human rights, promote gender equality, and reduce child abuse and neglect and its effects. Yet, evidence suggests Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) may assess the risk of these studies using higher than normal thresholds,...
Article
Aim To identify and describe key service components that should be incorporated into age-appropriate integrated mental health care for young adults aged 18–24 years. Methods Key service components were identified through a mixed-methods approach including targeted examinations of the literature and structured discussions with experts in youth ment...
Conference Paper
Introduction There is evidence that maternal perinatal depression is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes in children. No study has yet examined the association between maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period and the risk of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) in children and adolesce...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Longitudinal studies examining the association between adolescent cannabis use and self-harm are rare, heterogenous and mixed in their conclusions. We study this association utilizing a large general population-based sample with prospective data. Methods: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n= 6582) with linkage to nationwide regi...
Article
Objective To present a practical, easy-to-implement clinical framework designed to support evidence-based quality prescribing for people with early psychosis. Method Identification and explanation of key principles relating to evidence-based pharmacotherapy for people with early psychosis. These were derived from the literature, practice guideline...
Article
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Executive dysfunctions in early psychosis (EP) are subtle but persistent, hindering recovery. We asked whether changes in the cognitive control system (CCS) disrupt the response to increased cognitive load in persons with EP. In all, 30 EP and 30 control participants undertook multimodal MRI. Computational models of structural and effective connect...
Article
Background: Existing evidence regarding the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and the risk of maternal mental illness is inconclusive. This study sought to investigate (a) whether HDP (pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension) are independently associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and in the...
Article
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Background There is limited evidence on interventions to minimise weight gain at clozapine commencement. We compared the effect of adjunctive metformin versus placebo at clozapine initiation. Methods People with schizophrenia commencing on clozapine were randomised to either metformin or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was difference in...
Article
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Importance An association between perinatal maternal depression and risk of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in offspring has not been established. Identifying early determinants of ODD can help inform preventative intervention efforts. Objective To investigate the association between maternal perinatal depressive symptoms and the risk of ODD i...
Article
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Introduction and objectives: To conduct a systematic literature review of intervention programs designed to promote healthy romantic relationships in youth (aged 12-25 years). The focus was on universal interventions that have the potential to be effective and widely implemented. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Scien...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cognitive impairments in psychosis are one of the strongest predictors of functional decline. Cortico-striatal dysfunction may contribute to both psychosis and cognitive impairment in psychotic illnesses. The decision-making processes underlying goal-directed action and serial reversal learning can be measured and are sensitive to changes reflectin...
Article
Full-text available
Psychotic experiences (PEs) are robustly associated with subsequent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts, but questions remain as to the temporal relation and underlying cause of this association. Most investigations have incorporated only two waves of data, and no study has comprehensively investigated mediating pathways. This stud...
Article
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We test whether genetic influences that explain individual differences in aggression in early life also explain individual differences across the life-course. In two cohorts from The Netherlands ( N = 13,471) and Australia ( N = 5628), polygenic scores (PGSs) were computed based on a genome-wide meta-analysis of childhood/adolescence aggression. In...
Article
Objective Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in pregnant women. This is the first longitudinal study investigating the association between gestational UTIs and the risk of maternal antenatal and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods Data were utilised from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pare...
Article
Background There is a shortage of information on the costs and benefits of anti-bullying programs implemented in Australia. Information on the costs and benefits of anti-bullying programs is vital to assist policy making regarding the adoption of these programs. The aim of this study was to estimate the changes to costs and health benefits of imple...
Article
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Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children ag...
Article
Background Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of psychiatric disorders. However, associations between adolescent cannabis use, depression and anxiety disorders are inconsistently reported in longitudinal samples. Aims To study associations of adolescent cannabis use with depression and anxiety disorders. Method We used data from...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is concern that rates of mental disorders may be increasing although findings disagree. Using an innovative design with a daughter-mother data set we assess whether there has been a generational increase in lifetime ever rates of major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress diso...
Article
Background No biological treatment has been firmly established for the at-risk stage of psychotic disorder. In this study we aim to test if subthreshold psychotic symptoms can be effectively treated with cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound of the plant Cannabis sativa. The question has taken on increased importance in the wake of evidenc...
Article
Background: Caesarean section (CS) is associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes for both mothers and offspring. The evidence for an association between CS and reduced offspring cognitive and academic performance has been inconsistent, with considerable limitations. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare cognitive and academi...
Article
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Purpose In low- and middle-income countries, there are limited data on mental disorders among adolescents. To address this gap, the National Adolescent Mental Health Surveys (NAMHS) will provide nationally representative prevalence data of mental disorders among adolescents in Kenya, Indonesia, and Vietnam. This paper details the NAMHS study protoc...
Article
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Objectives: People with mental illness may be vulnerable to psychological distress and reduced well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess psychosocial and lifestyle predictors of distress and well-being in people with mental illness during the pandemic. Method: People with mental illness who participated in an e...
Article
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Background: Cognitive impairment is prevalent and often highly burdensome in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate if mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp extract may be an effective intervention to improve cognitive performance in this population. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a larger randomiz...
Article
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Objectives Prescribing antipsychotic medications to children and adolescents with severe mental and developmental disorders is common; however, there is a lack of consensus on appropriate metabolic monitoring for this population. This review systematically evaluates studies examining metabolic monitoring of children and adolescents prescribed antip...
Article
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Introduction Child maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and exposure to domestic violence) is widely understood to be associated with multiple mental health disorders, physical health problems and health risk behaviours throughout life. However, Australia lacks fundamental evidence about the prevalence and characteri...
Article
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Objective Differences between adolescent self-reported and parent-reported emotional and behavioural difficulties may influence psychiatric epidemiological research. This study examined concordance between adolescents and their parents about mental health symptoms using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Methods The study comprised a ra...
Article
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Climate change is negatively impacting the mental health of populations. This scoping review aims to assess the available literature related to climate change and mental health across the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) five global research priorities for protecting human health from climate change. We conducted a scoping review to identify origi...
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Purpose Studies have reported children born by caesarean section are more likely to have lower cognitive outcomes compared to those born by vaginal delivery. This paper reviews the literature examining caesarean birth and offspring cognitive outcomes. Methods A systematic search for observational studies or case–control studies that compared cogni...
Article
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The ‘16Up’ study conducted at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute from January 2014 to December 2018 aimed to examine the physical and mental health of young Australian twins aged 16−18 years ( N = 876; 371 twin pairs and 18 triplet sets). Measurements included online questionnaires covering physical and mental health as well as informati...
Article
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Objectives People with mental illness may be vulnerable to decline in mental health and reduced physical activity because of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions. The aim of this study was to inform the design of physical activity interventions for implementation under these conditions to improve/maintain well-being and physical activi...
Article
Objectives Garcinia mangostana Linn. (“mangosteen”) pericarp contains bioactive compounds that may target biological pathways implicated in schizophrenia. We conducted a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive mangosteen pericarp, compared to placebo, in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods People...
Article
Full-text available
Importance There is evidence that sodium benzoate (BZ) may be an effective adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia. The clinical efficacy of BZ has been investigated in chronic schizophrenia; however, the efficacy of this agent has not been studied in individuals with early psychosis. Objective To examine the clinical efficacy of the adjunctive use...
Article
Background There is little known about how two sources of child maltreatment reports correspond, specifically for emotional, physical, sexual abuse and emotional or physical neglect. Objective To compare agency and self-reports of child maltreatment and determine whether they are predicted by similar early life course adverse experiences. Particip...
Article
Background Persistent psychotic experiences (PEs) may increase risk for mental disorders, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and suicide attempts, relative to PEs that are more transient and remitting in nature. Most investigations of PE persistence have incorporated only two waves of data, and have not investigated the persistence of different PE su...
Article
Objective: To discuss challenges with the diagnosis of autoimmune psychosis (AP) in people with chronic psychotic disorders. Method: We present a case of a 23-year-old man with an exacerbation of treatment-refractory psychosis after receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for suspected AP, diagnosed 4 years after the onset of psychosis. We h...
Article
Objective To determine the financial and non-financial costs of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan. Method The population costs of ADHD in Australia were estimated for the financial year 2018 to 2019 using a prevalence approach to cost estimation across all ages. Financial (healthcare, productivity, education and j...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that offspring of mothers who have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study aims to examine the association between maternal HDP and emotional- and behavioural problems in offspring at age 11 years as reported by teachers and parents. The current study is based on the A...
Article
Purpose: This study examined the effect of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (HDP) on trajectories of emotional and behavioural problems in offspring. Methods: We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a prospective birth cohort study in Avon, United Kingdom. A group-based trajectory modelling was used...
Article
Objective: The authors examined patients' perceptions of the factors affecting their recovery from anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, which is a rare, severe immune-mediated neurological disorder. Methods: Seven patients completed semistructured interviews exploring their experience of recovery. Participants were inter...
Article
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Purpose Research has produced inconsistent results with respect to whether the association between psychotic experiences and suicidal behavior is independent of co-occurring clinical and socioenvironmental factors, despite substantial evidence linking the two phenomena. This study tests whether a comprehensive set of demographic, socioenvironmental...
Article
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Objective: This paper provides the rationale for the development of sub-specialty training in youth psychiatry. Method: Training needs for youth psychiatry are discussed and the opportunities provided by sub-specialisation in youth psychiatry are presented. Results: The majority of mental disorders have their onset prior to 25 years. There has been...
Article
Objectives There is little known about whether exposure to family poverty at specific periods of the early life course independently contributes to coronary heart disease risk beyond the contribution of concurrent poverty. Methods Children were recruited in early pregnancy and additional survey data obtained during the pregnancy and at the 5-, 14-...
Preprint
Training needs for Youth Psychiatry are discussed and the opportunities provided by sub-specialisation in youth psychiatry presented.
Article
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Background Deficits in social cognition are common in people with schizophrenia and are associated with impaired functioning. Finding effective interventions to address these deficits is a priority. Social Cognition Interaction Training (SCIT) is a psychosocial intervention that has demonstrated acceptability and feasibility in various health care...