James Cobb Scott

James Cobb Scott
University of Pennsylvania | UP · Department of Psychiatry

About

110
Publications
13,953
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,653
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2012 - June 2013
Yale University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is prevalent among children and adolescents in Botswana, but standardized neurocognitive testing is limited. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB) attempts to streamline evaluation of neurocognitive functioning and has been culturally adapted for use among youth in this high-burden, low-...
Article
Full-text available
Children living with HIV (HIV+) experience increased risk of neurocognitive deficits, but standardized cognitive testing is limited in low-resource, high-prevalence settings. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB) was adapted for use in Botswana. This study evaluated the criterion validity of a locally adapted version of the PennCNB...
Article
Background Validated screening tools are needed to detect subtle cognitive impairment in individuals at-risk for developing psychosis. Here, the utility of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) were evaluated for detecting cognitive impairment in individuals with psychosis spectrum (PS) symptom...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroimaging is a powerful tool to investigate potential associations between chronic pain and brain structure. However, the proliferation of studies across diverse chronic pain syndromes and heterogeneous results challenges data integration and interpretation. We conducted a preregistered anatomic likelihood estimate meta-analysis on structural ma...
Article
Full-text available
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and in utero exposure increase the risk of neurocognitive deficits, but comprehensive neurocognitive screening is unavailable in settings with high HIV prevalence (e.g., Sub-Saharan Africa). The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB) was culturally adapted and translated for use among childre...
Article
Objective: Comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) is common, and both are associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, few studies examine the impact of cognitive deficits on treatment outcomes. Here, we leverage data from a randomized clinical trial of integrated versus phased psychotherapy f...
Article
Children born to mothers infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy experience increased risk of neurocognitive impairment. In Botswana, HIV infection is common among youth, but standardized cognitive screening is limited. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (PennCNB), a tool that streamlines evaluation of neuroc...
Article
Fluctuations of endogenous estrogen modulates fear extinction, but the influence of exogenous estradiol is less studied. Moreover, little focus has been placed on the impact of estradiol on broad network connectivity beyond the fear extinction circuit. Here, we examined the effect of acute exogenous estradiol administration on fear extinction-induc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Low socioeconomic status has been shown to have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, including working memory (WM). As executive systems that support WM undergo functional neurodevelopment during adolescence, environmental stressors at both the individual and community levels may have a particularly strong impact on cognitive outcomes. Her...
Article
Objective: Large-scale studies have revolutionized biomedical research, and neurocognitive tests can help elucidate the biological basis of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, studies have predominantly been conducted in Western settings. We describe the development and validation of a computerized battery (PennCNB) with the Xhosa population of So...
Preprint
Objective: Data from neurocognitive assessments may not be accurate in the context of factors impacting validity, such as disengagement, unmotivated responding, or intentional underperformance. Performance validity tests (PVTs) were developed to address these phenomena and assess underperformance on neurocognitive tests. However, PVTs can be burden...
Article
Full-text available
Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating, and costly psychiatric disorder. Evidenced-based psychotherapies, including Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), are effective in treating PTSD, although a fair proportion of individuals show limited benefit from such treatments. CPT requires cognitive demands such as enc...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Functional neuroimaging is a valuable tool for understanding how patients with chronic pain respond to painful stimuli. However, past studies have reported heterogenous results, highlighting opportunities for a quantitative meta-analysis to integrate existing data and delineate consistent associations across studies. Objective To identi...
Article
Introduction There is an obvious need for efficient measurement of neuropsychiatric phenomena. A proven method—computerized adaptive testing (CAT)—is not feasible for all tests, necessitating alternatives for increasing test efficiency. Methods We combined/compared two methods for abbreviating rapid tests using two tests unamenable to CAT (a Conti...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding biological mechanisms underlying traumatic stress resilience is critical and can advance preventive psychiatry. Brain phenotypes of stress resilience have been investigated in animals, but such data in humans is scarce. Here we characterize cross-sectional brain correlates of traumatic stress resilience and susceptibility to mood and...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Neurodevelopmental delays and cognitive impairments are common in youth living with HIV. Unfortunately, in resource-limited settings, where HIV infection impacts millions of children, cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders commonly go undetected because of a lack of appropriate assessment instruments and local expertise. Here, we p...
Article
Glutamate (Glu) is a key molecule in cellular metabolism, the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and the principal neurotransmitter of cortical efferents. Glutamate dysfunction, on the other hand, is common in neurodegenerative disorders, and likely contributes to age-related declines in behavioral and cognitive functioning. No...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) have been demonstrated in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, such reports have primarily focused on adult participants, whereas findings in adolescents with PTSD are mixed and not entirely consistent with the adult literature. Here, we examined rsFC in a non-treatment seeking a...
Article
Characterizing a reliable, pain-related neural signature is critical for translational applications. Many prior fMRI studies have examined acute nociceptive pain-related brain activation in healthy participants. However, synthesizing these data to identify convergent patterns of activation can be challenging due to the heterogeneity of experimental...
Article
Full-text available
Disparate diagnostic categories from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), including generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, share common behavioral and phenomenological dysfunctions. While high levels of comorbidity and common features across these disorders suggest sha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Characterizing a reliable, pain-related neural signature is critical for translational applications. Many prior fMRI studies have examined acute pain-related brain activation in healthy participants. However, synthesizing these data to identify convergent patterns of activation can be challenging due to the heterogeneity of experimental designs and...
Article
Importance Low socioeconomic status (L-SES) and the experience of traumatic stressful events (TSEs) are environmental factors implicated in behavioral deficits, abnormalities in brain development, and accelerated maturation. However, the relative contribution of these environmental factors is understudied. Objective To compare the association of L...
Article
Full-text available
Frequent cannabis use during adolescence has been associated with alterations in brain structure. However, studies have featured relatively inconsistent results, predominantly from small samples, and few studies have examined less frequent users to shed light on potential brain structure differences across levels of cannabis use. In this study, hig...
Preprint
Full-text available
Frequent cannabis use during adolescence has been associated with alterations in brain structure. However, studies have featured relatively inconsistent results, predominantly from small samples, and few studies have examined less frequent users to shed light on potential brain structure differences across levels of cannabis use. In this study, hig...
Article
Full-text available
Here we present functional neuroimaging-based network data (focused on the default mode network) collected from a cohort of US Veterans with history of combat exposure, combined with clinical assessments for PTSD and other psychiatric comorbidities. The data has been processed and analyzed using several network construction methods (signed, thresho...
Article
Purpose of the study: Prior studies showed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related alterations in white matter integrity, but most of these studies have used region-based approaches. We address this limitation by investigating the relationship between PTSD severity and fractional anisotropy (FA) using a tract-based approach. Procedures: Str...
Poster
Full-text available
Manuscript Now Published at Molecular Neuropsychiatry. CITATION: Averill CL, Averill LA, Wrocklage KM, Scott JC, Akiki TJ, Schweinsburg B, Southwick SM, Krystal JH, Abdallah CG. Altered white matter diffusivity of the cingulum angular bundle in posttraumatic stress disorder. Mol Neuropsychiatry 2018;4:75–82. https://doi.org/10.1159/000490464
Article
Full-text available
Disruption in the default mode network (DMN) has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, studies have largely been limited to seed-based methods and involved inconsistent definitions of the DMN. Recent advances in neuroimaging and graph theory now permit the systematic explora...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Recurrent nightmares and disrupted rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are both core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the latter showing association with increased irritability and agitation. Less is known, however, about the relation of nightmares per se to emotional impairment. The present study assessed the role of night...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (emotional, physical and sexual abuse; emotional and physical neglect) have been associated with the development of mental illness, substance abuse and premature mortality. Several studies suggest a link between childhood adversity, sleep disturbances and neurocognitive function in adulthood. This study ex...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Neurobehavioral symptoms and deficits are common sequelae following traumatic brain injury (TBI), as is disturbed sleep. TBI has become the ‘signature wound’ of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)). One possibility is that the neuropsychological deficits in patients...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Substantial shifts in perception and policy regarding cannabis have recently occurred, with use of cannabis increasing while its perceived harm decreases. One possible risk of increased cannabis use is poorer cognitive functioning, especially in youth. Objective To provide the first quantitative synthesis of the literature examining can...
Article
Background Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample. Methods The Philadelphia Neurod...
Poster
Full-text available
The Methodological Question: Can fMRI-derived restricted-network biomarkers serve as robust marker of PTSD symptomatology? Can these network-analyses identify abnormalities that can potentially be targeted using circuit-based therapeutics?
Article
Full-text available
Background Two decades of human neuroimaging research have associated volume reductions in the hippocampus with posttraumatic stress disorder. However, little is known about the distribution of volume loss across hippocampal subfields. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made it possible to accurately delineate 10 gray matter hippocampal s...
Data
This manuscript (https://goo.gl/ea9UU9) includes an animated 3D video that was created (in Blender) using meshes from one of the combat control (non-PTSD) participants described in the manuscript. It demonstrates the gray matter subfields of the hippocampus, walking through each one to better visualize the more hidden areas. This video is an excell...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract Background The hippocampus and amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While numerous structural neuroimaging studies examined these two structures in PTSD, these analyses have largely been limited to volumetric measures. Recent advances in vertex-based neuroimaging methods h...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Two decades of human neuroimaging research have associated volume reductions in the hippocampus with posttraumatic stress disorder. However, little is known about the distribution of volume loss across hippocampal subfields. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have made it possible to accurately delineate 10 gray matter hip...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The hippocampus and amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While numerous structural neuroimaging studies examined these two structures in PTSD, these analyses have largely been limited to volumetric measures. Recent advances in vertex-based neuroimaging methods have mad...
Article
Objective: The prevalence of older adults living with HIV is rising, as is their risk for everyday functioning problems associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Multitasking, the ability to maintain and carry out subgoals in support of a larger goal, is a multidimensional skill ubiquitous during most real-life tasks and associated with prefront...
Article
Cannabis use in youth is rising and has been linked to deficits in cognitive functioning. However, cognitive findings have primarily been based on small samples of users seeking treatment, and few studies have evaluated cognition in occasional cannabis users. Here, we examined 4,568 adolescents and young adults (ages 14–21 years) drawn from the Phi...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the extent of cortical thinning in U.S. Veterans exposed to combat who varied in the severity of their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. In addition, we explored the neural correlates of PTSD symptom dimensions and the interactive effects of combat exposure and PTSD upon cortical thickness. Sixty-nine combat exposed Vet...
Article
Purpose: To examine how cannabis use and polysubstance use among cannabis users relate to psychosis spectrum (PS) symptoms in a large community-based sample of U.S. youth. Methods: Four thousand one hundred seventy-one youths (aged 14-21 years; mean = 16.90 years, SD = 1.85; 55% female) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort completed a...
Article
Full-text available
The anterior hippocampus (aHPC) has a central role in the regulation of anxiety-related behavior, stress response, emotional memory and fear. However, little is known about the presence and extent of aHPC abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we used a multimodal approach, along with graph-based measures of global br...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive deficits in attention, executive control, and memory, although few studies have investigated the relevance of cognitive difficulties for treatment outcomes. We examined whether cognitive functioning and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were associated with response to cognitiv...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial validity of using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to assess daily functioning and other behavioral factors among older HIV+ adults. Methods: Twenty older HIV+ adults (mean age: 59 years) completed laboratory-based neurobehavioral and functio...
Article
Inclusion of collateral informant reports is common in adolescent psychopathology research and clinical assessment, yet few studies have examined agreement on ratings of adolescent substance use or factors that may be associated with reporter agreement. The present study aimed to extend prior work on the correspondence between adolescent and inform...
Article
Objectives: Neuropsychological studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have revealed deficits in attention/working memory, processing speed, executive functioning, and retrospective memory. However, little is known about prospective memory (PM) in PTSD, a clinically relevant aspect of episodic memory that supports the encoding and retrieva...
Article
Background: Adolescence is a critical period for emotional maturation and is a time when clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression increase, particularly in females. However, few studies relate developmental differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression to brain development. Cerebral blood flow is one brain phenotype that is kn...
Article
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mild TBIs) resulting from exposure to Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are highly prevalent among veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This exploratory study compared the neurocognitive performance of blast-exposed veterans with (n = 19) and without (n = 15) reported symptoms of mild TBI. All subjects had...
Article
Objectives: Numerous studies have shown that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) display reduced performances on neuropsychological tests, although most prior research has not adequately accounted for comorbidities or performance validity concerns that are common in this population and could partially account for the observed neu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Substance use disorders are highly comorbid with and contribute to the increased prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction observed in HIV infection. Despite their adverse impact on everyday functioning, there are currently no compensatory-based neurorehabilitation interventions validated for use among HIV+ substance users (HIV/SUD). Thi...