James D. Schiffbauer

James D. Schiffbauer
University of Missouri | Mizzou · Department of Geological Sciences

PhD, Virginia Tech

About

189
Publications
41,443
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,130
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - September 2018
University of Missouri
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2012 - present
University of Missouri
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
June 2011 - July 2012
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (189)
Presentation
The Spence Shale Member of the Langston Formation in northern Utah and southern Idaho preserves non-biomineralized fossil assemblages referred to as the Spence Shale Lagerstätte. The biota of this Lagerstätte is dominated by panarthropods, both biomineralized and soft-bodied, but also preserves diverse infaunal organisms including species of scalid...
Article
The fossil record spanning the latest Ediacaran and earliest Cambrian is characterized by the proliferation of small, mineralized organisms that comprise the well-known and abundant deposits of small shelly fauna. Many of these fossils are tubular or conical forms with simple morphologies, and thus present difficulties in both taxonomic and phyloge...
Article
Full-text available
Much of our understanding of the history of life on Earth comes from fossil sites with exceptional preservation. Here, we use microscopy and chemical analysis of spiders found in the Oligocene Aix-en-Provence Formation, France, to unravel the taphonomic pathway responsible for the preservation of these arachnids. Microscopy revealed the presence of...
Article
Full-text available
The rise of eukaryotic macroalgae in the late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic was a critical development in Earth’s history that triggered dramatic changes in biogeochemical cycles and benthic habitats, ultimately resulting in ecosystems habitable to animals. However, evidence of the diversification and expansion of macroalgae is limited by...
Article
The Spence Shale Lagerstätte is a middle Cambrian (Miaolingian Series; Wuliuan Stage) fossil deposit in northern Utah and southern Idaho, USA. At present, it is known to preserve 89 species, from at least 10 phyla, of biomineralizing and soft-bodied taxa, and represents the only major Lagerstätte of Wuliuan age in Laurentia outside the Canadian Roc...
Chapter
Full-text available
The fossil record of parasites is limited thus far. A survey of the fossil record shows that some modes of preservation show a higher potential for the preservation of parasitic remains or parasite–host associations than generally recognized. A better understanding of the taphonomy of parasites is critical to better predict their preservation poten...
Article
Full-text available
Konservat-Lagerstätten—deposits with exceptionally preserved fossils—vary in abundance across geographic and stratigraphic space due to paleoenvironmental heterogeneity. While oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) may have promoted preservation of marine lagerstätten, the environmental controls on their taphonomy remain unclear. Here, we provide new data on...
Article
Machaeridians are a unique group of Palaeozoic annelids that secreted a calcitic armour consisting of dorsally interlocking sclerites running along the entire length of the animal. Preserved remains are most commonly found as disarticulated sclerites, although rare articulated specimens have also been preserved as moulds, recrystallized calcite and...
Poster
Recent discussions on the role of biases in the study of the fossil record, including the unequal presence of taxa in collections, dissimilarities in curation, and preferences in sample publication (e.g., Whitaker and Kimmig, 2020 Paleontologica Electronica), reveal the need for a quantitative investigation into their causes and consequences. Here...
Presentation
The middle Cambrian (Miaolingian Series, Wuliuan Stage) Spence Shale Member of the Langston Formation in northeastern Utah and southeastern Idaho is a relatively well-known Burgess Shale-type deposit. In addition to its abundant biomineralized fauna, the soft-bodied biota preserved in the Spence is diverse, including various arthropods, priapulids,...
Article
Full-text available
The middle Marjum Formation is one of five Miaolingian Burgess Shale-type deposits in Utah, USA. It preserves a diverse non-biomineralized fossil assemblage, which is dominated by panarthropods and sponges. Infaunal components are particularly rare, and are best exemplified by the poorly diverse scalidophoran fauna and the uncertain presence of pal...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory-based decay experiments have become commonly used to supplement our understanding of how organisms enter the fossil record. Differences in how these experiments are designed and evaluated, however, including dissimilarities in qualitative decay-scoring indices superimposed on variability in model organisms, renders any semblance of compa...
Article
Full-text available
Achieving accurate chronostratigraphical correlation between late Cambrian sections in North China and sections from elsewhere in the world has been a long‐standing problem, largely owing to a lack of preserved or identified biostratigraphical marker fauna. Here, we examine trilobite occurrences, the sequence of facies and lithological change, and...
Article
A relatively uncommon arthropod of the Waukesha lagerstätte, Parioscorpio venator, is redescribed as an arthropod bearing a combination of characters that defy ready classification. Diagnostic features include sub‐chelate ‘great appendages’, a lack of antennae, multiramous anterior trunk appendages, filamentous fan‐like rear trunk appendages, and a...
Article
Full-text available
Molecular phylogenetic data suggest that photosynthetic eukaryotes first evolved in freshwater environments in the early Proterozoic and diversified into marine environments by the Tonian Period, but early algal evolution is poorly reflected in the fossil record. Here, we report newly discovered, millimeter- to centimeter-scale macrofossils from ou...
Article
The Steptoean Positive Isotopic Carbon Excursion (SPICE) is a prominent chemostratigraphic feature in the Lower Paleozoic. It has been used to correlate Upper Cambrian carbonate strata globally, and is cited as intimately linked to the Crepicephalus-Aphelaspis trilobite extinction event and the Sauk II-Sauk III megasequence transition. Despite the...
Presentation
The middle Marjum Formation is one of five Miaolingian Burgess Shale-type deposits in Utah. It preserves a diverse non-biomineralized fossil assemblage, which is dominated by panarthropods and sponges. Infaunal components are particularly rare, which is best exemplified by the poorly diverse scalidophoran fauna, and the uncertain presence of palaeo...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Spence Shale Lagerstätte is a key Cambrian (Wuliuan) fossil deposit in northern Utah and southern Idaho, USA. It preserves over 74 genera, in at least 10 phyla, of biomineralizing and soft-bodied taxa, and represents the only major Lagerstätte of Wuliuan age outside of the Burgess Shale in Laurentia. In addition to taxonomic diversity, the Spen...
Article
Full-text available
The Ediacaran–Cambrian transition marks one of the most important geobiological revolutions in Earth History, including multiple waves of evolutionary radiation and successive episodes of apparent mass extinction. Among the proposed drivers of these events (in particular the extinction of the latest Neoproterozoic ‘Ediacara biota’) is the emergence...
Article
Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits of the Viburnum Trend are typically lead-dominant and occur in the upper portion of the Cambrian Bonneterre Dolomite. Unusual zinc- and copper-rich ores, with notable enrichments in Ni, Co, and Ag, have been discovered within the lower Bonneterre Dolomite, >30 m below the district’s main ore-bearing horizon. T...
Article
Full-text available
The middle Cambrian (Miaolingian Series; Wuliuan Stage) Spence Shale of Utah and Idaho preserves a diverse assemblage of biomineralized and soft-bodied taxa. Among the rarest specimens of this fauna are palaeoscolecid worms. Until recently, only one specimen was known from the Spence Shale, the holotype specimen of Palaeoscolex ratcliffei Robison,...
Article
Full-text available
Cloudinids have long been considered the earliest biomineralizing metazoans, but their affinities have remained contentious and undetermined. Based on well-preserved ultrastructures of two taxa, we here propose new interpretations regarding both their extent of original biomineralization and their phylogenetic affinity. One of these taxa is a new c...
Article
Full-text available
The fossil record of the terminal Ediacaran Period is typified by the iconic index fossil Cloudina and its relatives. These tube-dwellers are presumed to be primitive metazoans, but resolving their phylogenetic identity has remained a point of contention. The root of the problem is a lack of diagnostic features; that is, phylogenetic interpretation...
Article
Konservat-Lagerstätten provide the most complete snapshots of ancient organisms and communities in the fossil record. In the Mesozoic, these deposits are rarely found in marine facies outside Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) intervals, suggesting that OAEs set the stage for exceptional fossil preservation. Although anoxia does not guarantee survival of n...
Research
Full-text available
The Silurian (late Telychian) Brandon Bridge Formation, Wisconsin USA hosts a diverse biota including arthropods, annelids, graptolites, brachiopods, corals, sponges, and algae, some of which exhibit exceptional soft-bodied preservation. Whilst many of the rarer, enigmatic constituents of the Waukesha Konservat-Lagerstätten have received taxonomic...
Article
Formation of low density graphite phase during solidification increases the volume of semi-solid cast iron with spheroidal graphite (SGI) and resulted pressure could help eliminate shrinkage micro-porosity in casting. Therefore, micro-porosity in casting can be linked to 3D graphite nodule structure. Two experimental SGI's with different levels of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The terminal Ediacaran Period witnessed the first appearance of macroscopic organisms including the earliest biomineralizing animals in Earth history (Narbonne et al., 2012; Xiao et al., 2016). However, the biogeochemical context for this evolutionary milestone remains uncertain due to the absence of radiometric constraints for key events recorded...
Presentation
The middle Cambrian (Miaolingian; Wuliuan) Spence Shale member of the Langston Formation of Utah and Idaho preserves a diverse assemblage of biomineralized and soft-bodied taxa. Among the rarest specimens of this fauna are palaeoscolecid worms. Until recently, only one specimen was known from the Spence Shale, the holotype specimen of Paleoscolex r...
Article
Full-text available
Marine evaporitic sulfates (gypsum and anhydrite) can record ancient seawater sulfur isotopic data; however, these records are scarce and widely dispersed owing to both restricted environments in which they form and their propensity to be eroded. The late Neoproterozoic–early Cambrian transition was a pivotal timeframe in Earth’s history, witnessin...
Article
Owing to their temporal position during the decline of the classic Ediacara biota and the appearance of the more recognizable metazoans of the Cambrian Period, the terminal Ediacaran (∼551–539 Ma) assemblages of tubular fossil forms hold potential to improve understanding of biotic turnover near the end of the Ediacaran Period. Cloudinid taxa, incl...
Article
The quality of spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGI) castings is directly related to the morphology of graphite nodules. Therefore, accurate and comprehensive quantitative evaluation of microstructure is critical for industrial practices. The most influential morphological characteristics of the graphite phase in SGI can be divided into three categor...
Article
Full-text available
Rocks of Ediacaran age (~635–541 Ma) contain the oldest fossils of large, complex organisms and their behaviors. These fossils document developmental and ecological innovations, and suggest that extinctions helped to shape the trajectory of early animal evolution. Conventional methods divide Ediacaran macrofossil localities into taxonomically disti...
Conference Paper
Resolving how the taphonomic peculiarities of soft-bodied konservat lagerstätten relate taxa and histology to preservation quality and pathways is critical to establishing coherent histories of clades and ecosystems. This study addresses this challenge by characterizing the preservation of arthropods from the Waukesha and Winneshiek biotas using li...