James P. Sampson

James P. Sampson
Florida State University | FSU · Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems

Ph.D.
Senior Research Associate, Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development

About

150
Publications
40,255
Reads
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3,304
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
1086 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Introduction

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
The COVID‐19 pandemic has had a world‐wide impact on all areas of individuals’ health, including physical, psychological, financial, familial, social, and vocational. In the United States, the unemployment rate rose from 3.5% (5.8 million) to 13.3% (21 million) in May 2020 before dropping to 7.9% in October 2020. Cognitive information processing (C...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety and depression have increased exponentially and can be exacerbated by the ongoing individual and combined effects of the pandemic, ongoing unemployment, and systemic racism. Across the globe, career counsellors see the impact of these mental health concerns on individuals as they engage in career-decision making and problem-solving. Cogniti...
Article
As a result of globalisation, automation and digitalisation, workers including those who are highly skilled, are facing worsening employment vulnerability and workforce disengagement. In this paper, we examine the career decision readiness of the unemployed and discouraged based on a nationally representative sample of 1621 highly skilled workers i...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the role of counselors and other practitioners in delivering career interventions using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Current benefits and limitations of ICT use provide the basis for recommendations. Potential benefits of increased ICT engagement include cost-effectiveness and improved access to resources and support....
Article
Full-text available
This article reports the findings from a phenomenographic investigation into career development experts’ conceptions of challenges involved in the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in career services. The results show that these challenges varied from (1) inadequate access to ICT, (2) inadequate access to informatio...
Article
Mindfulness has been a focus of psychological research and practice in recent decades. Yet, there is limited research on the relationship between mindfulness and vocational decision‐making. This study’s purpose was to examine the role of mindfulness in a career context by investigating the relationships among mindfulness, decision‐making style, neg...
Article
While public employment service delivery in many developed countries today is rendered in a differentiated, needs- or profile-based approach, it remains entrenched in a traditional one-size-fits-all, first-come-first-served approach in most developing countries. The right servicing model offers a system of continuous assessment and determination of...
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The authors examined the relationships between career and cultural characteristics among 53 international and 54 domestic students at a large university in the southeastern United States. One‐way multivariate analysis of variance results showed an overall significant difference between groups for mainstream acculturation, but not for vocational ide...
Article
The college experience for many students is marked by challenges and concerns surrounding educational and career choices. These challenges and concerns may be reflected in a student’s career decision state, or the extent that one is certain, satisfied, and clear about one’s career goals. This study examines students’ career decision states at the b...
Chapter
Full-text available
Available from http://fsu.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fsu%3A756480
Article
The use of social media expands the availability and sources of career information. However, the authorship of this information has changed from traditional print media and multimedia sources created by experts to social media–based career information created by the users themselves. Although variability in career information validity has been an i...
Book
Full-text available
Full text available: http://purl.flvc.org/fsu/fd/FSU_libsubv1_scholarship_submission_1520351654_892ca838 Foreword his book is the result of the efforts related to a very successful 12th Society for Vocational Psychology Biennial Conference in Tallahassee, FL at Florida State University. Drs. Janet Lenz, Casey Dozier, Debra Osborn, Gary Peterson,...
Chapter
Full-text available
Conclusion chapters in edited books are often written to provide the editors with an opportunity to offer their perspectives on the chapter authors’ various contributions. is concluding chapter takes a different approach. Based on the method used in the 2013 review of career development theory, research, and practice literature (Sampson et al., 201...
Article
Full-text available
Brief staff-assisted career counseling services based on cognitive information processing theory were evaluated using 138 drop-in clients who completed pre- and postintervention self-report measures of knowledge about next steps, confidence in making next steps, and anxiety about career concerns. Significant changes occurred in each dimension and w...
Article
This study explored similarities and differences of negative career thoughts in a sample of 1,562 Americans and 3,811 South Koreans by analyzing mean scores, item endorsement rates, and factor structures of the career thoughts inventory (CTI). A comparison of mean scores of the CTI scales showed that Koreans scored significantly higher on all scale...
Article
This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into career practitioners’ ways of experiencing social media in career services. Focus-group interviews were conducted with 16 Danish and Finnish career practitioners with experience using social media in career services. Four qualitatively different ways of experiencing social med...
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Full-text available
This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into career practitioners' understanding of competency for social media in career services. Sixteen Danish and Finnish practitioners with experience using social media in career services were interviewed in focus groups. Competency for social media in career services was conceived...
Article
Approximately 10% of college students participate in Greek-letter social organizations (fraternities and sororities), yet minimal research has been conducted on the career development of students in these groups. The purpose of this study was to examine Greek-life membership and students' vocational identity, career decision-making self-efficacy, a...
Article
INTRODUCTION Qualitative and quantitative career assessment are based on differing philosophies of science, with qualitative assessment based on postmodern assumptions and quantitative assessment based on modern assumptions. Taken literally, the philosophical assumptions of both approaches are incompatible; if career practitioners accept the assump...
Article
This annual review of the career counseling and development literature presents a content analysis of refereed journal articles published in 2013. Four research questions guided the analysis: (a) What content topics were included in career development articles published in refereed journals in 2013? (b) To what extent are theory, research, and prac...
Article
Full-text available
College students (N = 125) volunteered to participate in a study of career exploratory behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to complete the Self-Directed Search Form R (SDS: R) Internet version or to a control group that did not complete the SDS. Results indicated that individuals who completed the SDS: R Internet and reviewed the Interpre...
Article
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For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career professi...
Article
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This article reports the outcomes of a study, undertaken from a phenomenographic perspective, of career practitioners' conceptions of social media usage in career services. Fifteen Finnish career practitioners - representing comprehensive, secondary and higher education as well as public employment services - were interviewed in focus groups. The a...
Article
This article identifies and briefly describes the broad range of variables that may influence clients’ readiness to benefit from career interventions. The article also discusses consequences of low readiness for effective use of career interventions and addresses implications for practice as well as for future research. Variables contributing to lo...
Article
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The increasing use of technology is placing new demands on career guidance practitioners. This article examines what changes, if any, have occurred in the perceptions of guidance practitioners regarding their role and the role of the internet in meeting guidance goals and delivering career guidance services. The data were collected in focus groups...
Article
This article draws upon the authors’ experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is the...
Article
An important aspect of social justice involves ensuring that effective career guidance is readily accessible to all citizens. The career theory used to guide the delivery of career services can contribute to or detract from social justice. This article examines the translation of career theory to practice, the effectiveness of career interventions,...
Article
Full-text available
The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in career guidance is an important element in the provision of career resources and services offered face-to-face or at a distance (Harris-Bowlsbey & Sampson, 2005; Offer & Chiru, 2005; Offer, Sampson, & Watts, 2001; Sampson, 2008; Vuorinen, 2006). The professional literature on the design a...
Article
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This paper is intended to help faculty review committees, department chairs, and university administrators make effective use of personal statements that faculty members include in annual evaluations, third-year reviews, and promotion and tenure reviews. Personal statements can benefit the faculty who create the statements as well as faculty and ad...
Article
Postmodern approaches to career counseling are becoming increasingly popular. Part of the impetus for the postmodern view has involved perceived problems in the assumptions and application of the modern approach. Two points of view have emerged: (a) the modern and postmodern approaches are incompatible, and the postmodern approach is superior to th...
Article
Students (N = 247) responded to Self-Directed Search (SDS) per the standard response format and were also instructed to record a question mark (?) for items about which they were uncertain (item response indecision [IRI]). The initial responses of the 114 participants with a (?) were then reversed and a second SDS summary code was obtained and comp...
Article
This book begins with an explanation of the nature and characteristics of successful dissertation research. An approach to organizing the dissertation concept paper, the dissertation prospectus, the dissertation, and the dissertation manuscript is then described. The specific elements of the dissertation are described in detail. The book continues...
Article
The authors review the trends in the use of computers in the delivery and support of career guidance and counseling identified at the symposium International Perspectives on Career Development. The papers presented emphasized that 20th-century computer-based systems continue to be used, mainly delivered via the World Wide Web. These systems are enh...
Article
The present study examined the relationships between two measures of career readiness and difficulties—the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) and the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)—as well as the relations between these measures and the individual’s degree of decidedness regarding his or her career plans. A total of 192 unive...
Article
Discusses the special issue on the use of technology in the assessment of education. Two forces important to assessment have been converging to create a significant revolution in education. The first is high-stakes testing and the accompanying reform movement, and the second is the continually increased presence and capability of information and co...
Article
The authors examined the extent to which the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional scales and 3-point codes of the Self-Directed Search may be considered statistically and practically equivalent across 3 different modes of administration: paper-and-pencil, personal computer, and Internet. Student preferences for...
Article
A process evaluation of a three-credit, upper division career course at a southeastern university is described. Student responses to a standardized course rating instrument were analyzed. Anonymous course evaluations of 293 students enrolled in 11 sections of the career course were compared to student ratings of one section of the course 5 years ea...
Article
The authors examined the extent to which the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional scales and 3-point codes of the Self-Directed Search may be considered statistically and practically equivalent across 3 different modes of administration: paper-and-pencil, personal computer, and Internet. Student preferences for...
Article
A process evaluation of a three-credit, upper division career course at a south-eastern university is described. Student responses to a standardized course rating instrument were analyzed. Anonymous course evaluations of 293 students enrolled in 11 sections of the career course were compared to student ratings of one section of the course 5 years e...
Article
Given the increased use of Web sites for the delivery of counseling and career services to clients, this article explores how counselors at college counseling and career centers can design Web sites that may be more effectively used by clients. A Web site design strategy that explicitly focuses on client needs (need-based design) is described that...
Article
Full-text available
Although existing literature suggests that client anticipations affect career counseling, previous studies have not systematically assessed client anticipations prior to using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems in career counseling. This study describes how 55 clients from a career center at a large, southeastern university anticipate...
Article
The use of computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) in career assessment raises numerous ethical and professional issues. For example, how do current testing standards apply to tests on the Internet? What are appropriate and inappropriate uses of CBTI in career assessment? How can CBTI be successfully integrated into the career counseling process?...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship between dysfunctional career thoughts and adjustment to disability among college students with learning disabilities. Data were obtained from 153 college students with learning disabilities at a large southern university and 595 general college students from the normative sample of the Career Thoughts Inventory...
Article
Maintaining quality and ethics in Internet-based guidance applications is the shared responsibility of funding agents, policy makers, developers, practitioners, users, and researchers and evaluators. This paper presents a series of synergistic recommendations to the above participants that are designed to improve the delivery of Internet-based guid...
Article
The authors look back more than 30 years to those who introduced the use of the computer as an important new tool to assist students in the area of career development. To what extent have dreams been realized and concerns allayed? Rapid advances in technology, not included in the authors' vision, have transformed the world into a different place. H...
Article
This article begins with a review of the use of readiness assessment measures as a strategy for improving career services. A 5-step process model for readiness assessment is then proposed and current readiness measures are identified. Although considerable research has been conducted on career decision-making readiness and numerous measures have be...
Article
This article responds to D. A. Jepsen's (2000) commentary on Sampson et al.'s theory-based approach to using readiness assessment to improve career services (J. P. Sampson, G. W. Peterson, R. C. Reardon, & J. G. Lenz, 2000). Three topics are included in this response: the reliability, validity, and utility of readiness assessment measures; verbal a...
Article
The availability of career assessment on the Internet has led to many potential benefits for the general public and for career service practitioners. However, many potential problems also exist in terms of the design and use of Internet-based resources and services. This article discusses the ethical issues which may impact the way in which individ...
Article
Full-text available
Given emerging roles, relationships, and contexts for career service delivery, we speculate that career assessment will increasingly focus on determining readiness for career problem solving and decision making. These changes will enable career shoppers (persons previewing career materials or services before committing to them) and career helpers (...
Article
This article reviews potential Internet applications in test selection, orientation, administration, scoring, and interpretation and explores inappropriate assessment use, relationship issues, ethics, credentialing, and training.
Article
This article describes an effort to apply a theoretical perspective developed in one country (the United States) to cope with increasing demand for career services and limited funding in another country (the United Kingdom) faced with similar increasing demands for cost-effective service delivery. The authors hope that the experience gained in the...
Article
Depression and dysfunctional career thinking were investigated as components of the state of career indecision. The participants were 215 undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at a large southeastern university. The Career Decision Scale was used to measure career indecision, whereas the Beck Depression Inventory and...
Article
Problems relating to standards of quality in computer-based guidance, including the Internet, are examined. Particular stress is laid on the need for integration of these resources into a supportive context, while acknowledging that this may not always mean traditional one-to-one counselling by a guidance specialist. The value of preliminary diagno...
Article
This article applies a cognitive information processing approach to career problem solving and decision making to the specific process of employment problem solving and decision making. Definitions and accompanying employment examples are followed by an exploration of the nature of employment problems. Content and process dimensions are described b...
Article
The Internet is now adding the potential for remote delivery of test administration, scoring, profiling, report writing, and multimedia functions, as well as cost-effective capability in communication and links to related information. Using the Internet to enhance test interpretation is the focus of this paper. A review of potential Internet applic...
Article
The Internet has evolved so rapidly that there is little information on integrating Internet-based distance guidance opportunities with resources and services provided by existing career centers. In this article, the author describes career centers and then explores the need for career centers in the information age, the types of Internet web sites...
Article
Full-text available
A key issue in guidance provision is how to make services flexible and responsive to client need. A model is presented which distinguishes between individuals with high, medium and low levels of readiness for career decision-making. It is suggested that those with high levels can be referred to self-help services; those with moderate readiness to b...
Article
The evolution of one-stop centers is examined in terms of the limitations of existing services and the one-stop response. Levels of support are discussed in relation to the needs of job seekers and options for matching needs with staff support (self-help, brief staff-assisted, and individual case-managed services) are reviewed. This article propose...
Article
This study sought to identify which career counseling work behaviors are unique to the specialty of career counseling and which career counseling work behaviors are an element of general counseling practice. Career counseling work behaviors related to assessment and counseling were judged to be fundamental to the general practice of counseling. Car...
Article
This article reviews the impact of dysfunctional career thinking on career choice, the use of cognitive restructuring to identify, challenge, and alter dysfunctional cognition, and the limitations of existing readiness screening and cognitive restructuring procedures. The recently developed Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI) can be used by practitione...
Article
The evolution of the Internet into the information highway offers many future possibilities and potential problems in the delivery of counseling services. Features of the current Internet are briefly reviewed, and the results of an analysis of counseling applications on the Internet are presented and discussed. Current experience with computer netw...
Article
Chronicles the genesis and evolution of career counseling as a specialty area of standards, credentials, and practice, for the purpose of identifying questions and implications for counseling in general and career counseling in particular. Discussion also focuses on commonalities of career counseling, general counseling, and other specialized forms...
Article
An organizationally based career development model posits that considering both individual and organizational perspectives is problematic and planning must take both a causal and purposive perspective. Computer-assisted career guidance can assist in developing individual action plans and provide aggregate data for organizational development. (JOW)
Article
This bibliography, along with other bibliographies developed by the Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development, is intended to assist practitioners, researchers, policy makers, and system developers in identifying and locating sources of information on the design and use of computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) syste...
Article
One hundred and twenty-six volunteer students from an introductory psychology course at a large public southeastern university were randomly assigned to one of three computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems — SIGI, SIGI PLUS, and DISCOVER. The respective systems were compared in terms of an instrument developed to measure three constructs i...
Article
Theoretical constructs serve important roles in facilitating information and knowledge flows among, between and within information systems researchers and practitioners. In order for the benefits of constructs to be fully exploited, they must be appropriately applied and operationalized. Describes a controlled field study, examining users' satisfac...
Article
Some of the causal factors that account for effective and ineffective use of computer-assisted careers guidance (CACG) systems in North America are explored. Factors that have facilitated effective CACG design and use are described, and inhibiting factors are identified. Implications for the continued design and use of CACG systems within the Europ...
Article
Assessed the effect of an aerobic running program on the psychological and physical fitness and creative abilities of 85 8th graders. Ss were randomly assigned to a treatment group, which participated in a 5-day/wk structured aerobic running program, or a control group, which participated in nonaerobic physical education. A multivariate analysis of...
Article
A variety of client characteristics, drawn primarily from John Holland's theory and constructs, were used to examine client reactions to using a computer-assisted career guidance system. The subjects were 206 individuals who sought assistance at a university-based career center. A regression analysis revealed that persons with higher Social and Ent...
Article
Examined the social influence of 2 computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems: DISCOVER and SIGI. Perceptions of expertness, attractiveness, and trustworthiness were measured by an adapted version of the Counselor Rating Form (CRF) completed by 107 college students. Ss in the DISCOVER and SIGI conditions had more positive perceptions of the a...
Article
This article describes a study conducted to identify the range of potential influences that a computer-assisted careers guidance system (PROSPECT (HE)) had on the functioning of organisations (careers services in higher education). Data from six institutions indicated that use of PROSPECT (HE) was associated with important and varied change within...
Article
This article provides counselors with concept-based materials that clients can use to understand and structure the career problem-solving and decision-making process. Clients can use this knowledge to solve immediate career problems, transfer the knowledge to future career problems, or generalize the knowledge to other types of personal, social, an...
Article
The Improved Career Decision Making program, developed by the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, is a comprehensive program to introduce counselors to the use of career information in the counseling process.
Article
While there have been recent studies comparing the effects of one CACG system to another (Brownfield, 1987; Garis & Niles, 1990; Kapes, Borman, & Frazier, 1989; Peterson, Ryan-Jones, Sampson, & Reardon, 1988), there have been no studies comparing the impact of two versions or generations of the same system. This issue is particularly important in l...
Article
Provides counselors with concept-based materials that clients can use to understand and structure career problem-solving and decision-making process. Notes that clients can use this knowledge to solve immediate career problems; transfer knowledge to future career problems; or generalize knowledge to other types of personal, social, and family probl...
Article
A limited sample of mental health center clients' responses to the paper-and-pencil and computer-assisted versions of the Personal Problem Checklist (PPC) revealed no significant differences in symptomatology scores, but has indicated differences in the number of problems reported. A validity study regarding the PPC indicated that the checklist did...
Article
Factors that contribute to the underuse of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in counseling include prior limitations in the cost-effectiveness of computing, rigid distinctions between counseling and teaching, the influence of the medical model, and the economics of software development. Options for enhancing the effective use of CAI include integ...
Article
Four factors associated with the design and use of computer-assisted careers guidance (CACG) systems in the USA are reviewed, and likely future developments in the field are described. The four major factors include trends in CACG system development, problems related to system development, trends in system use, and problems related to system use. I...
Article
This paper presents and analyzes recommendations developed by system developers, policy makers, researchers/evaluators, and practitioners for improving the design and use of computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems.
Article
The purpose of this text is to enable practitioners and future practitioners to establish career development services that will assist clients in developing their abilities to use self-knowledge and career information to solve career problems and to make decisions wisely. The text is based on cognitive information processing [CIP] theory, a compreh...
Article
Conclusion It was our hope that by making the task of examining the features and costs of CACG systems less arduous, professionals would be bettermotivated and morecapable of dealing with the complex evaluative issues that truly differentiate the effectiveness of CACG systems in specific settings. The eventual effectiveness of this feature-cost ana...

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