James C. Sample

James C. Sample
Northern Arizona University | NAU · School of Earth and Sustainability

PhD

About

59
Publications
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1,293
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Publications

Publications (59)
Poster
Full-text available
This poster illustrates the main findings from the fluid part of my thesis. The main findings from this study show the use of novel methods for understanding syn-tectonic paleo-fluid flow directions and model the evolution of paleo-fluids within the East Kaibab monocline, Utah.
Chapter
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Article
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Earthquakes occur by overcoming fault friction; therefore, quantifying fault resistance is central to earthquake physics. Values for both static and dynamic friction are required, and the latter is especially difficult to determine on natural faults. However, large earthquakes provide signals that can determine friction in situ. The Japan Trench Fa...
Article
We emphasize the importance of marine silicate weathering (MSiW) reactions in anoxic sediment as fundamental in generating alkalinity and cations needed for carbonate precipitation and preservation along continental margins. We use a model that couples thermodynamics with aqueous geochemistry to show that the CO 2 released during methanogenesis res...
Article
Information about diagenetic processes and temperatures during burial of sediments entering the subduction zone is important for understanding changes in physical properties and seismic behavior during deformation. The geochemistry of authigenic carbonates from accretionary prisms can serve as proxies for conditions during carbonate cementation and...
Article
Water properties change with confinement within nanofilms trapped between natural charged clay particles. We investigated nanofilm characteristics through high-stress laboratory compression tests in combination with analyses of expelled pore fluids. We utilized sediments obtained from deep drilling of the Nankai subduction zone at Site C0002 of the...
Article
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This case study described teachers with varying technology skills who were implementing the use of geospatial technology (GST) within project-based instruction (PBI) at varying grade levels and contexts 1 to 2 years following professional development. The sample consisted of 10 fifth- to ninth-grade teachers. Data sources included artifacts, observ...
Article
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Methane cold seep systems typically exhibit extensive buildups of authigenic carbonate minerals, resulting from local increases in alkalinity driven by methane oxidation. Here, we demonstrate that modern seep authigenic carbonates exhibit anomalously low clumped isotope values (Δ_(47)), as much as ~0.2‰ lower than expected values. In modern seeps,...
Article
We present data from sediment cores collected from IODP Site C0012 in the Shikoku Basin. Our site lies at the Nankai Trough, just prior to subduction of the 19 Ma Philippine Sea plate. Our data indicate that the sedimentary package is undergoing multiple routes of electron transport and that these differing pathways for oxidant supply generate a co...
Article
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The goal of the two Power of Data (POD) projects was to increase science, technology and math skills through the implementation of project-based learning modules that teach students how to solve problems through data collection and analysis utilizing geospatial technologies. Professional development institutes in two formats were offered to encour...
Article
We report data from drill sites C0011B and C0012A from Expedition 322 along the Nankai margin. This research is part of a larger effort designed to investigate the pre-subduction inputs of sediment and oceanic basement for the NanTroSEIZE Project. C0011B is entirely in the Shikoku Basin section on the flank of the Kashinosaki Knoll basement high, a...
Poster
Full-text available
We have provided two years of professional development for secondary and middle school teachers with a focus on project-based instruction (PBI) using GIS. The EYE-POD project (funded by NSF-ITEST) involved pairs of teachers from Arizona and the surrounding region in two-week institutes during Summer, 2010, and an advanced institute in Summer, 2011....
Article
The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled and cored from 606.5 to 760.1 m on the North Slope of Alaska, to evaluate the occurrence, distribution and formation of gas hydrate in sediments below the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Both the dissolved chloride and the isotopic composition of the water co-vary in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An aim of the NSF-ITEST funded POD project is to examine the effect that technology-integrated, problem-based learning modules have on the learning of secondary students whose teachers have participated in a curriculum implementation professional development structure. This research focuses on the professional development structure as the first ste...
Article
The Cascadia subduction zone is a site of significant gas hydrate and carbonate formation. At ODP Sites 891 and 892, which penetrated the deformed sediment of the accretionary prism to depths of 472 and 176 m, respectively, carbonate cements and veins occur throughout the section. Previous isotopic studies of the carbonates indicate that at several...
Poster
Full-text available
The EYE-POD project at Northern Arizona University is an NSF-ITEST-funded professional development program for secondary science (SS) and career technical education (CTE) teachers. The program recruited SS-CTE teacher pairs from Arizona and the surrounding region to participate in two-week workshops during Summer, 2010, and an advanced workshop ins...
Article
In situ secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of oxygen isotopes in authigenic calcite veins were obtained from an active thrust fault system drilled at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 892 (44°40.4′N, 125°07.1′W) along the Cascadia subduction margin. The average δ18OPDB value of all samples is −9.9‰ and the values are the lowest...
Data
In situ secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of oxygen isotopes in authigenic calcite veins were obtained from an active thrust fault system drilled at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 892 (44°40.4'N, 125°07.1'W) along the Cascadia subduction margin. The average d18OPDB value of all samples is -9.9 per mil and the values are the...
Article
We have used secondary ionization mass spectrometery (SIMS) analysis of carbonate cements to investigate microchemical environments in fossiliferous regions of the Paleocene-aged PTHP. The cements are part of a paragenetic sequence that is commonly recognized in paleoseep environments. The early Paleocene PTHP studied here is one of largest recogni...
Article
Isolated authigenic carbonate concretions and pavements occur locally within fine grained siliciclastic rocks of the Tertiary Great Valley Sequence of western California. Outcrops in the Panoche and Tumey Hills region are a record of prolonged expulsion of methane- and H2S- rich fluids from a relict cold seep system at the sea floor of a paleo-fore...
Article
Fluctuations in fluids compositions over varying time scales are widely recognized from modern cold seep deposits. We present results from a detailed study of carbonate mineral proxies for fluid flow from the PTHP. This cold seep deposit extends for 20 km along strike and was fed by a system of sandstone injectites during its mid- Paleocene lifespa...
Article
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One of the largest ancient cold seeps known is exposed in the Panoche Hills and adjacent Tumey Hills, in central California. In outcrop the most striking components of the Panoche-Tumey Hills paleoseep (PTHP) are authigenic carbonate bodies representing methane-derived cementation at or just below the Paleocene seafloor, and sandstone injectites th...
Article
Deformation bands occur in an outcrop of a petroleum-bearing, sandstone-rich unit of the Monterey Formation along the active Newport-Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), near Corona del Mar, California. The deformation bands likely developed in a damage zone associated with a strand of the NIFZ. The bands appear to have formed in poorly lithified sandstone...
Article
An oil-bearing sandstone unit within the Monterey Formation is exposed in the Los Angeles Basin along the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in southern California. The unit preserves structures, some original fluids, and cements that record the local history of deformation, fluid flow, and cementation. The structures include two types of deformation ban...
Article
The Panoche-Tumey Hills (PTH) paleoseep is a Paleocene seep system that extends greater than 20 km nearly continuously along strike along the western edge of the Great Valley. The seep fauna is dominated by tubeworms but includes bivalves, gastropods, and solitary corals. The entire system, including feeder sandstone intrusions, is 800 m thick. Car...
Article
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In central California, Maastrichtian–Danian shales of the Moreno Formation preserve a fluid migration system that developed along the western margin of the former Great Valley forearc basin. The system consists of a network of interconnected sandstone intrusions linked to overlying fossiliferous carbonates whose geochemistry, fauna, and petrology a...
Chapter
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The Chugach terrane largely comprises a voluminous flysch belt that extends for over 2000 km along the southern margin of Alaska. Sandstone petrography, paleocurrent patterns, lith ofacies, and Nd isotopic characteristics of the flysch belt in Kodiak and adjacent islands constrain the predominant source terrane of the Chugach flysch as a rapidly up...
Article
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Deformation bands in coarse-grained sandstones are commonly narrow zones of reduced porosity that restrict migration of fluids. Deformation bands are known from core observations and outcrop studies, but we present for the first time results from an exhumed oil reservoir. The deformation bands occur in a poorly consolidated, oil-bearing sandstone o...
Article
Fossiliferous `calcareous layers' are well known but hitherto poorly understood components of the dominantly siliceous Dos Palos Shale Member of the Moreno Fm. in the western San Joaquin Basin. Our preliminary reevaluation of macrofossils in the southern Panoche Hills suggests that the anomalous carbonates are authigenic remnants of a Paleocene flu...
Article
Modern cold-seep deposits containing carbonate structures and chemosynthetic organisms are well documented but do not expose the underlying "plumbing" systems. In the Panoche Hills, CA, outstanding exposures of an intact, Cretaceous-Tertiary cold-seep system reveal both subsurface plumbing and the surface seepage system. The Panoche Hills occur alo...
Article
A Paleocene seep system is remarkably well preserved in the Panoche Hills of central California. The seep horizons lie within a 45-m-thick interval in the Dos Palos Shale Member of the Moreno Formation, which contains chemosynthetic fauna. Extensive sandstone dikes in the underlying Cretaceous to Paleocene units presumably acted as conduits to repl...
Article
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Samples of carbonate-cemented sedimentary rocks were collected during 11 Alvin dives in two regions along the Cascadia margin, a northern strike-slip fault zone and a southern thrust-fault zone ("second ridge"). We characterized 35 samples petrographically and chemically. Northern-area samples are dominantly sandstones; second-ridge samples are all...
Article
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A comparison of pore fluids and authigenic carbonates sampled by the Ocean Drilling Program from the Nankai, Peru, Barbados, and Cascadia accretionary wedges illustrates significant disequilibria in oxygen isotopes, which in some cases may be related to rapid incursions of fluids along fault conduits in the past. The Peru, Barbados, and Cascadia ca...
Conference Paper
The Temple Avenue fault is a north-trending east-dipping normal fault that dissects the north flank of the Wilmington anticline in the Wilmington Oil field. The fault involves sediments of the Repetto Formation (lower Pliocene) and the Puente Formation (upper Miocene). Oil/water contact structural maps indicate that the fault acts as a permeability...
Article
The Temple Avenue fault is a north-trending east-dipping normal fault that dissects the north flank of the Wilmington anticline in the Wilmington Oil field. The fault involves sediments of the Repetto Formation (lower Pliocene) and the Puente Formation (upper Miocene). Oil/water contact structural maps indicate that the fault acts as a permeability...
Article
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Pervasive fluid advection is indicated in the geochemical depth profiles at four locations (five sites), two in the Vancouver Island (VI) sector and two in the Central Oregon (CO) sector of the Cascadia Convergent Margin. Diffusive fluid flow prevails at the VI Sites 888 and 889/890, whereas confined fluid flow dominates the CO Sites 891 and 892. E...
Article
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Active fluid venting and carbonate formation occur in the accretionary prism in the Cascadia subduction zone off Vancou- ver Island and Oregon. Methane-derived authigenic carbonates are precipitated in the uppermost terrigenous sediments by sub- duction-induced dewatering. They can be divided into cemented silts and sands containing less than 10% c...
Article
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The drilling during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146 at the accretionary margin complexes off Vancouver Island, Canada (VIM), and Oregon, U.S.A (COM), addressed specific geochemical relationships and phenomena associated with fluid, gas, and heat fluxes generated by the compressive forces. Of particular importance were the occurrence of hydrates and...
Article
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Bacterial depth profiles were obtained from high-organic-load sediments (water depth 538 m) to a depth of 68.28 m below seafloor. Using the Acridine Orange Direct Count (AODC) technique, near-surface bacterial populations were 1.27 × 10 9 cells/ cm 3 . Numbers of bacteria decreased rapidly to 4.77 × 10 6 cells/cm 3 at 12 mbsf and then more slowly t...
Article
Determination of the age of fault motion poses a challenge in tectonics, yet rarely produces satisfactory results. The authors describe a new method in which the age and magnitude of dip-slip faulting are estimated from contrasting cooling histories of footwall and hanging wall rocks adjacent to the Hope fault, northwest Montana. The Hope fault has...
Article
To understand the relation between fluid seeps and structures, sedimentary rocks were collected with the DSRV Alvin from a vertical fault zone that transects the deformation front of the Cascadia accretionary wedge. The rocks contained diagenetic carbonate cement that was precipitated from fluids expelled during accretion. Carbon, oxygen, and stron...
Article
Full-text available
An EDGE deep crustal seismic reflection transect of the eastern Aleutian arc-trench traces oceanic crust and Moho more than 200 km beneath the accretionary prism to depths of more than 30 km. These horizons project beneath a prominent sequence of layered reflectors that extends from about 9 to 35 km beneath the Mesozoic core of the prism. Earthquak...
Article
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Fluids expelled during deformation at convergent margins lead to a variety of diagenetic reactions, including carbonate cementation, which alter the rheology of the deforming sediment. The volume of carbonate cement in shallow sediments at modern convergent margins is small, but sandstones in an ancient accretionary complex in Alaska contain signif...
Article
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The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simp...
Article
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The Kodiak Formation, composed of coherent Maastrichtian turbidites, is a slate belt whose dominant structures developed during underplating to an accretionary wedge in the latest Cretaceous. It consists of about 80% coherent landward-dipping thrust packets; zones of disrupted sandstone associated with a scaly argillite matrix constitute the remain...
Article
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The landward belt of the Kodiak Formation represents a sequence of lower Maastrichtian turbidites that was underplated to the Kodiak accretionary complex by duplex accretion. Evidence for duplexes exists on the mesoscopic and map scale. At the microscopic scale, incremental strain histories are consistent with early shear during underthrusting abru...
Article
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Despite the importance of volcanic production rates along subducting plate boundaries, few reliable values are available. A well-constrained rate has here been determined for the past 5 m.y. in the Mariana island arc. The calculation covers the period during the opening of the Mariana Trough (an active back-arc basin) in which the volcanic centers...
Article
The Geoscience Diversity Enhancement Program (GDEP) is an NSF-OEDG funded project at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB). Program goals include increasing awareness of geoscience careers, and the availability and accessibility of research experiences, to area high school and community college faculty and students from underrepresented g...
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, Santa Cruz, 1986. Includes bibliographical references. Microfiche. s

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Projects (2)
Archived project
To understand the strain and paleo-fluid history of the East Kaibab Monocline, Utah.
Project