James M. Rippe

James M. Rippe

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243
Publications
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Publications

Publications (243)
Article
Daily habits and actions powerfully affect the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), in general, and coronary heart disease, in particular. Regular physical activity, sound nutrition, weight management, and not smoking cigarettes have all been demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of CVD. In 2 large cohort studies a reduction of risk of CVD...
Article
There is no longer any serious doubt that daily habits and actions profoundly affect both short-term and long-term health and quality of life. This concept is supported by literally thousands of research articles and incorporated in multiple evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic metabolic diseases. The study of ho...
Chapter
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the largest source of morbidity and mortality in the United States and elsewhere in the developed world. In the most recent statistics, CVD accounts for 37 % of all mortality in the United States. Nutrition plays a pivotal role in either reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease or increasing it. Nutrition nee...
Chapter
The potential health consequences of consuming added sugars are controversial. It has been alleged that increased consumption of added sugars which contain fructose may be associated with increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome (metS), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and various neurolo...
Chapter
An overwhelming body of scientific literature supports the concept that what each of us does in our daily lives has a profound impact on both our short- and long-term health and quality of life. Nutrition plays a key role in many of the decisions we make on a daily basis. Nutrition practices, however, must be put in the context of an overall approa...
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The relationship between sugar consumption and various health-related sequelas is controversial. Some investigators have argued that excessive sugar consumption is associated with increased risk of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes (T2D), metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and stimulation of reward pathways in the brain...
Article
Introduction: Studies in animals have shown that fructose can promote weight gain and the development of associated metabolic diseases when consumed in very high doses. The applicability of these findings to human consumption is unclear because they do not represent how fructose is consumed in the human diet, which is virtually always in combinatio...
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Excess sugar consumption may promote adverse changes in hepatic and total body insulin resistance. Debate continues over the effects of sugars at more typically consumed levels and whether the identity of the sugar consumed is important. In the present study participants (20-60 years old) were randomly assigned to one of five groups, three that con...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recen...
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The consumption of sugar and its relation to various potential adverse health consequences are the subjects of considerable debate and controversy. This supplement to Advances in Nutrition provides an expanded summary of a symposium held on 26 April 2014 entitled "Sugars and Health Controversies: What Does the Science Say?" as part of the ASN Scien...
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Questions have been raised as to whether dietary carbohydrate intake is directly related to the development of type 2 diabetes. Of particular importance, fructose-induced insulin resistance has been previously shown in animals. However, the implications of such findings for humans are un- clear as these models typically use very high doses of sugar...
Chapter
Added sugars, particularly those containing fructose—high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), sucrose, honey, fruit juice concentrates, agave nectar, and crystalline fructose—have been blamed for a variety of adverse health consequences. Fructose containing sugars are among the most misunderstood nutrients in all of nutrition. While the consumption of adde...
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The impact of fructose, commonly consumed with sugars by humans, on blood pressure and uric acid has yet to be defined. A total of 267 weight-stable participants drank sugar-sweetened milk every day for 10 weeks as part of their usual, mixed-nutrient diet. Groups 1 and 2 had 9% estimated caloric intake from fructose or glucose, respectively, added...
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Daily lifestyle practices and habits profoundly affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant research and multiple recent consensus documents support the role of regular physical activity, not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy body weight, controlling cholesterol levels, and controlling blood pressure to lower...
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The American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010). Sucrose (SUC) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) have been singled ou...
Article
The American Heart Association recommends that women and men should not consume more than 100 or 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. Pure fructose in large dosages has been shown to adversely affect indices of cardiometabolic health in a variety of ways. However, pure fructose is rarely consumed, and it is unclear whether the same risks...
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The American Heart Association (AHA) has advocated that women and men not consume more than 100 and 150 kcal/day, respectively, from added sugars. These levels are currently exceeded by over 90% of the adult population in the United States. Few data exist on longer-term metabolic effects when sucrose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS), the princip...
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Intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been suggested to contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity, whereas a number of studies and organizations have reported metabolic equivalence between HFCS and sucrose. We hypothesized that HFCS and sucrose would have similar effects on energy-regulating hormones and metabolic substrates at norm...
Article
This article summarizes the presentations from the "Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings" symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting in Boston, MA on April 23, 2013. The metabolic and health effects of sugar-sweetened beverages were discussed from a variety of points of view by 5 different presenters. Dr. David A...
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It has been postulated that fructose-induced triglyceride synthesis is augmented when accompanied by glucose. Chronic elevations could lead to excess fat accumulation in the liver and ectopic fat deposition in muscles, which in turn could contribute to the induction of abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, and the subsequent dev...
Article
Weight loss improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile, and strong evidence demonstrates that consuming smaller portions leads to weight loss. When prepared portion-controlled meals are compared to conventional meals as part of an overall weight-loss diet, results of clinical trials of up to one year in duration show greater and more sustai...
Article
Purpose: Evaluate the effect of addition of commonly consumed fructose containing sugars to the usual diet on liver fat content. Background: Fructose induced triglyceride synthesis has been argued to be augmented when accompanied by glucose. As the most common sources of fructose, high fructose corn syrup HFCS) and sucrose, also contain glucose suc...
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Both controversy and confusion exist concerning fructose, sucrose, and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) with respect to their metabolism and health effects. These concerns have often been fueled by speculation based on limited data or animal studies. In retrospect, recent controversies arose when a scientific commentary was published suggesting a po...
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International Journal of Obesity is a monthly, multi-disciplinary forum for papers describing basic, clinical and applied studies in biochemistry, genetics and nutrition, together with molecular, metabolic, psychological and epidemiological aspects of obesity and related disorders
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Background: Strategies that may increase compliance to reduced energy intakes are needed to reduce the health burden of obesity. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the effects of snacking on satiety and energy intake. Methods: This study compared short-term satiety from two common snack foods, low fat popcorn or potato chips. Using a counterb...
Article
Added sugars have increased in diets in the United States and many other industrialized countries over the past 30 y. Controversies have arisen, because some investigators have suggested that sugars, in general, and sugar-sweetened beverages, in particular, may be associated with increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and oth...
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Given the rise in obesity and associated chronic diseases, it is critical to determine optimal weight management approaches that will also improve dietary composition and chronic disease risk factors. Few studies have examined all these weight, diet, and disease risk variables in subjects participating in recommended multi-disciplinary weight loss...
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Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomiz...
Article
Over recent decades, abundant scientific evidence has led to authoritative dietary guidelines and recommendations for heart healthy eating and lifestyle behaviors. But most children and adults do not regularly achieve these goals. Consequently, our focus must now be on helping individual patients and our communities implement these guidelines in ev...
Article
There is now overwhelming evidence that daily actions and habits profoundly influence short-term and long-term health and quality of life. Helping individuals make more positive choices in the areas of physical activity, weight management, nutritional practices, and not using tobacco products is a shared responsibility among physicians, other healt...
Article
The epidemic of obesity and related metabolic diseases continues to extract an enormous health toll. Multiple potential causes for obesity have been suggested, including increased fat consumption, increased carbohydrate consumption, decreased physical activity, and, most recently, increased fructose consumption. Most literature cited in support of...
Article
Rates of overweight and obesity have been on a steady rise for decades, and the problems society faces from this and associated metabolic diseases are many. As a result, the need to understand the contributing factors is great. A very compelling case can be made that excess sugar consumption has played a significant role. In addition, fructose, as...
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Full-text available
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has been implicated in excess weight gain through mechanisms seen in some acute feeding studies and by virtue of its abundance in the food supply during years of increasing obesity. Compared with pure glucose, fructose is thought to be associated with insufficient secretion of insulin and leptin and suppression of gh...
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Recent reports suggest that dietary energy density (ED) is associated with diet quality, energy intake, and body weight. Breakfast consumption was also associated with diet quality and body weight; however, little is known about the association of breakfast consumption with dietary ED. We examined differences in the ED (in energy content/g of food)...
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Full-text available
Background: Recent reports suggest that dietary energy density (ED) is associated with diet quality, energy intake, and body weight. Breakfast consumption was also associated with diet quality and body weight; however, little is known about the association of break-fast consumption with dietary ED. Objectives: We examined differences in the ED (in...
Article
Coronary heart disease remains the leading killer of men and women in the United States. Coronary heart disease also represents one of the quintessential lifestyle-related diseases. Many of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease, including elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking, an inactive lifestyle, and obesity, h...
Article
Fructose has been implicated in obesity, partly due to lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. Most work has examined effects of pure fructose, rather than high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the most commonly consumed form of fructose. This study examined effects of beverages sweetened with HFCS or sucrose (Suc), when con...
Article
Cardiovascular diseases remain extremely common and the United States and are the single most common cause for death in both men and women. Many risk factors including cigarette smoking, elevated cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity and in inactive lifestyle carry a significant lifestyle component. This fact is recognized in the National Guide...
Article
The aim of the study is to evaluate the test-retest reliability of measures of isokinetic and isometric leg strength and joint function among individuals exhibiting symptoms of mild osteoarthritis. Reliable procedures are needed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention on osteoarthritic symptoms. Test-retest reliability of two leg strength pr...
Article
While various weight-management approaches produce weight loss, they may differ in dietary quality. We monitored changes in nutrient intakes in overweight and obese subjects on three different weight-management programs. Randomized clinical trial (pilot study) with two 12-week phases: phase 1, weekly counseling; phase 2, monitoring only. One hundre...