James C Paton

James C Paton
University of Adelaide · School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences

PhD, FAA

About

567
Publications
52,775
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29,566
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - present
Monash University (Australia)
January 2008 - December 2011
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

Publications

Publications (567)
Article
Full-text available
Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are bacterial species which frequently co-colonise the nasopharynx, but can also transit to the middle ear to cause otitis media. Chronic otitis media is often associated with a polymicrobial infection by these bacteria. However, despite being present in polymicrobial infec...
Article
Rapalogues are powerful therapeutic modalities for breast cancer; however, they suffer from low solubility and dose-limiting side effects. To overcome these challenges, we developed a long-circulating multiheaded drug carrier called 5FA, which contains rapamycin-binding domains linked with elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs). To target these "Hydra-EL...
Article
The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) activates a signal transduction pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), which attempts to restore ER homeostasis. If this cannot be done, UPR signalling ultimately induces apoptosis. Ca²⁺ depletion in the ER is a potent inducer of ER stress. Despite the ubiquity...
Article
Full-text available
S. pneumoniae is the world’s foremost bacterial pathogen. S. pneumoniae encodes a phasevarion (phase-variable regulon), that results in differential expression of multiple genes. Previous work demonstrated that the pneumococcal SpnIII phasevarion switches between six different expression states, generating six unique phenotypic variants in a pneumo...
Article
Full-text available
Protein synthesis is supported by cellular machineries that ensure polypeptides fold to their native conformation, whilst eliminating misfolded, aggregation prone species. Protein aggregation underlies pathologies including neurodegeneration. Aggregates’ formation is antagonised by molecular chaperones, with cytoplasmic machinery resolving insolubl...
Preprint
Aberrant biosynthesis and secretion of the insulin precursor proinsulin occurs in both Type I and Type II diabetes (T1D, T2D). Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in pancreatic islet stress in both forms of diabetes but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we examined how the diabetes associated cytokines interleukin-1β and interferon-γ alter proi...
Article
Full-text available
Many pathogenic bacteria secrete AB5 toxins that can act as virulence factors. Cytotoxic A subunits are delivered to the cytosol following B subunit binding to specific host cell surface glycans. Some B subunits are not associated with A subunits, e.g., YpeB of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague. Plague has not been eradicated because o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Normal human tissues do not express glycans terminating with the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), yet Neu5Gc-containing glycans have been consistently found in human tumor tissues, cells and secretions and have been proposed as a cancer biomarker. We engineered a Neu5Gc-specific lectin called SubB2M, and previously reporte...
Article
Full-text available
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial paediatric meningitis after the neonatal period worldwide, but the bacterial factors and pathophysiology that drive pneumococcal meningitis are not fully understood. In this work, we have identified differences in raffinose utilization by S. pneumoniae isolates of identical serotype and seq...
Preprint
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial illness worldwide. Current vaccines based on the polysaccharide capsule (PCV-13 and PPSV-23) are only effective against a limited number of the >100 capsular serotypes. A universal vaccine based on conserved protein antigens requires a thorough understanding of gene expression in S. pne...
Article
Full-text available
The LuxS protein, encoded by luxS, is required for the production of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The AI-2 molecule serves as a quorum sensing signal, and thus regulates cellular processes such as carbohydrate utilisation and biofilm formation, as well as impacting virulence. The role of luxS in S. pneumoniae biology and lifest...
Article
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, resulting in more than one million deaths each year worldwide. This pathogen generates large amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which will be converted to hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) by lactoperoxidase (LPO) in the human respiratory tract. S. pneumoniae has been shown...
Article
Acinetobacter species are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria that can be found in water, soil, and as commensals of the human skin. The successful inhabitation of Acinetobacter species in diverse environments is primarily attributable to the expression of an arsenal of stress resistance determinants, which includes an extensive repertoire of metal i...
Article
Full-text available
A hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of protein aggregates, the formation of which is prevented by chaperone proteins. BiP is the central chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this study we investigated the pattern of BiP in tunicamycin-stressed murine organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs). In stressed OHCs high...
Article
Full-text available
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) produces Stx1 and/or Stx2, and Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB). Since these toxins may be present simultaneously during STEC infections, the purpose of this work was to study the co-action of Stx2 and SubAB. Stx2 + SubAB was assayed in vitro on monocultures and cocultures of human glomerular endothelial cells (HGEC)...
Preprint
Background Normal human tissues do not express glycans terminating with the sialic acid N -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), yet Neu5Gc-containing glycans have been consistently found in human tumor tissues, cells and secretions and have been proposed as a cancer biomarker. We engineered a Neu5Gc-specific lectin called SubB2M, and previously report...
Article
Full-text available
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the world’s most problematic superbugs and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the hospital environment. The critical need for new antimicrobial strategies is recognized, but our understanding of its behavior and adaptation to a changing environment during infection is limited.
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging global health crisis. Consequently, we have a critical need to prolong our current arsenal of antibiotics, in addition to the development of novel treatment options.
Article
Maintaining optimal fluidity is essential to ensure adequate membrane structure and function under different environmental conditions. We apply integrated molecular approaches to characterize two desaturases (DesA and DesB) and define their specific roles in unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) production in Acinetobacter baumannii. Using a murine model, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vertebrate sialic acids (Sias) display much diversity in modifications, linkages and underlying glycans. Slide microarrays allow high-throughput analysis of sialoglycan-protein interactions. The preceding paper used ~150 structurally-defined sialyltrisaccharides with various Sias and modified forms at non-reducing ends, to compare pentameric sialog...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cytotoxic A subunits of bacterial AB5 toxins enter the cytosol following B subunit binding to host cell glycans. We report that A subunit phylogeny evolves independently of B subunits and suggest a future B subunit nomenclature based on species name. Phylogenetic analysis of B subunits that bind sialic acids (Sias) with homologous molecules in data...
Article
Full-text available
Enforcing differentiation of cancer stem cells is considered as a potential strategy to sensitize colorectal cancer cells to irradiation and chemotherapy. Activation of the unfolded protein response, due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, causes rapid stem cell differentiation in normal intestinal and colon cancer cells. We previously found that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protein synthesis is supported by cellular machineries that ensure polypeptides fold to their native three-dimensional conformation with high fidelity whilst eliminating misfolded, aggregation-prone species. While protein aggregates can contribute to pathologies exemplified by Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, their abundance is normally minimi...
Article
Full-text available
The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays an evolutionarily conserved role in homeostasis, and its dysregulation often leads to human disease, including diabetes and cancer. IRE1α is a major transducer that conveys endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via biochemical signals, yet major gaps persist in our understanding of how the detection of stress i...
Article
Full-text available
Zinc is an essential nutrient for the virulence of bacterial pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae
Article
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In stressed cells, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) controls transcriptome-wide changes in mRNA translation and gene expression known as the integrated stress response. We show here that DCs are characterized by high eIF2α phosphorylation, mostly caused by the activation of the ER kinase PERK (EIF2AK3). Despite high p-eIF2...
Article
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that can spread to multiple sites in the body. However, the mechanisms dictating disease spread are not well understood. Here we highlight the importance of carbohydrate utilization systems on pneumococcal disease, offering insight into how this pathogen causes a spectrum of disease.
Preprint
Full-text available
Bacterial fatty acids are critical components of the cellular membrane. A shift in environmental conditions or in the bacterium’s lifestyle may result in the requirement for a distinct pool of fatty acids with unique biophysical properties. This can be achieved by the modification of existing fatty acids or via de novo synthesis. Furthermore, bacte...
Article
Factors facilitating the chronicity of otitis media (OM) in children are, to date, not fully understood. An understanding of molecular factors aiding bacterial persistence within the middle ear during OM could reveal pathways required for disease. This study performed a detailed analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae populations isolated from the nas...
Article
Full-text available
Metal ion homeostasis is essential for all forms of life. However, the breadth of intracellular impacts that arise upon dysregulation of metal ion homeostasis remain to be elucidated. Here, we used cadmium, a non-physiological metal ion, to investigate how the bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, resists metal ion stress and dyshomeostasis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Acinetobacter species are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria that can be found in water, soil and as commensals of the human skin. The successful inhabitation of Acinetobacter species in diverse environments is primarily attributable to the expression of an arsenal of stress resistance determinants, which includes an extensive repertoire of metal io...
Article
Pneumococcal survival in the host and capacity to transition from a commensal to a pathogenic lifestyle are closely linked to the organism’s ability to utilize specific nutrients in distinct niches. Galactose is a major carbon source for pneumococci in the upper respiratory tract. We have shown that both the Leloir and tagatose 6-phosphate pathways...
Preprint
The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) activates a signal transduction pathway termed the u nfolded p rotein response (UPR), which attempts to restore ER homeostasis. If homeostasis cannot be restored, UPR signalling ultimately induces apoptosis. Ca ²⁺ depletion in the ER is a potent inducer of ER stress. Despit...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been increasing advocacy for highly immunogenic gamma-irradiated vaccines, several of which are currently in clinical or pre-clinical trials. Importantly, various methods of mathematical modelling and sterility testing are employed to ensure sterility. However, these methods are designed for materials with a low bioburden,...
Article
Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates a signalling network known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we characterise how ER stress and the UPR inhibit insulin signalling. We find that ER stress inhibits insulin signalling by depleting the cell surface population of the insulin re...
Article
Full-text available
Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane regulate essential cellular activities including protein quality control, calcium flux, and sterol homeostasis. At least 25 different, transmembrane domain (TMD)-containing E3s are predicted to be ER-localised, but for most their organisation and cellular roles remain poorl...
Article
Full-text available
Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane regulate essential cellular activities including protein quality control, calcium flux, and sterol homeostasis. At least 25 different, transmembrane domain (TMD)-containing E3s are predicted to be ER-localised, but for most their organisation and cellular roles remain poorl...
Article
Full-text available
Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane regulate essential cellular activities including protein quality control, calcium flux, and sterol homeostasis. At least 25 different, transmembrane domain (TMD)-containing E3s are predicted to be ER-localised, but for most their organisation and cellular roles remain poorl...
Article
Full-text available
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a genetically diverse human-adapted pathogen commonly carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx. We have recently shown that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the raffinose pathway regulatory gene rafR accounts for a difference in the capacity of clonally-related strains to cause localised versus systemic infec...
Data
Protocols and data sets for docking and MD simulations of Methotrexate, Cefoperazone, Folinic acd and Folic acid interaction with IRE1. All docking data based on Glide (Schrödinger), and all MD simulations are based on the Gromacs software. 2D interaction maps from the initial docking of the four molecules to the four Lysine sites, and from snapsho...
Article
Full-text available
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) form pores in cholesterol-rich membranes, but cholesterol alone is insufficient to explain their cell and host tropism. Here, we show that all eight major CDCs have high-affinity lectin activity that identifies glycans as candidate cellular receptors. Streptolysin O, vaginolysin, and perfringolysin O bind mul...
Article
Full-text available
Inositol Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1) is a bifunctional serine/threonine kinase and endoribonuclease that is a major mediator of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Tumour cells experience ER stress due to adverse environmental cues such as hypoxia or nutrient shortage and high metabolic/protein folding demand...
Preprint
Full-text available
In stressed cells, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) controls transcriptome-wide changes in mRNA translation and gene expression known as the integrated stress response (ISR). We show here that dendritic cells (DCs) display unusually high eIF2α phosphorylation, which is mostly caused by a developmentally regulated activatio...
Preprint
Ubiquitin ligases (E3s) embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane regulate essential cellular activities including protein quality control, calcium flux, and sterol homeostasis. At least 25 different, transmembrane domain (TMD)-containing E3s are predicted to be ER-localised, but for most their organisation and cellular roles remain poorl...
Article
Full-text available
Pathogens of the Streptococcus genus inhabit many different environmental niches during the course of an infection in a human host and the bacteria must adjust their metabolism according to available nutrients. Despite their lack of the citric-acid cycle, some streptococci proliferate in niches devoid of a readily available carbohydrate source. Ins...
Article
Hemophilia A, an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of factor VIII (FVIII), is treated by protein replacement. Unfortunately, this regimen is costly due to the expense of producing recombinant FVIII as a consequence of its low-level secretion from mammalian host cells. FVIII expression activates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress re...
Article
Full-text available
In mammalian cells one‐third of all polypeptides are integrated into the membrane or translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the Sec61‐channel. While the Sec61‐complex facilitates ER‐import of most precursor polypeptides, the Sec61‐associated Sec62/Sec63‐complex supports ER‐import in a substrate‐specific manner. So far, ma...
Article
Full-text available
IRE1β is an ER stress sensor uniquely expressed in epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces. Here, we show that intestinal epithelial cells expressing IRE1β have an attenuated unfolded protein response to ER stress. When modeled in HEK293 cells and with purified protein, IRE1β diminishes expression and inhibits signaling by the closely related stre...
Preprint
Full-text available
Factor VIII (FVIII) is the coagulation factor deficient in hemophilia A, which is treated by protein replacement. Unfortunately, this regimen is costly due to the expense of producing recombinant FVIII as a consequence of its low level secretion. FVIII expression activates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, causes oxidative stress and...
Preprint
Full-text available
IRE1α signals endoplasmic reticulum stress with oligomerization and activation of its kinase domain, leading to trans-auto-phosphorylation and followed by activation of the RNase domain. While these activation events are thought to be mediated by conformational changes, the intramolecular path that relays the activation from the luminal domain to t...
Preprint
Full-text available
In mammalian cells one-third of all polypeptides are integrated into the membrane or translocated into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the Sec61-channel. While the Sec61-complex facilitates ER-import of most precursor polypeptides, the Sec61-associated Sec62/Sec63-complex supports ER-import in a substrate-specific manner. So far, ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a genetically diverse human-adapted pathogen commonly carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx. We have recently shown that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the raffinose pathway regulatory gene rafR accounts for a significant difference in the capacity of clonally-related strains to cause localised versus sy...
Article
Full-text available
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a consequence of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection and is the most frequent cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in children. Subtilase cytotoxin (SubAB) has also been associated with HUS pathogenesis. We previously reported that Stx2 and SubAB cause different effects on co-cultures of hu...
Article
Acinetobacter baumannii is a highly ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium, that is associated with significant disease in immunocompromised individuals. The success of A. baumannii is partly attributable to its high level of antibiotic resistance. Further, A. baumannii expresses a broad arsenal of putative zinc efflux systems that are likely to aid en...
Article
Full-text available
Oncolytic viruses represent an emerging approach to cancer therapy. However, better understanding of their interaction with the host cancer cell and approaches to enhance their efficacy are needed. Here, we investigate the effect of chemically induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on the activity of the chimeric group B adenovirus Enadenotucire...
Article
Full-text available
Human zinc deficiency increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Although zinc supplementation therapies can reduce the impact of disease, the molecular basis for protection remains unclear. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, which is prevalent in regions of zinc deficiency. We report that dietary zinc levels di...