James R McFarlane

James R McFarlane
University of New England (Australia) | UNE

PhD

About

176
Publications
22,722
Reads
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3,541
Citations
Citations since 2017
20 Research Items
1363 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Additional affiliations
September 1996 - December 2012
University of New England (Australia)
Position
  • Professor
January 1991 - August 1996
Monash University (Australia)
Position
  • Research Associate
January 1988 - December 1991
University of California, San Francisco

Publications

Publications (176)
Article
Full-text available
Several lines of evidence support the notion that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) and gonadotropic hormones are major regulators of ovarian follicle development by inducing gonadotropin-mediated steroid hormone production and regulating ovarian follicle cell proliferation. Research from our laboratory and elsewhere have demonstrated that BMPs pl...
Article
Full-text available
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a breakdown product of methionine metabolism. The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) correlates with an increase in plasma Hcy levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1% methionine supplementation of adult rats altered intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, intracellular Ca2+ content, and co...
Article
Research indicates that some adult diseases including reproductive pathologies are programmed in utero during foetal development. In particular, maternal low dietary protein, during the most critical developmental periods of male foetal development, may have a detrimental impact on male fertility through direct and epigenetic mechanisms. The aim of...
Article
Poor lamb survival is an important production and welfare issue, and the lamb must express complex behaviours to successfully transition to life ex-utero. Even under best management practices, sheep husbandry events, such as shearing, yarding and transport can be stressful for animals, and when they take place during pregnancy these stressors could...
Article
Cumulative exposure to stress over a long period can negatively impact an individual’s health. Significant advancements in biomarkers of chronic stress have been made, with the use of fingernails recently explored. Cross sectional data from the Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort (Indigenous) and Top End Cohort (non-Indigenous) was used to investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a critical indicator of cardiovascular disease. High levels of Hcy have now been recognised as a risk factor for the development of a wide range of diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) can be induced by methionine or Hcy supplementation. On the other hand, Glutathione (GSH) is a major antioxidant in the body and also an impor...
Article
Full-text available
Background Studies have shown that the amount of protein in the diet affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis and sub-optimal quantity reduces male fertility potential in both animals and humans. However, individual research reports on the factors associated with male infertility are collectively uncharacterized. Aim We systematically review...
Article
Leptin is a hormone secreted mainly by the adipocytes with an essential role in the regulation of body weight. It acts on the reproductive axis at different sites, with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and inhibitory interactions at the gonads. To investigate the influence of leptin on pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing IVF...
Article
Studies with animal models have consistently demonstrated adverse health outcomes in offspring born following nutritional manipulation during gestation. However, the effects of gestational dietary protein modification on reproductive outcomes at birth are less clear. We, therefore, conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trial...
Conference Paper
Background: Chronic, cumulative stress has been shown to negatively impact on health and wellbeing. Indigenous Australians often experience multiple stressful events across the life course. While hair samples have been the most often used chronic stress biomarker, limitations exist based on availability, cultural acceptability and possible influenc...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic, ongoing stress can impact negatively on health and wellbeing. Indigenous Australians are at an increased risk of experiencing multiple stressors. Hair glucocorticoids have been used as a marker for chronic stress. This study aimed to assess the associations of hair cortisol and cortisone with sociodemographic (age, gender, Indigenous Ident...
Article
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is an important plant based staple food, known for its nutritional and medicinal value and is usually prescribed by herbal practitioners in Nigeria and in other tropical countries for the treatment of male infertility problems and reproductive diseases in females. Although the aphr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of this study was to validate the accuracy of beat-to-beat measurements with those taken with an aneroid sphygmomanometer by auscultatory method. A secondary aim was to explore differences between auscultatory and beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) with daytime ambulatory BP measurements. Participants and methods: A total...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is known that the amount of protein in the diet can affect reproductive performance in many species. However, the mechanism of action is not entirely clear. In this study, we compared the effect of feeding mice a low (8%) or high (35%) protein mouse chow to mice fed standard (22%) mouse chow on the ovary, uterus, and pregnancy outcomes. Energy a...
Article
This retrospective cohort study compared the diagnostic utility (sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value (NPV)) of the age‐times‐10 adjusted d‐dimer cut‐off used in combination with the original and simplified Well's pulmonary embolism (PE) scores and the original and simplified revised Geneva scores to identify patients in whom PE i...
Article
Full-text available
Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, responsible for approximately 31% of global mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the hypertensive responses and determine the peak rate pressure product, calculated by multiplying systolic blood pressure and heart rate, during isometric handgrip exercise. Rate pre...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has not been studied in detail and only one study has examined more than one time point in non-mutant mice and this was in female mice. This is the first study to describe leptin distribution over a detailed time course in normal male mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected in adul...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Hypertension is a major risk factor contributing to cardiovascular disease, which is the number one cause of deaths worldwide. Although antihypertensive medications are effective at controlling blood pressure, current first-line treatment for hypertension is nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications. Recent studies indicate that isome...
Poster
Full-text available
PCOSoftenmanifestsascardio-metabolicsyndrome.Highintensityintervaltraining(HIIT)is a time efficient form of exercise that could improve cardiovascular fitness and decrease the health burden.
Article
Objective: Longer telomeres are associated with better health and longevity. This research investigated the relationship between positive psychological dispositional traits and telomere length. Positive traits examined were typical high positive affect, typical low negative affect, life satisfaction, trait mindfulness, trait emotional intelligence,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Leptin is a cytokine hormone with various roles throughout the body. Recent research has shown that circulating leptin is able to enter the digestive tract in a form that retains signalling potential1. As the fate of leptin in the digestive tract is essentially unknown, a 2 h time course experiment was designed to explore this. Random bred male Swi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone known for its effects in regulating appetite. Recently data have shown that leptin in circulation enters the lumen of the digestive tract in a form with signaling potential (1). To explore this further an experiment was designed to examine the fate of leptin in the digestive tract. Leptin was labeled with 125I using...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Exercise training has been shown to have beneficial effects on liver function in adults overweight or with fatty liver disease. To establish which exercise programme characteristics were likely to elicit optimal improvements. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL and Cochr...
Article
The aim of this pilot study was to attempt to define a set of equations from histological observations of tissue affected with coeliac disease (CD) to predict Marsh score. Tissue from 15 patients with untreated CD, 6 patients with treated CD and 9 healthy control patients were stained using the standard H&E, Giemsa's staining for tissue sections a...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$) loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and...
Article
Full-text available
There exists no examination of what is the minimum anti-hypertensive threshold intensity for isometric exercise training. Twenty two normotensive participants were randomly assigned to training intensities at either 5% or 10% of their maximal contraction. Twenty participants completed the study. Clinical meaningful, but not statistically significan...
Article
Full-text available
TGF-beta superfamily members including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their receptors (BMPR-1A, -1B and -2) have been shown to be important for reproductive function in both males and females, while information on the role of BMPs in males is limited. Functional studies on select BMPs and BMP receptors have demonstrated vital roles for thes...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of our study was to examine the effects of isometric resistance training (IRT) on resting blood pressure in adults. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials lasting ≥2 weeks, investigating the effects of isometric exercise on blood pressure in healthy adults (aged ≥18 years), published in a pe...
Article
We previously demonstrated that a high molecular weight aqueous fraction of Pterocarpus marsupuumRoxb. (PM) hardwood has insulinotrophic properties. However, the pharmacological mechanisms by which this fraction modulates insulin secretion remained unknown. The present study therefore isolated the insulinotrophic activity enriched fraction (AEF) fr...
Article
Full-text available
Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has received limited attention and only one study has examined more than two time points and this was in ob/ob mice. This study is the first to observe the distribution of leptin over a time course in female mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected in adult female mice via the later...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Leptin is a protein hormone originally identified from adipose tissue and known for its effects on appetite. Leptin is now known to be produced in many tissues including the stomach, and our earlier work showed that when a physiologic dose was injected intravenously approximately 13 % of the dose was recovered intact from the lumen of the gastroint...
Article
Full-text available
Aqueous extracts of some antidiabetic Ayurvedic plant treatments such as Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn (TFG), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (PM), Gymnema sylvestre R.Br (GS) and Curcuma longa Linn (CL) were tested for their biological effects on glucose uptake by mouse muscle tissue and insulin secretion from mouse pancreas under both basal and hyper...
Article
Full-text available
Stress is clearly associated with the quality of life and many diseases, including mental disorders, with cortisol being a recognized biomarker for stress. Polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT), which results in long and short forms, have been reported to be associated with depression among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to determine the direct cause of the mutation-induced, increased ovulation rate in Booroola merino sheep (BB). Granulosa cells were removed from antral follicles before ovulation and post-ovulation from BB (n=5) and wild type (Wt) (n=12) merino ewes. Direct immunofluorescent measurement of mature cell surface receptors usin...
Article
Full-text available
The primordial follicle reserve is the corner stone of female fertility, which determines the longevity and quality of reproduction. Complete depletion of this reserve will lead to primary infertility, and the key-limiting step of follicle depletion is the transition from primordial to primary follicles. It has been reported that this process is go...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Leptin is a protein hormone originally identified from adipose tissue and known for its effects on appetite. Leptin is now known to be produced in many tissues including the stomach, and our earlier work showed that when a physiologic dose was injected intravenously approximately 10% of the dose was recovered intact from the lumen of the gastrointe...
Article
Aim. Although both have shown significant effects upon depression in clinical samples, no direct comparison has been reported of the relative power of psychological resilience and the short form of the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR as predictors of depression in a community sample. Material and Methods. In a sample set by a priori power analy...
Article
Full-text available
Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta...
Conference Paper
Leptin originally thought to be derived predominantly from adipose tissue is now known to be almost ubiquitously expressed in many tissues. The complete absence of leptin is not developmentally lethal and results in early onset obesity, stunted skeletal and brain growth, extreme insulin resistance, hyperphagia, a compromised immune system and infer...
Conference Paper
We previously demonstrated that a high molecular weight aqueous fraction of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) hardwood has insulinotrophic properties. However, the pharmacological mechanisms by which this fraction modulates insulin secretion remained unknown. The present study therefore isolated the insulinotrophic activity enriched fraction (AEF) f...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of exercise on the neurocognitive performance of individuals with dementia. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966–2014) using the concepts of dementi...
Article
Full-text available
The hormone leptin, which is thought to be primarily produced by adipose tissue, is a polypeptide that was initially characterized by its ability to regulate food intake and energy metabolism. Leptin appears to signal the status of body energy stores to the brain, resulting in the regulation of food intake and whole-body energy expenditure. Subsequ...
Article
Full-text available
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) affects 18-22% women of reproductive age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify expected benefits of lifestyle (exercise and dietary) interventions on various clinical outcomes in PCOS. Potential studies were identified by conducting systematic search of Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane contro...
Article
Full-text available
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) affects 18-22% women of reproductive age. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis quantifying expected benefits of lifestyle (exercise and diet) interventions on reproductive endocrine profile in PCOS. Potential studies were identified by conducting systematic searches of Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane co...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to establish whether aerobic exercise training intensity produces different effect sizes for fitness, adherence, event rates, mortality rates, and hospitalization rates in patients with heart failure. Intuitively, greater exercise intensity is considered to result in higher risk for serious events, but intensity may be the...
Article
Intuitively higher exercise program volume may be the primary stimulus for physical adaptation. We sought to establish if aerobic exercise training program characteristics produced different effect sizes for change in cardiorespiratory fitness in heart failure patients. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1966 to 2012), for exercise based rehabilitation...
Article
Full-text available
A major benefit of advanced reproduction technologies (ART) in animal breeding is the ability to produce more progeny per individual parent. This is particularly useful with animals of high genetic merit. Testis germ cell transplantation (TGCT) is emerging as a novel reproductive technology with application in animal breeding systems, including the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although some previous research has implicated the short form (ss) of the serotonin transporter 5- HTTLPR gene in the association between distal and proximal environmental stress and depression, over 38% of studies included in a recent meta-analysis failed to support that finding. Another variant of the 5-HTTLPT, the sl, has been relati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Leptin, the product of the Ob gene, was originally thought to be synthesised exclusively by adipose tissue, entering the circulation to signal primarily at the hypothalamus to regulate energy turnover. However, there have been several studies which suggest that little circulating leptin enters the brain, suggesting it may not be the major target of...
Article
Leptin has been demonstrated to be essential for reproduction. However, all the relevant studies reported to date have investigated either the effect of a complete absence of leptin both centrally and peripherally, or excess leptin administration. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of reducing peripheral leptin concentratio...
Article
The authors sought to conduct a systematic review comparing the effects of exercise training in heart failure patients taking β-blockers vs those not. A systematic search of exercise training trials in chronic heart failure patients that compared groups who took β-blocker medication or compared selective and nonselective β-blockers during exercise...
Article
Full-text available
Methane yield from ruminants is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta, which is known to be influenced by the hormone triiodothyronine (T3).We hypothesised that a decrease in the MRT in the rumen in response to administration of a T3 solution to sheep would reduce their methane yield. To test this hypothesis, 10 mature Mer...
Article
Cortisol levels in hair samples were examined in fourteen domestic dogs and related to the dogs' responses to different acoustic stimuli. Stimuli were playbacks of species-typical vocalizations recorded during three different situations ("disturbance", "isolation" and "play" barks) and the sounds of a thunderstorm. Hair samples were collected at 9:...
Article
Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (PM) is an Ayurvedic traditional medicine well known for its antidiabetic potential. To fractionate the antidiabetic constituent(s) of the aqueous of extract of PM hardwood (PME). Bio-assay methods including, insulin secretion from mouse pancreas and glucose uptake by mouse skeletal muscle, were used to determine and fra...
Article
Full-text available
Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functional...
Article
Full-text available
Various members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family have been shown to regulate mammalian follicular development by affecting granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis. In situ hybridization studies have shown expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and BMPR2 in the granulosa cells and oocyte of most of the follicles in the ovary, suggestin...
Article
Full-text available
Although in vitro studies have shown that cortisol concentrations in human and animal hair respond to environmental stressors, few data have been reported regarding the in vivo variability of hair cortisol to brief pain stressors. As an extension of a previous study, hair was collected and assayed for cortisol concentrations from each of three site...
Article
Full-text available
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used widely as a spice, particularly in Asian countries. It is also used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as an antiinflammatory and antimicrobial agent and for numerous other curative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (AEC) on tissues involve...
Article
The male reproductive system is regulated by pituitary gonadotrophins and local testicular factors including the transforming growth factor-β superfamily members which up-regulate and modulate testosterone production respectively. Type I and type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors have been identified in both steroidogenic and non-steroi...
Article
Full-text available
Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as "alive" and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair...
Article
Full-text available
Cortisol concentrations in hair and saliva collected from male and female adults over a 15-hour period were compared for differences in overall level and cyclic pattern. Typical diurnal fluctuations were noted for both salivary and hair cortisol, with some individual differences that are congruent with the previous literature. Issues of the link be...
Article
Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is a placental glycoprotein hormone that is harvested from the plasma of pregnant mares for the formulation of commercial products which are used in a variety of assisted reproductive procedures in livestock. It is well documented that the bioactivity of gonadotrophin products is highly variable. The aim of this...