James C. Mcelroy

James C. Mcelroy
Iowa State University | ISU · Department of Marketing and Management

About

79
Publications
44,980
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4,811
Citations
Citations since 2017
1 Research Item
2051 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300
20172018201920202021202220230100200300

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
Keywords: Place attachment Intent to relocate Intent to quit Occupational commitment A B S T R A C T This article examines the influence of place attachment on intent to quit via intent to relocate and the moderating effect of occupational commitment. Findings from both cross-sectional (N = 4629) and two-wave (N = 110) data indicate that (1) place...
Article
Stigmatization is a process by which certain individuals are devalued and alienated from specific types of social interactions, because they are perceived to possess a negatively valenced characteristic (e.g., age, gender, and medical condition). Due to its diverse and context‐driven nature, stigmatization potentially affects a large percentage of...
Article
The authors regret the typographical errors that were included in the Table 1. The results were corrected with another managerial sample (N = 396) on September 6, 2016. The corrected table follows below. The authors would also like to thank the JVB for giving the opportunity to make the changes. The authors would like to apologize for any inconveni...
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Full-text available
Authentication systems are designed to give the right person access to an organization's information system and to restrict it from the wrong person. Such systems are designed by IT professionals to protect an organization's assets (e.g., the organization's network, database, or other information). Too often, such systems are designed around techni...
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This article introduces the reader to the articles contained in this special issue. It outlines how these studies contribute to our understanding of career development in light of the protean and boundaryless career era in which we now live. The articles contained in this special issue also raise questions that serve as a road map for future resear...
Article
This study examines the relationships among salesperson performance outcomes, causal attributions, and expectancy estimates. The authors extend the conceptual work of Teas and McElroy (1986) and the empirical work of Johnston and Kim (1994) by deriving and testing a more parsimonious attribution process model. The survey findings suggest that perfo...
Article
Research on personal space, physical attractiveness, and office design is used to develop a model of personal selling atmospherics. Based on Kotler's (1973–74) suggested use of atmospherics as a marketing tool, this model proposes that the environmental factors surrounding seller-customer interactions in the personal selling context affect customer...
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The editors of the Journal of Career Development intend to publish a special issue of the journal on the subject of ‘The connection of careers and organizations in new career era.’
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This article examines the influence of career self-management and vocational self-concept crystallization on job decision effectiveness and how vocational self-concept crystallization mediates the relationship between career self-management and job decision effectiveness. Six hundred and eleven Chinese employees participated in the research. Using...
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This study tests the effects of personality and cognitive style on preference of individuals for working in virtual teams. The results support the use of both personality and cognitive style as predictor variables with each uniquely contributing to two facets of virtual team preference, namely preference for virtual teams over working alone and pre...
Article
Purpose – This study seeks to explore the roles of organizational support and environmental manager commitment on organizational environmental management practices. Design/methodology/approach – A survey of environmental managers was conducted to examine the role of organizational support and individual environmental commitment on key informant pe...
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The Five Factor Model of personality has been used extensively in the management and psychology fields to predict attitudes and behaviors. Only recently have researchers begun to examine the role of psychological factors in influencing an individual’s use of technology platforms, such as Facebook. This study uses both a survey of Facebook users and...
Article
Using the concept of external organizational commitment (EOC), survey data from 312 logistics service provider (LSP) implants are used to test a model of the determinants of implant level of commitment to their host firm and the consequences of such commitment to the LSP. The results show that both inter-organizational outcome and task interdepende...
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Survey results from 1381 employees working in a state department of transportation tested the idea that uncivil work environments bear undesirable consequences for job satisfaction and diminish the effectiveness of quality management practices. Results demonstrated that incivility does not have to be personally experienced to have deleterious effec...
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Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely atheoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is mediated...
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This study seeks to explain why talent tends to gravitate to industrial clusters (ICs) and how the human resources (HR) environment affects regional attraction and retention of talent. Regional attraction is defined as a region’s ability to attract and retain workers and immigrants. Data were collected from four ICs in China. A region’s HR environm...
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This research examines the relationship between employees' career growth and organizational commitment. Career growth was conceptualized by four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed and remuneration growth, while organizational commitment was conceptualized using Meyer and Allen's (1997) three component m...
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Outcomes associated with an office redesign aimed at decreasing workspace while enhancing perceptions of organizational culture and work-related attitudes are examined within a financial services organization. Findings show that employees assigned to the redesigned office environment report less workspace and more distractions than those who remain...
Article
IT professionals must introduce the idea of object language and message sent by the virtue of their offices as these messages impact interactions with clients and colleagues in creating first impressions. The most prominent place in which object language operates in today's workplace is the design of one's office and the artifacts that are displaye...
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Using a sample of 246 working adults, the authors created a 2 x 2 x 2 experimental design to isolate the influence of performance outcome, source of handicapping, and frequency of handicapping on reactions to handicapping in organizations. Dependent measures were observers' allocations of credit/blame, interpersonal affect, and the perceived credib...
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This study directly tests the effect of personality and cognitive style on three measures of Internet use. The results support the use of personality-but not cognitive style-as an antecedent variable. After controlling for computer anxiety, self-efficacy, and gender, including the "Big Five" personality factors in the analysis significantly adds to...
Article
Object language is a term that describes the messages that objects convey to people. This paper extends previous research on the object language associated with office design elements such as the placement of one's desk and office messiness by examining the role of computer technology as an additional form of object language. Computer technology wa...
Article
Recent, well-publicized accounting scandals have shown that the penalties outsiders impose on those found culpable of earnings management can be severe. However, less is known about how colleagues within internal labor markets respond when they believe fellow managers have managed earnings. Designers of responsibility accounting systems need to und...
Article
This study adds to scientific understanding of how employee turnover affects organizational performance in a multi-unit commercial bank setting operating in the United States. Theoretically, expected relationships among turnover; efficiency and performance are outlined. Empirically, two indicators of organizational efficiency are examined and one,...
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Using a justice perspective, this study investigates the relationship between union instrumentality and union loyalty in terms of union ability to address both outcome-based and process-based membership concerns. The results of hierarchical regression analysis using a sample of 451 train crew members from four railroads showed that member satisfact...
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Search theory suggests that if a woman anticipates discriminatory treatment in the labor market, she will lower her reservation wage which would, in turn, lead to lower pay. This prediction is tested using a data set of graduating college seniors. Results show that women had lower starting-pay expectations, even for men and women with the same majo...
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Data were collected from 31 regional subunits of a national financial services company to examine differential effects of 3 types of turnover (voluntary, involuntary, and reduction-in-force) on measures of organizational subunit performance. Although each form of turnover exhibited adverse effects on subunit performance when examined separately, pa...
Article
Building on the organizational commitment literature and recent management practices like relationship marketing and total quality management, a new focus of work commitment is proposed: external organizational commitment (EOC). It is envisioned as a global construct and defined as an employee's identification and involvement with another organizat...
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Previous research has established a positive relationship between absenteeism and voluntary turnover and a negative relationship between performance and turnover. An examination of the turnover literature, however, reveals virtually no consideration of a possible interaction between these two predictors of turnover. In order to test for such an int...
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This study examined police officer attitudes toward their work in an effort to determine whether a three-stage model of career development has utility in broadening the understanding of police officers' commitment to their work. One-hundred-sixty-four officers were surveyed using a variety of measures of work commitment including: affective, contin...
Article
The present study examines the role of physical attractiveness in the causal attribution process of saleswomen’s performance. Sex-role stereotyping and attribution theory provide the theoretical framework for examining the influence of physical attractiveness in the evaluation process. Specifically, we develop hypotheses of how physical attractiven...
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This study examines the relationship between union and organizational commitment among a sample of 1167 railroad employees from four of the seven largest Class I railroads in the U.S. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether union commitment and organizational commitment were contradictory, independent, or complementary forms of commitme...
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Investigated the idea that internal mobility experiences "spill over" to affect a variety of job attitudes and perceptions by surveying 690 employees of a state agency. Results indicate that having one's internal mobility expectations met, as opposed to unmet, was associated with more favorable work-related attitudes, a finding not moderated by dem...
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Examined the impact of sexual harassment (SH) behaviors on work related perceptions and attitudes. SH was operationalized as the extent to which 718 employees (54.3% female) of a state agency experienced a variety of sexually harassing behaviors by supervisors or by co-workers. Results for both men and women show that experiencing behaviors commonl...
Article
Survey data from 272 nurses at a large Midwestern teaching hospital were used to evaluate the relation between work-related attitudes (WRAs) and full- (FT) and part-time (PT) work status, and working a preferred work pattern. Four hypotheses are tested: (1) FT vs PT work status will be unrelated to most WRAs, (2) employees who are employed in a pre...
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Full-text available
Solicitation of funds for a walkathon was used as the basis for a field experiment testing the effects of personal space and personal appearance within a personal selling context. While results for a sample of 48 faculty approached by a confederate were not supportive, analysis of those faculty who contributed suggests how one might study these par...
Article
Data from 166 insurance agents were used to examine how three forms of commitment-job involvement, professional commitment, and community commitment-are related to job perceptions. attitudes, and performance. Professional commitment demonstrated strong and pervasive relationships with job perceptions, job attitudes, and annual earned income. Job in...
Article
The relationship between the number of employees in a firm, their rank, and the level of professionalism among firm members is evaluated in 19 accounting firms, involving 325 accountants engaged in public practice. Professionalism is measured using five individual traits plus a composite. Results indicate that one trait (i.e. a belief that the prof...
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HR departments are evaluated more frequently in organizations that have created a human resource mission statement.
Article
The validity of five work commitment concepts is assessed via content analysis. The role of rater naivety (i.e., familiarity) with the concepts and measures used is also evaluated. Organizational commitment and Protestant work ethic were found to be least redundant. Naive raters demonstrated more redundancy than raters familiar with the concepts an...
Article
Candidate physical attractiveness, sex, and age, along with rater age and sex, are assessed in terms of their ability to affect recommendations for promotions. Forty personnel professionals evaluated eight candidates for a regional manager position using simulated assessment center data in a 2x2x2 repeated measures design. Results indicated a small...
Article
This article represents the 15th in a series of yearly reviews of the vocational behavior literature. Fitzgerald and Rounds' (1989, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35, 105–163) structural representation of the vocational literature served as the basis for organizing this year's review, although some modifications were necessitated by the growing vo...
Article
Seventy-four undergraduate students voluntarily participated in a laboratory experiment involving the learning of WordStar, a personal computer word processing software package. The experiment constituted a 2X2X2 factorial design; two levels of computer anxiety (based on a pre-experimental questionnaire), two types of training (lecture/demonstratio...
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Four measures of work commitment (job involvement, organizational commitment, work ethic endorsement, and intention to remain), five job satisfaction facets, and six personal characteristics were examined under three career stage operationalizations: age, organizational tenure, and positional tenure. Results from a sample of 2200 public agency empl...
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108 male and 65 female undergraduate students participated in a survey designed to examine 10 potential correlates of computer anxiety. Analysis indicated that self-reported behavioral correlates, particularly those directly associated with computer use, accounted for more of the variance in computer anxiety than personality or attitudinally-based...
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This article examines the potential of applying network analysis to attribution theories of leadership. Network analysis allows the identification of social groups linked together by work, friendship, influence, or communication relations and of the relative position of actors within the social group. Moreover, network properties such as centrality...
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This article presents information on work commitment. Research interest in worker commitment has been so high as to generate over 25 concepts/measures since 1956. Protestant work ethic, job involvement and organizational commitment have produced generally acceptable reliability estimates, but work as a central life interest has been found not to be...
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The authors present a conceptual framework for integrating attribution theory within an expectancy model of salesforce motivation. Emphasis is placed on the development of hypotheses surrounding the effect of causal attributions on expectancy beliefs as well as on factors influencing this proposed relationship, namely, past performance information...
Article
The authors present a conceptual framework for integrating attribution theory within an expectancy model of salesforce motivation. Emphasis is placed on the development of hypotheses surrounding the effect of causal attributions on expectancy beliefs as well as on factors influencing this proposed relationship, namely, past performance information...
Article
Attribution theory is presented as a potentially useful framework for understanding the workings of operant conditioning principles. Causal attributions for the receipt of reinforcements are posited to have a moderating effect on reinforcement predictions emanating from the law of effect. Attributions are hypothesized to explain the effects of rein...
Article
A repeated measures study assessing the impact of ratee sex, past performance, and attractiveness on performance evaluations was completed. Past performance was shown to account for nearly all of the explained variation in the dependent measures. The role of attractiveness is assessed to operate "on the margin" at best.
Article
Sex discrimination in organisations operates at two distinct levels. On one hand, women experience difficulty entering certain occupations/organisations. This type of discrimination has been labelled access sex discrimination. This form of discrimination relies heavily on stereotyping. One form of stereotyping—sex characteristic stereotypes—refers...
Article
A university examination provided the setting for testing a hypothesis from the interference model of test anxiety. Since the model assumes that the test situation interferes with task-relevant behavior, two environmentally-relevant test factors were manipulated, the number of students present in the examination room and the positions of proctors....
Article
Examined the relationship between office design (desk and seating arrangements) and occupant personality in a field study of 40 university faculty occupying single offices. Measures included Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Scale, and the Extraversion scale from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire...
Article
Research on the impact of office design has relied on samples of students. To evaluate the external generalizability of previous findings, the relationships among three design elements (desk placement, status symbol display, tidiness) and visitors' impressions (visitors' feelings, attributions about the officerholder) were examined among 64 college...
Article
A laboratory experiment involving 144 student subjects was con ducted to examine the effects of performance cues on descriptions of leader behavior. The concept of involvement, operationalized in a two-dimensional manner, was invoked in order to create varying vantage points (observation versus participation)from which subjects would view leader be...
Article
A typology of leadership research utilizing an attributional paradigm is presented. Studies are typed according to three pertinent questions: (1) What is to be studied? (2) Whom do you ask? and (3) What is the purpose of the research? The typology reveals that most of the research using the attribution paradigm is descriptive rather than prescripti...
Article
Probably more has been written and less known about leadership than any other topic in the behavioral sciences.
Article
Inconsistent effects of desk placement on visitors' reactions are examined in light of methodological differences employed in studies of office design. Data from a slide-simulated office study based on slides constructed from a “visitor's chair” perspective were compared to previous data. Subjects' reactions to visitor's chair-constructed slides we...
Article
Evaluated the relationships among 3 office design elements (desk placement, presence of status symbols, and tidiness) and visitor responses, using 100 undergraduates. In a repeated-measures design, Ss rated slides of a faculty office in terms of (1) their feelings of comfort and welcomeness and (2) 12 attributions of the office's occupant. Tidiness...
Article
Interior office design is conceptualized as a form of non-verbal communication and explored in relation to visitor response and impression management. Subject responses to simulated offices varying in desk placement, status and tidiness indicate that office design elements elicit specific visitor reactions and induce predictable attributions about...

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