James Marsh

James Marsh
Public Health England | HPA

About

113
Publications
15,718
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1,981
Citations
Citations since 2017
17 Research Items
982 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (113)
Article
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publishes guidance on protection against radon exposure in homes and workplaces. ICRP Publication 137 recommends a dose coefficient of 3 mSv per mJ h m-3 (~10 mSv WLM-1) to be used in most circumstances of radon exposure, for workers in buildings and in underground mines. Recently, Unit...
Article
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publishes guidance on protection from radon in homes and workplaces, and dose coefficients for use in assessments of exposure for protection purposes. ICRP Publication 126 recommends an upper reference level for exposures in homes and workplaces of 300 Bq m ⁻³ . In general, protection c...
Article
Fundamental estimates of radon-associated health risk have been provided by epidemiological studies of miners. In total, approximately 15 studies have been conducted worldwide since the 1960s. These results have contributed directly to radiological protection against radon. The present article summarises the main results, with a focus on analyses o...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of CONFIDENCE WP2 is to improve the situation awareness in the early phase of a nuclear accident by trying to reduce the uncertainty in individual dose assessment when dealing with external and internal exposures. Main WP2 research actions to improve external dosimetry in this emergency frame were the development of destruction-free protoco...
Article
Technical recommendations in respect of the thyroid dose rate measurements potentially carried out by members of the public in case of nuclear power plant accident are elaborated based on theoretical considerations and practical experiences with instruments offered to the public for “radioactivity measurements”. Practical advices are given on how t...
Article
Full-text available
Following a severe nuclear reactor accident large amounts of radioactive iodine are released in the atmosphere. Health consequences estimation for the affected population is based on the dose assessment which can be derived from in vivo measurements. Since the uptake of radioactive iodine increases the thyroid cancer risk of children it is of parti...
Article
Full-text available
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published three reports on radon exposure: (i) Publication 115 on lung cancer risks from radon and radon progeny [ bibrR11 ], (ii) Publication 126 on radiological protection against radon exposure [ bibrR22 ] and (iii) Publication 137 on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclide...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report presents technical recommendations for individual monitoring of workers for occupational intakes of radionuclides. It aims at providing guidance on those aspects of the implementation of the provisions of the Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive related to individual monitoring of internal exposures, and to encourage harmonisation a...
Book
Abstract –: The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 2007) introduced changes that affect the calculation of effective dose, and implied a revision of the dose coefficients for internal exposure, published previously in the Publication 30 series (ICRP, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1988) and Publication 68 (IC...
Book
The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP, 2007) introduced changes that affect the calculation of effective dose, and implied a revision of the dose coefficients for internal exposure, published previously in the Publication 30 series (ICRP, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1988) and Publication 68 (ICRP, 1994). In...
Article
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recently published two reports on radon exposure; Publication 115 on lung cancer risks from radon and radon progeny and Publication 126 on radiological protection against radon exposure. A specific graded approach for the control of radon in workplaces is recommended where a dose as...
Technical Report
Full-text available
DESCRIPTION This report gives technical guidelines for radio-iodine monitoring following a nuclear incident. Monitoring aspects addressed include the choice of detectors, the calibration and measurement process, factors affecting measurements, measurement uncertainties, the preparation of equipment and measurement locations, the measurement time, t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
DESCRIPTION This report presents the result of the work carried out by the Work Package 6 of the CAThyMARA project. This work focused on the direct assessment of the thyroid dose or committed effective dose from measurements. As a result dose per content functions are derived for different ages (new born, 1,5,10,15-years old children and adult) and...
Article
In the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013, lung dose is calculated as an average of the three absorbed doses to the bronchial, the bronchiolar and the alveolar regions. Previous epidemiological studies involving Mayak Workers have used a lung dose calculated as the total energy deposited in the lungs divided by the mass. These two definitions lead...
Article
Objectives To examine the risk of death from leukaemia in relation to occupational chronic low-level external and internal radiation exposure in a cohort of 58 972 former German uranium miners with mortality follow-up from 1946 to 2013. Methods The red bone marrow (RBM) dose from low-linear energy transfer (LET) (mainly external γ-radiation) and h...
Article
In the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013), intakes of plutonium and organ doses are assessed on the basis of measurements made on the plutonium content of 56 400 urine samples. Altogether, there were urine bioassays for 7591 (29%) of the 25 757 cohort members who were employed any time at Mayak between 1948 and 1982. These measurements are s...
Article
Full-text available
The potential health impacts of chronic exposures to uranium, as they occur in occupational settings, are not well characterized. Most epidemiological studies have been limited by small sample sizes, and a lack of harmonization of methods used to quantify radiation doses resulting from uranium exposure. Experimental studies have shown that uranium...
Article
Full-text available
Dose assessment after intakes of radionuclides requires application of biokinetic and dosimetric models and assumptions about factors influencing the final result. In 2006, a document giving guidance for such assessment was published, commonly referred to as the IDEAS Guidelines. Following its publication, a working group within the European networ...
Article
Full-text available
The TECHREC project, funded by the European Commission, will provide Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals for Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides. It is expected that the document will be published by the European Commission as a report in its Radiation Protection Series during 2016. The project is coordinated by the European Radi...
Book
Full-text available
http://www.icru.org/content/reports/measurement-and-reporting-of-radon-exposures
Article
In 1983, a young man inhaled accidentally a large amount of plutonium and americium. This case was carefully followed until 2013. Since no decorporation measures had been taken, the undisturbed metabolism of Pu and Am can be derived from the data. First objective was to determine the amount of inhaled radionuclides and to estimate committed effecti...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To examine exposure-response relationships between ionizing radiation and several mortality outcomes in a subgroup of 4,054 men of the German uranium miner cohort study, who worked between 1946 and 1989 in milling facilities, but never underground or in open pit mines. Methods: Mortality follow-up was from 1946 to 2008, accumulating 158...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Epidemiological studies of the French uranium miners and the plutonium workers at the Mayak nuclear facility have provided excess relative risk (ERR) estimates per unit absorbed lung dose from alpha radiation. The aim of this paper was to review these two studies and to derive values of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Inhalation of radon progeny can cause high lung and respiratory tract radiation doses. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship between radon progeny and cancers of the extra-thoracic airways in the German uranium miner cohort for an extended follow-up through 2008. Methods: The cohort included 58,690 workers employed betwe...
Article
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 66 Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) treats clearance of materials from the respiratory tract as a competitive process between absorption into blood and particle transport to the alimentary tract and lymphatics. The ICRP recommended default absorption rates for lead and p...
Article
The European Commission project IDEAS has produced guidelines for internal dose assessments from monitoring data. A key stage in the guidelines requires assessment of the goodness-of-fit of biokinetic models to bioassay data. The present note extends the use of an autocorrelation coefficient to assess the fits of multiple types of bioassay quantity...
Article
To facilitate the estimation of radiation doses from intake of radionuclides, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publishes dose coefficients (dose per unit intake) based on reference biokinetic and dosimetric models. The ICRP generally has not provided biokinetic models or dose coefficients for intake of noble gases, but...
Book
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recently estimated the risk of lung cancer associated with radon exposure, and a statement was issued in ICRP Publication 115. This was based on recent epidemiological studies and the results from a joint analysis of cohorts of Czech, French, and German uranium miners, and indicated tha...
Article
Currently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses the dose conversion convention to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. In a recent statement, ICRP indicated the intention that, in future, the same approach will be applied to intakes of radon and its progeny as is applied to all other ra...
Article
Full-text available
EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry (WG7)' represents a frame to develop activities in the field of internal exposures as coordinated actions on quality assurance (QA), research and training. The main tasks to carry out are the update of the IDEAS Guidelines as a reference document for the internal dosimetry community, the implementation a...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the risk of lung cancer death associated with cumulative lung doses from exposure to α-particle emitters, including radon gas, radon short-lived progeny, and long-lived radionuclides, and to external γ rays among French uranium miners. The French "post-55" sub-cohort included 3,377 uranium miners hired from 1956,...
Article
'Dusty occupations' and exposure to low-dose radiation have been suggested as potential risk factors for stomach cancer. Data from the German uranium miner cohort study are used to further evaluate this topic. The cohort includes 58 677 miners with complete information on occupational exposure to dust, arsenic and radiation dose based on a detailed...
Article
Objectives The study aims to assess the risk of lung cancer death associated with lung doses due to radon gas and its short-lived progeny (RnP), long-lived radionucleides (LLR) and external γ rays in the French cohort of uranium miners. Methods The cohort included 3271 exposed miners followed from 1956 through 1999. Annual exposures were assessed...
Article
Epidemiological studies on uranium miners are being carried out to quantify the risk of cancer based on organ dose calculations. Mathematical models have been applied to calculate the annual absorbed doses to regions of the lung, red bone marrow, liver, kidney and stomach for each individual miner arising from exposure to radon gas, radon progeny a...
Article
EURADOS working group on 'Internal Dosimetry (WG7)' represents a frame to develop activities in the field of internal exposures as coordinated actions on quality assurance (QA), research and training. The main tasks to carry out are the update of the IDEAS Guidelines as a reference document for the internal dosimetry community, the implementation a...
Article
Full-text available
A training course named ‘European Radiation Dosimetry Group/International Atomic Energy Agency Advanced Training Course on Internal Dose Assessment’ was held in Czech Technical University in Prague from 2 to 6 February 2009. The course, jointly organised by the two organisations, had the aim of providing guidance on the application of IDEAS guideli...
Article
Epidemiological studies of the occupational exposure of miners and domestic exposures of the public have provided strong and complementary evidence of the risks of lung cancer following inhalation of radon progeny. Recent miner epidemiological studies, which include low levels of exposure, long duration of follow-up, and good quality of individual...
Article
New information on particle retention of inhaled insoluble material indicates that the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) significantly underestimates long-term retention in the lungs. In a previous paper, the information from three studies was reviewed, and a model developed to predict particle retention in the lungs of coal miners was adap...
Article
Lung cancer is a well-known effect of radon exposure in uranium mines. However, little is known about the induction of leukemia by radiation exposure in mines. Moreover, miners usually have occupational medical checkup programs that include chest x-ray examinations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to re-examine leukemia risk among miner...
Article
Better information is available now on long-term particle retention in the human lungs than there was in 1994, when the human respiratory tract model (HRTM) was adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Three recent studies are especially useful because they provide such information for groups of people who inhaled...
Article
Recent epidemiological studies of the association between lung cancer and exposure to radon and its decay products are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to pooled case-control studies of residential exposures, and to cohorts of underground miners exposed to relatively low levels of radon. The residential and miner epidemiological studies provi...
Article
Full-text available
The work of Task Group 5.1 (uncertainty studies and revision of IDEAS guidelines) and Task Group 5.5 (update of IDEAS databases) of the CONRAD project is described. Scattering factor (SF) values (i.e. measurement uncertainties) have been calculated for different radionuclides and types of monitoring data using real data contained in the IDEAS Inter...
Article
Full-text available
The CONRAD Project is a Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry funded by the European Commission 6th Framework Programme. The activities developed within CONRAD Work Package 5 (‘Coordination of Research on Internal Dosimetry’) have contributed to improve the harmonisation and reliability in the assessment of internal doses. The tasks carried o...
Article
Full-text available
The EUropean RAdiation DOSimetry Group (EURADOS) initiated in 2005 the CONRAD Project, a Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry funded by the European Commission (EC), within the 6th Framework Programme (FP). The main purpose of CONRAD is to generate a European Network in the field of Radiation Dosimetry and to promote both research activities...
Article
The European project Alpha-Risk aims to quantify the cancer and non-cancer risks associated with multiple chronic radiation exposures by epidemiological studies, organ dose calculation and risk assessment. In the framework of this project, mathematical models have been applied to the organ dosimetry of uranium miners who are internally exposed to r...
Article
Intakes and doses are assessed for seven workers who accidentally inhaled particles containing Co in the same incident. Comprehensive whole body data to 15 y, and some early urine and fecal data, are available for each individual. The biokinetic and dosimetric models currently recommended by ICRP have been used to assess these cases. It was not pos...
Article
The IDEAS Guidelines for the assessment of internal doses from monitoring data suggest default measurement uncertainties (i.e. scattering factors, SFs) to be used for different types of monitoring data. However, these default values were mainly based upon expert judgement. In this paper, SF values have been calculated for different radionuclides an...
Article
In an emergency involving the deliberate or accidental release of radioactive materials, there could potentially be a large number of people who require monitoring for internal contamination. Doses from these measurements will need to be calculated as quickly as possible. Emergency Response Internal Dose Assessment Software (ERIDAS) has been design...
Article
A common problem in internal dosimetry occurs in routine monitoring, when it is required to estimate an intake from a measurement made at the end of a monitoring interval, and the time of intake is unknown. ICRP suggests that it should be assumed that the intake occurred in the middle of the monitoring period. However, it has been shown that this w...
Article
Full-text available
The need for harmonisation of the procedures for internal dose assessment has been recognised within an EU research project under the 5th Framework Programme. The aim of the IDEAS project was to develop general guidelines for standardising assessments of intakes and internal doses. It started in October 2001 and ended in June 2005. The project is c...
Article
The EUropean RAdiation DOSimetry Group (EURADOS) initiated in 2005 the CONRAD Project, a Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry funded by the European Commission (EC), within the 6th Framework Programme (FP). The main purpose of CONRAD is to generate a European Network in the field of Radiation Dosimetry and to promote both research activities...
Article
In order to investigate the degree of dose uncertainty produced by different models, three dosimetry models were compared with each other, representing different classes of models: (i) The RADEP/IMBA model based on the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model, a deterministic regional compartment model, (ii) the RADOS model, a deterministic airway genera...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the EU Fifth Framework Programme IDEAS project ‘General Guidelines for the Evaluation of Incorporation Monitoring Data’, and in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, a new intercomparison exercise for the assessment of doses from intakes of radionuclides was organised. Several cases were selected, to cover a wide ran...
Article
The objective of this Task Group is the coordination of research studies on biokinetic models and the evaluation of the implications of new biokinetic models on dose assessment and safety standards. For this the new ICRP models, which will be used for a revision of ICRP Publications 30, 54, 68 and 78, are implemented into six different computer cod...
Article
Project IDEAS has produced guidelines for internal dose assessment. An integral part of this process is assessing the goodness of fit of biokinetic models to bioassay data. It is recommended that a fit should only be accepted if (a) it is close enough to the data not to be rejected by a χ2 test and (b) if it looks acceptable to ‘the eye’. The latte...