James H. Liu

James H. Liu
Massey University · School of Psychology

PhD

About

252
Publications
310,569
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Introduction
James Hou-fu Liu is Professor of Psychology at Massey University in New Zealand. He completed a PhD at UCLA in 1992, followed by a post-doc at Florida Atlantic University. He taught at Victoria University of Wellington for 20 years, most recently as Professor and Co-Director of its Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research from 2010-2014. His research is in cross-cultural, social, and political psychology, specializing in social representations of history and social identity.
Additional affiliations
February 2015 - present
Massey University
Position
  • Professor and Head of School
Description
  • Psychology at Massey University has 50 permanent academic staff across 3 campuses with 3 Psychology Clinics. It is NZ's distance education leader.
July 1994 - present
Victoria University of Wellington
Position
  • Co-Director, Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research
July 1994 - present
Victoria University of Wellington
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Also Co-Director of the Centre for Applied Cross-Cultural Research

Publications

Publications (252)
Preprint
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The status-legitimacy hypothesis proposes that those who are most disadvantaged by unequal social systems are even more likely than members of more advantaged groups to provide ideological support for the very social system that is responsible for their disadvantages. Li, Yang, Wu, and Kou (2020) sought to expand the generalizability of this hypoth...
Article
COVID-19 has drastically changed human behaviors and posed a threat to globalism by spurring a resurgence of nationalism. Promoting prosocial behavior within and across borders is of paramount importance for global cooperation to combat pandemics. To examine both self-report and actual prosocial behavior, we conducted the first empirical test of gl...
Article
In this article, we test if conservatism predicts psychological wellbeing longitudinally. We based the study on previous findings showing that conservatives score higher on different measures of wellbeing, such as life satisfaction and happiness. Most explanations in the literature have assumed that conservatism antecedes wellbeing without consider...
Article
Since its inception as a modern and evolving discipline, psychology has been concerned with issues of human security. This think piece offers an initial conceptualisation of human security as a broad security concept that encompasses a range of interrelated dimensions that have been responded to by different sub-disciplinary domains within psycholo...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, does more internet and social media use lead to taking more- or less-effective preventive measures against the disease? A two-wave longitudinal survey with the general population in mainland China in mid-2020 found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, internet and social media use intensity promoted the adoption of nonph...
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Discovery of behavioral patterns in online social commerce practice becomes important in this digital era. In this article, we propose a systematic approach to behavioral pattern discovery, and apply it in an emerging online social commerce venue: live streaming. We investigate behavioral patterns in gifting encouragement in live streaming to under...
Article
The study of collective memory (CM) forms a platform for dialogue between top‐down (CM as publicly available symbols) and bottom‐up approaches (CM as aggregated across individuals), and between the idiographic (case specific) and nomothetic (universal) approaches across the social sciences and humanities. The availability of symbolic resources from...
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Cooperation within and across borders is of paramount importance for the provision of public goods. Parochialism – the tendency to cooperate more with ingroup than outgroup members – limits contributions to global public goods. National parochialism (i.e., greater cooperation among members of the same nation) could vary across nations and has been...
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The COVID‐19 pandemic has given rise to unprecedented and extraordinary conditions. It represents a profound threat to health and political and economic stability globally. It is the pressing issue of the current historical moment and is likely to have far‐reaching social and political implications over the next decade. Political psychology can inf...
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The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected both physical health and mental well-being around the world. Stress-related reactions, if prolonged, may result in mental health problems. We examined the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in a multinational study and explored the effects of government responses to...
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Political ideology has been hypothesized to be associated with cooperation and national parochialism (i.e. greater cooperation with members of one's nation), with liberals thought to have more cooperation with strangers and less national parochialism, compared to conservatives. However, previous findings are limited to few—and predominantly western...
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Leading up to the 2017 New Zealand general election, Stuff.co.nz and Massey University collaborated in two online surveys of public opinion to test the mood of the nation and seek opinions about a range of relevant political and social issues. Given their success, two more surveys were conducted in 2020. This article summarises results from the 202...
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We investigated differences in personality traits (Big-5) and human values amongst four groups of Brazilian students staying at home or studying abroad. Two groups came from Brazilian universities: one had no interest studying abroad (n = 112), while the other group was interested studying abroad (n = 227). The third and fourth groups were Brazilia...
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Recently, researchers have endeavored to extend cultural perspectives of collective remembering by examining communicative or living historical memory (collective memories that emerge from informal communication between ordinary people). The current study examined the content and subjective evaluation of living historical memory from open-ended nom...
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The present study focuses on a new type of social representation: the historical system of meaning embodied by the philosophy and lifeways of Confucianism. Eighteen young and educated Chinese were interviewed face-to-face. Thematic analyses of their transcripts showed that Confucianism representations contained two subthemes, figures (Confucius and...
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Growing efforts have been made to pool coronavirus data and control measures from countries and regions to compare the effectiveness of government policies. We examine whether these strategies can explain East Asia’s effective control of the COVID‐19 pandemic based on time‐series data with cross‐correlations between the Stringency Index and number...
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Psychology has a pervasive but shallow engagement with Confucian philosophy, mainly referencing its popular form as a part of Chinese tradition. This special issue takes a more systematic view of Confucianism as comprehensive philosophy. Drawing from New Confucianism, it is argued that the signal contribution of Confucianism to psychology as human...
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United Nations and World Health Organization data show a positive correlation, r = .53, p < .0001, N = 189, between COVID‐19 infection rates and the human development index (HDI). Less wealthy, less educated countries with lower life spans were also more successful in maintaining lower fatality rates, r = .46, p < .0001, N = 189 whereas 9 of the to...
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Parasocial theory views ordinary people’s emotional bonding with political figures as a form of parasocial relationship (PSR). Despite the insights it offers, existing measures of PSR have been criticized conceptually and psychometrically. We developed a new scale of PSR with political figures (PSR-P) and examined the construct validity, factor rep...
Article
In psychology, where a natural science epistemology holds sway, relationships between the researcher and the researched are usually hierarchical and transactional, bound in procedural and legal ethics. This limited view of ethics fails to account for issues of power and privilege, as well as inequalities in economic and sociocultural structures. We...
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Cosmopolitan Orientation’s (COS) relationship with personal religiosity, organizational religiosity, and national identity was examined in nationally representative samples from 19 societies (13 mainly Christian, 2 Muslim, and 4 societies with historically Buddhist influences, N = 8740). Multi-group structural equation models found that personal re...
Chapter
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The historical writings of four major political identity entrepreneurs in pre-independence India mobilizing Indian national identity are analysed using the concept of historical trajectories (derived from a reading of Propp’s linear sequential analysis). The theory of history and identity draws from social representations theory to analyse the cont...
Article
Living historical memory (LHM) was assessed amongst representative samples of adults from 40 societies (N=22,708), who completed online surveys asking them to name 3 historical events in living memory that have had the greatest impact on their country. Multilevel analyses revealed that the number of LHM nominations was positively but variably relat...
Article
The new era of information technology brings new opportunities but also poses new threats. In our paper, we examine whether a shift from traditional print and broadcasting to new online media results in the increased normalization of hate speech towards minorities, and whether this change can subsequently increase prejudice towards minorities. Our...
Preprint
The predictive value of Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Human Values on the beliefs that (1) human activity is causing climate change, and that (2) governments of the world should act together to reduce global carbon emissions are examined in 20 countries. We also examined whether country level variables (e.g., environmental performance inde...
Article
Live streaming is becoming popular and has attracted large numbers of online viewers. It becomes a social commerce venue where streamers can gain commercial benefits from building the relationship with viewers. Before building relationship with more viewers, how to attract more viewers is the essential foundation in the live streaming industry. Thi...
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Masspersonal information seeking repertoires are a person-centered method of gaining insight into the relationship between Internet use, subjective well-being, and political participation. Through latent profile analysis, three person types were identified in two waves of stratified samples in 18 countries ( N = 8352). In accord with the “augmentat...
Article
According to Robert Putnam, trust can be a proxy for social capital. Thus, a higher societal trust could be related to economic growth. To test this hypothesis, we simulated the association between trust and economic growth in two artificial societies. One artificial society (New Zealand) exhibited higher levels of initial trust, and the other (Arg...
Chapter
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This chapter comments on commentaries on prospects for a more equitable Global Psychology as envisioned by Kuo-shu Yang. Yang was a quantitative empirical researcher, committed to quantitative survey methods even though he moved away from cross-cultural psychology toward indigenous psychology (IP). His instructive list of do’s and don’t provides a...
Article
This study examines age and sex differences in human values, with GDP, GGI (Gender Gap Index), and individualism-collectivism as culture-level moderators, using representative data for age and sex across 20 countries with substantial cultural variability (N = 21,362). Cross-sectional findings revealed that all values dimensions varied in importance...
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Psychology has begun contributing to social theory by providing empirical measures of actually existing cosmopolitanism that complements more purely theoretical conceptions of the construct common in philosophy and sociology. Drawing from two waves of research on representative adult samples from 19 countries (N = 8740), metric invariance was found...
Article
The Narrative Categorical Content Analysis toolkit (abbreviated as NarrCat) decomposes narratives into distinct, quantifiable psychological processes. In this study, NarrCat was applied to analyze New Zealand’s historical “Speeches from the Throne” from 1854 to 1913 (68 speeches). Specifically, NarrCat’s cognition, emotion, and intention modules we...
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This study explores the individual-and country-level factors that influence how getting news from social media relates to people's beliefs about anthropogenic climate change. Concepts of psychological distance and motivated reasoning are tested using multilevel analysis with survey data in 20 countries (N ¼ 18,785). Results suggest that using socia...
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Vote shares for populist radical right parties (PRRPs) have increased considerably in recent years, and this advancement of PRRPs has been attributed in part to social media. We assess the affinity between social media and populist radical right parties by examining a) whether more frequent social media use for news enhances the willingness to vote...
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Immigration is a worldwide subject of interest, and studies about attitudes towards immigrants have been frequent due to immigration crises in different locations across the globe. We aimed at understanding individual-level effects of human values and ideological beliefs (Right-Wing Authoritarianism – RWA, and Social Dominance Orientation – SDO) on...
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The growing importance of social media for getting science news has raised questions about whether these online platforms foster or hinder public trust in science. Employing multilevel modeling, this study leverages a 20-country survey to examine the relationship between social media news use and trust in science. Results show a positive relationsh...
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This study examined how internet use is related to subjective well-being, using longitudinal data from 19 nations with representative online samples stratified for age, gender, and region (N = 7122, 51.43% women, Mage= 45.26). Life satisfaction and anxiety served as indices of subjective well-being at time 1 (t1) and then six months later (t2). Fre...
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Based on social identity theory and the dual process model of social attitudes, we argue that individuals high in right-wing authoritarianism are motivated to identify with their national in-group. In addition, considering that national identities are shaped by political and historical factors, we propose that authoritarian individuals will identif...
Article
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This study examines how the use of internet is related to well-being using longitudinal data from 19 nations with representative online quota stratification samples (N = 7122, 51.43% women, Mage = 45.26). Life satisfaction and anxiety were measured as indexes of subjective well-being at time one (t1) and then sixth months later (t2). Frequency of i...
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Social group membership and its social‐relational corollaries, for example, social contact, trust, and support, are prophylactic for health. Research has tended to focus on how direct social interactions between members of small‐scale groups (i.e., a local sports team or community group) are conducive to positive health outcomes. The current study...
Preprint
Vote shares for populist radical right parties (PRRPs) have increased considerably in recent years. Since Donald Trump’s victory at the 2016 US Presidential election, the advancement of populist radical right actors has been attributed in part to social media. This study aimed to assess the affinity between social media and populist radical right p...
Article
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Second screening politics is an emerging communication practice for engaging with public affairs content. Scholars are increasingly interested in exploring pro-democratic effects of dual screening during news events and election cycles. This paper examines the potential for second screening practices to develop social capital on social media platfo...
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Since introduced by Professor McLeod and the Wisconsin School at the turn of the century, a large body of research has employed the communication mediation model. Yet, most of these studies rely on cross-sectional and individual-level survey data collected in the United States. This paper seeks to address these shortcomings by testing a specificati...
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Social trust has long attracted the interest of researchers across different disciplines. Most of previous studies rely on single-country data and consider only one dimension of social trust at a time (e.g., trust in science, the media or political institutions). This research extends a framework developed by the Global Trust Inventory (GTI) by dis...
Article
Following a survey asking many questions about world history, 6185 students from 35 countries were asked, “What contribution do you think the country you are living in has made to world history?” They provided an estimate from 0 to 100%, where 0% indicated that the country made no contribution to world history and 100% indicated that all contributi...
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The augmentation and displacement hypotheses generated two mediators for the relationship between social media use and mental health. A representative online sample of 1157 New Zealanders (stratified on age, gender, and region) were measured on social media use for networking, offline social capital, internet addiction, anxiety, and depression. Res...
Article
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Following a survey asking many questions about world history, 5495 students from 30 countries were asked “What contribution do you think the country you are living in has made to world history?” They provided an estimate from 0-100%, where 0% indicated that the country made no contribution to world history and 100% indicated that all contributions...
Article
Full-text available
Following a survey asking many questions about world history, 6185 students from 35 countries were asked, “What contribution do you think the country you are living in has made to world history?” They provided an estimate from 0-100%, where 0% indicated that the country made no contribution to world history and 100% indicated that all contributions...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of the United States, research shows a positive relationship between network heterogeneity and political expression on social media at the individual level. This study builds on that research, relying on multilevel analysis that (1) leverages a twenty-country comparative survey and (2) includes country-level data on freedom of expres...
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The Global Trust Inventory (GTI), conceptually assessing trust in others ranging from close interpersonal relationships to relationships with government and financial institutions as a whole, was administered to representative online samples in 11 democratic states (N = 11,917 from Europe, the Americas, and New Zealand). A seven-factor solution had...
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According to the palliative function of ideology hypothesis proposed by System Justification Theory, endorsing system‐justifying beliefs is positively related to general psychological well‐being, because this fulfils existential, epistemic, and relational needs. We discuss and address three main issues: (1) the role of societal inequality, (2) comp...
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This study tests specific competing hypotheses from social dominance theory/realistic conflict theory (RCT) versus system justification theory about the role of social status. In particular, it examines whether system justification belief and effects are stronger among people with low socioeconomic status, and in less socially developed and unequal...
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The final thematic special issue in the series ‘The Social Psychology of Social Change: Science and Practice in Asia’ features 10 empirical studies that apply diverse social psychological theories and approaches to understand and to address a wide range of social concerns in Asian societies. The articles in the special issue align more to mainstrea...
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Guided by a self-categorisation and social-identity framework of identity entrepreneurship (Reicher & Hopkins, 2001), and social representations theory of history (Liu & Hilton, 2005), this paper examines how the Hindu nationalist movement of India defines Hindu nationhood by embedding it in an essentialising historical narrative. The heart of the...
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International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trus...