James Levine

James Levine
University of Bristol | UB · School of Economics, Finance and Management

About

235
Publications
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Publications

Publications (235)
Article
Background Although the consequences of sleep deficiency for obesity risk are increasingly apparent, experimental evidence is limited and there are no studies on body fat distribution. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of experimentally-induced sleep curtailment in the setting of free access to food on energy inta...
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Objectives: This systematic review evaluated the accuracy of triaxial and omnidirectional accelerometers for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in children. Design: Systematic review of the literature. Methods: We comprehensively searched several databases for studies published from January 1996 through June 2018 that reported diagn...
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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Approximately 80% of adolescents do not meet the current national guidelines of engaging in 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily. Physical activity is widely recognized as being beneficial for healthy growth as well as important for good mental health and fitness. Interventions are needed that promote and encourag...
Article
Importance There are few effective treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Short-term administration of inorganic nitrite or nitrate preparations has been shown to enhance nitric oxide signaling, which may improve aerobic capacity in HFpEF. Objective To determine the effect of 4 weeks’ administration of inhaled, nebu...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Background: Almost 80% of adolescents do not achieve 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day recommended by current national guidelines. There is a need to develop and promote interventions that increase physical activity among adolescents. With increased interest in digital technologies among adolescents, robotic-assisted platf...
Article
Background: Almost 80% of adolescents do not achieve 60 minutes or more of physical activity each day as recommended by current US national guidelines. There is a need to develop and promote interventions that increase physical activity among adolescents. With increased interest in digital technologies among adolescents, robotic-assisted platforms...
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Full-text available
Background: Estimating energy requirements forms an integral part of developing diet and activity interventions. Current estimates often rely on a product of physical activity level (PAL) and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) prediction. PAL estimates, however, typically depend on subjective self-reported activity or a clinician's best guess. Energy-...
Article
This article documents thermophysiological patterns associated with migraine episodes, where the inner canthi and supraorbital temperatures drop significantly compared to normal conditions. These drops are likely due to vasoconstriction of the ophthalmic arteries under the inner canthi and sympathetic activation of the eccrine glands in the supraor...
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A prior project found that an intensive (12 weeks, thrice weekly sessions) in-person, supervised, exercise coaching intervention was effective for smoking cessation among depressed women smokers. However, the sample was 90% White and of high socioeconomic status, and the intensity of the intervention limits its reach. One approach to intervention s...
Article
Objective Little is known about long‐term metabolic (energy expenditure) adaptation after bariatric surgery. Methods Resting metabolic rate under basal conditions (RMR), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), and body composition were measured in 25 participants in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery‐2. Results Six months after surge...
Chapter
The human being is designed to walk. Over a miniscule, in genetic terms, period of time, a mere 200 years, human have been compressed into chairs. Education, work, and home environments promote sedentariness in susceptible people. In those individuals, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is suppressed and health is harmed. Overall the streng...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for immigrant families, derived through community-based participatory research. Design: The Healthy Immigrant Families study was a randomized controlled trial with delayed intervention control group, with families as the randomization unit. Setting: US Midwest city. Part...
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Background: Daily physical activity assessed by accelerometers represents a novel method to assess the impact of interventions on heart failure (HF) patients' functional status. We hypothesized that daily activity varies by patient characteristics and correlates with established measures of HF severity in HF with preserved ejection fraction. Meth...
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Introduction: Deskwork contributes substantially to sedentariness. Here, we evaluated an under-the-table apparatus that was designed to promote leg movement (fidgeting) while seated. Our hypothesis was that the under-the-table apparatus would increase energy expenditure. Methods: We measured energy expenditure and heart rate in 26 people while they...
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Introduction: Few studies have evaluated exercise interventions for smokers with depression or other psychiatric comorbidities. This pilot study evaluated the potential role of supervised vigorous exercise as a smoking cessation intervention for depressed females. Methods: Thirty adult women with moderate-severe depressive symptoms were enrolled...
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Introduction Sedentariness is associated with chronic health conditions, impaired cognitive function and obesity. Work contributes significantly to sedentariness because many work tasks necessitate sitting. Few sustained solutions exist to reverse workplace sedentariness. Here, we evaluated a chair and an under-table device that were designed to pr...
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Background This study examined the impact of short activity breaks in preschool children. The hypotheses were that preschool children receiving three five-minute activity breaks per day would increase (a) school time physical activity and (b) education scores compared to a control group not receiving the intervention. Methods For 8 weeks, the Inte...
Article
Background: US immigrants often have escalating cardiovascular risk. Barriers to optimal physical activity and diet have a significant role in this risk accumulation. Methods: We developed a physical activity and nutrition intervention with immigrant and refugee families through a community-based participatory research approach. Work groups of c...
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Background: Nitrates are commonly prescribed to enhance activity tolerance in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. We compared the effect of isosorbide mononitrate or placebo on daily activity in such patients. Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind, crossover study, 110 patients with heart failure and a preserved e...
Article
Physical activity is an important determinant of glucose variability in type 1 diabetes (T1D). It has been incorporated as a nonglucose input into closed-loop control (CLC) protocols for T1D during the last 4 years mainly by 3 research groups in single center based controlled clinical trials involving a maximum of 18 subjects in any 1 study. Althou...
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Decline in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, function, and accumulation of mutations and deletions have been proposed to contribute to age-related physical decline, based on cross sectional studies in genetically unrelated individuals. There is wide variability of mtDNA and functional measurements in many population studies and therefore we as...
Article
Sitting too much kills. Epidemiological, physiological and molecular data suggest that sedentary lifestyle can explain, in part, how modernity is associated with obesity, more than 30 chronic diseases and conditions and high healthcare costs. Excessive sitting-sitting disease-is not innate to the human condition. People were designed to be bipedal...
Article
Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease. The global increase in sedentary lifestyle is an important factor contributing to the rising prevalence of the obesity epidemic. Traditionally, counseling has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise, with disappointing results. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is an important compone...
Article
The prevalence of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing.1 In patients with HFpEF, the burden of symptoms, functional decline, and mortality is high,2 and health-related quality of life is poor.3 Physicians caring for these patients currently have limited therapeutic options beyond diuresis and management of comor...
Article
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between slip, trip and fall injuries and obesity in a population of workers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. INL is an applied engineering facility dedicated to supporting the US Department of Energy's mission. An analysis was performed on injuries reported to...
Article
We tested a low-cost and scalable set of classroom equipment, called Active Classroom Equipment, which was designed to promote physical activity while children learn. We hypothesized the Active Classroom Equipment would be associated with increased physical activity without impairing learning. Fourteen first-grade students in a public elementary sc...
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Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between short sleep duration and cardiovascular risk, although the nature of any relationship and mechanisms remain unclear. Short sleep duration has also been linked to an increase in cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction has itself been implicated as a mediator of heightened cardiovascular risk. We...
Article
Purpose: This article reports on the findings and recommendations of the "Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes" group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and by the National Institute on Aging, which...
Article
On the face of it, the notion that sitting can be harmful to health seems absurd. Sitting is the default human body posture–modern office workers are often seated 15 hours per day ([2][1]) and at home are entertained, socialize, learn, and shop all whilst seated. How can a ubiquitous body posture
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Background: Clinical weight loss in individuals typically stabilizes at 6 mo. However, validated models of dynamic energy balance have consistently shown weight plateaus between 1 and 2 y. The cause for this discrepancy is unclear. Objective: We developed 2 mathematical models on the basis of the first law of thermodynamics to investigate plausi...
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Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs) could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. Methods: A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business in Minneapolis. 28 (nine men, 26 full-time) sedentary office workers...
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Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) recruitment and activation play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance (IR). Mechanism regulating ATM activation and infiltration remains unclear. In this study, we found Receptor Interacting Protein 140 (RIP140) can regulate the dynamics of ATM that contributes to adipose tissue rem...
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The importance of consumer preferences in the marketing and design of exercise and other health promotion interventions has received increasing attention. This study examined word preference for descriptions of an exercise intervention among 464 adults treated for depression. We also explored differences in word preference by current depression sta...
Article
To achieve robustness in dynamic and uncertain environments, robotic systems must monitor the progress of their plans during execution. This thesis develops a plan executive called Pike that is capable of executing and monitoring plans. The execution monitor at its core quickly and efficiently detects relevant disturbances that threaten future acti...
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We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the st...
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Hyperthyroidism causes increased energy intake and expenditure, although anorexia and higher weight loss have been reported in elderly individuals with hyperthyroidism. To determine the effect of age on energy homeostasis in response to experimental hyperthyroidism, we administered 200 μg tri-iodothyronine (T3) in 7- and 27-mo-old rats for 14 d. T3...
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Prolonged sitting has been shown to increase mortality and obesity. We sought to determine whether physicians would use a treadmill desk, increase their daily physical activity and lose weight.PARTICIPANTS: 20 overweight and obese physicians aged 25 to 70 with Body Mass Index > 25. Participants used a treadmill desk, a triaxial accelerometer, and r...
Article
Background: In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked us...
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Background: Currently, patients with type 1 diabetes decide on the amount of insulin to administer based on several factors, including current plasma glucose value, expected meal input, and physical activity (PA). One future therapeutic modality for patients with type 1 diabetes is the artificial endocrine pancreas (AEP). Incorporation of PA could...
Article
Objective: Sedentariness is associated with weight gain and obesity. A treadmill desk is the combination of a standing desk and a treadmill that allow employees to work while walking at low speed. Design and Methods: The hypothesis was that a 1-year intervention with treadmill desks is associated with an increase in employee daily physical activity...
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We have recently demonstrated a diurnal pattern to insulin action (SI) in healthy individuals with higher SI at breakfast than dinner. To determine if such a pattern exists in type 1 diabetes we studied 19 C-peptide negative subjects (HbA1c 7.1±0.6%) on insulin pump therapy with normal gastric emptying. Identical mixed meals were ingested during br...
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Background: Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8...
Article
Background: In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked usi...
Article
Studies have suggested that patient contact time for internal medicine residents is decreasing and being replaced with computer-related activities, yet objective data regarding computer use by residents are lacking. The aim of this study was to objectively measure time use by internal medicine residents while on duty in the hospital setting using r...
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OBJECTIVE Physical activity (PA), even at low intensity, promotes health and improves hyperglycemia. However, the effect of low-intensity PA captured with accelerometery on glucose variability in healthy individuals and type 1diabetes has not been examined. Quantifying the effects of PA on glycemic variability would improve artificial endocrine pan...
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Objective: To report the population burden of hypoglycemia necessitating emergency medical services (EMS) and the long-term outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) receiving different insulin treatments. Methods: We retrieved all EMS calls because of hypoglycemia in patients with T1DM in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between Janua...
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Background Physical activity is important for multiple aspects of health, for example, cancer prevention, metabolic disease treatment, cardiovascular health, and obesity management. Despite the improved capability of measuring physical activity in the research arena, the options are scarce and less reliable for measurements in free-living people. I...
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Evaluation of the existence of a diurnal pattern of glucose tolerance after mixed meals is important to inform a closed-loop system of treatment for insulin requiring diabetes. We studied 20 healthy volunteers with normal fasting glucose (4.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and HbA(1c) (5.2 ± 0.0%) to determine such a pattern in nondiabetic individuals. Identical mi...
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Background. In this pilot study, the authors aimed to examine the implementation of standing desks on classroom performance and behavior. They also examined how the standing desks affected in-class physical activity and body mass index. Methods. Eight sixth graders from Hope Lutheran elementary school participated in the study (age 11.3 ± 0.5 years...
Article
Introduction: Identifying and mitigating factors that promote obesity will have a large public health impact. Sleep may be an important regulator of metabolism and energy expenditure. Voluntary sleep restriction is common, with 27% of US adults regularly getting ≤6 h of sleep per day. Epidemiologic evidence suggests a link between short sleep durat...
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The objective is to report a contemporary population-based estimate of hypoglycemia requiring emergency medical services (EMS), its burden on medical resources, and its associated mortality in patients with or without diabetes mellitus (DM, non-DM), which will enable development of prospective strategies that will capture hypoglycemia promptly and...
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Obesity overtaken by leanness as a repeated game: social networks and indirect reciprocity Abstract Recent research shows that social networks appear to explain obesity and leanness. A conceptual model of how these networks cause such an effect can be derived from economic and biological studies of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD). This analys...
Article
Background: The development of active gaming offers a choice for children to be physically active whilst participating in an activity that is enjoyable and highly valued. Children expend energy when they play activity enhanced video games, yet little is known about their choice when given active alternatives over seated play. Methods: This study ex...