James Lazorchak

James Lazorchak
N/A · N/A

Ecotoxicology

About

177
Publications
49,985
Reads
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10,560
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
5577 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
October 2009 - present
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Position
  • Aquatic Research Biologist
Description
  • Senior Aquatic Ecologist and Toxicologist, manager of an Aquatic Research facility for ecotoxicity methods development and research. Lead for assessing remedy and restoration effectiveness using biological indicators and measures.
September 2006 - present
University of Cincinnati
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2004 - October 2009
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Position
  • Acting Branch Chief
Description
  • Our mission is to develop and apply molecular biological and biochemical indicators of exposure and chemical methods for EDCs and pharmaceuticals.

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to characterize vitellogenin (VTG) protein in male fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) mucus compared with more conventional measures in plasma and mRNA isolated from liver. To assess the intensity and duration of changes in mucus VTG concentrations, male fathead minnows were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) fo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Cyanobacteria are microscopic, photosynthetic organisms that are found naturally in all aquatic environments. Under certain conditions, cyanobacteria can multiply and become very abundant, discoloring the water throughout a water body, producing and releasing cyanotoxins into the environment. A companion to ITRC's first Harmful Cyanobacterial Bloom...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and their toxins are a significant and continuing threat to aquatic life in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal water ecosystems. Scientific understanding of the impacts of HABs on aquatic ecosystems has been hampered, in part, by limitations in the methodologies to measure cyanotoxins in complex matrices. This literature...
Poster
Full-text available
In the St. Louis River estuary historical sediment contamination from mercury, dioxins, PCBs, and PAHs, has resulted in several beneficial use impairments (BUIs) including increased incidence of fish consumption advisory, fish tumors and other abnormalities (removed in 2019), and loss of fish and wildlife habitat. As a result of the BUIs, the St. L...
Article
Full-text available
A data-driven approach to characterizing the risk of cyanobacteria-based harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) was undertaken for the Ohio River. Twenty-five years of river discharge data were used to develop Bayesian regression models that are currently applicable to 20 sites spread-out along the entire 1579 km of the river’s length. Two site-level pre...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, we have known that chemicals affect human and wildlife behavior. Moreover, due to recent technological and computational advances, scientists are now increasingly aware that a wide variety of contaminants and other environmental stressors adversely affect organismal behavior and subsequent ecological outcomes in terrestrial and aquatic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This guidance is focused on strategies that you may use in response to cyanobacterial blooms that are found in freshwater aquatic environments, including lakes, streams, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, and freshwater-influenced estuaries. It is intended to help you select monitoring, excess nutrient reduction, in-lake management, and communication appro...
Article
Full-text available
Levels of total mercury were measured in tissue of six species of migratory fish (alewife, American shad, blueback herring, rainbow smelt, striped bass, and sea lamprey), and in roe of American shad for two consecutive years collected from the Penobscot River or its estuary. The resultant mercury levels were compared to reference doses as establish...
Article
Full-text available
• This review summarises knowledge on the ecology, toxin production, and impacts of toxic freshwater benthic cyanobacterial proliferations. It documents monitoring, management, and sampling strategies, and explores mitigation options. • Toxic proliferations of freshwater benthic cyanobacteria (taxa that grow attached to substrates) occur in streams...
Article
Full-text available
To better understand how the sulfate (SO42-) anion may contribute to the adverse effects associated with elevated ionic strength or salinity in freshwaters, we measured the uptake and efflux of SO42- in four freshwater species: the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, Teleostei: Cyprinidae), paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis, Bivalvia: Unioni...
Article
Full-text available
We describe initial development of microarray-based assays for detecting four pyrethroid pesticides (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate and permethrin) in water. To facilitate comparison of transcriptional responses with gross apical responses, we estimated concentration-mortality curves for these pyrethroids using flow-through exposures of ne...
Article
Rivers in the arid Western United States face increasing influences from anthropogenic contaminants due to population growth, urbanization, and drought. To better understand and more effectively track the impacts of these contaminants, biologically-based monitoring tools are increasingly being used to complement routine chemical monitoring. This st...
Article
Fish are good indicators of aquatic environment pollution because of their capability to uptake pollutants contained in water. Therefore, accumulation of pharmaceutical compounds in freshwater and marine fish and other aquatic organisms has been studied extensively in the last decade. In this context, the present study investigates the occurrence o...
Article
The egg yolk precursor protein vitellogenin is widely used as a biomarker of estrogen exposure in male fish. However, standardized methodology is lacking and little is known regarding the reproducibility of results among laboratories using different equipment, reagents, protocols, and employing different data analysis programs. To address this data...
Article
U.S. EPA conducted a national statistical survey of fish tissue contamination at 540 river sites (representing 82 954 river km) in 2008-2009, and analyzed samples for 50 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including 21 PCB congeners, 8 PBDE congeners, and 21 organochlorine pesticides. The survey results were used to provide national estimates of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
International concern about contaminated sediments is increasing as sustainable practices are needed to maintain our water resources and waterways as important economic, commercial, recreational, and community resources. Sediments often serve as long-term sinks for legacy pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hyd...
Article
Omics technologies have long since promised to address a number of long standing issues related to environmental regulation. Despite considerable resource investment, there are few examples where these tools have been adopted by the regulatory community, which is in part due to a focus of most studies on discovery rather than assay development. The...
Article
The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (me...
Article
Full-text available
Many human activities—like agriculture and resource extraction—are increasing the total concentration of dissolved inorganic salts (i.e., salinity) in freshwaters. Increasing salinity can have adverse effects on human health (1); increase the costs of water treatment for human consumption; and damage infrastructure [e.g., amounting to $700 million...
Article
Full-text available
In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortu...
Article
To assess the potential exposure of aquatic ecosystems to active pharmaceutical ingredients, the authors conducted a national-scale, probability-based statistical survey of the occurrence of these compounds in surface waters of the United States. The survey included 182 sampling sites and targeted rivers with close proximity to urban areas. The 46...
Article
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2 ), 17β-estradiol (E2 ), estrone (E1 ) and para-nonylphenol (NP) have been measured in wastewater treatment plant effluents, surface waters, sediments and sludge, and have been shown to induce liver-specific vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)....
Article
Full-text available
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery (MNR) is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical...
Article
In 2007, approximately 420,500 cubic meters of contaminated sediment were removed from the Ashtabula River by dredging. The primary objective of this study was to monitor contaminant exposure in fish and macroinvertebrates before, during, and following dredging. This was done by measuring tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic disturbances, including those from development of energy resources, can significantly alter stream chemistry by elevating total dissolved solids (TDS). Field studies have indicated that mayflies (Order Ephemeroptera) are particularly sensitive to high TDS. We measured 20 d growth and survivorship of larval Neocloeon triangulifer expos...
Article
Full-text available
Fathead minnows are routinely cultured for use in aquatic toxicology studies. A new mass culture system described here consisted of 6 stainless steel tanks, each containing 76 fish and 18 spawning substrates/tank. Spawning results are compared to the previous individual 22 glass aquaria system, which contained 16 fish and 4 spawning substrates/tank...
Article
Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is an antimicrobial found in consumer soaps and toothpaste. It is in treated wastewater effluents at low part per billion concentrations, representing a potentially chronic exposure condition for biota inhabiting receiving streams. A naturally colonized benthos was created using flow-through indoor...
Article
Full-text available
We measured concentrations of 56 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in effluent samples from 50 large wastewater treatment plants across the US. Hydrochlorothiazide was found in every sample. Metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine were found in over 90% of the samples. Valsartan had the highest concentration (5300 ng/L), and also had the hig...
Article
Nanoparticles (NPs) are expected to make their way into the aquatic environment where sedimentation of particles will likely occur, putting benthic organisms at particular risk. Therefore, organisms such as Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic crustacean which forages at the sediment surface, is likely to have a high potential exposure. Here we show that...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ul...
Data
Full-text available
Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing regions of the Rocky Mountains were assessed by three approaches. Firs...
Article
A comprehensive biological, sediment, and water quality study of the lower Little Scioto River near Marion, Ohio, USA, was undertaken to evaluate the changes or improvements in biotic measurements following the removal of creosote-contaminated sediment. The study area covered 7.5 river miles (RMs), including a remediated section between RMs 6.0 and...
Data
Full-text available
Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxicology has presented new avenues to develop exposure biomarkers and inv...
Article
Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) manure is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO manure to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of land-applied CAFO manure on fish populations and commun...
Article
Full-text available
Development and application of transcriptomics-based gene classifiers for ecotoxicological applications lag far behind those of biomedical sciences. Many such classifiers discovered thus far lack vigorous statistical and experimental validations. A combination of genetic algorithm/support vector machines and genetic algorithm/K nearest neighbors wa...
Data
Table S1. Configurations for GA-SVM and GA-KNN search.
Data
Table S2. Cross mapping probe IDs between the design 015064 and 019161 by five types of evidence: Agilent BED (browser extensible data) files, Zv9 cDNA and genes from Ensemble, reference sequences (RefSeq) from GenBank, and Agilent probe sequences.
Data
Figure S1. An illustration of GALGO algorithm as adapted from GALGO tutorial (Figure 10 and 22, version February 2006; http://biptemp.bham.ac.uk/vivo/galgo/Tutorial.pdf).
Article
Full-text available
Background: Over the past 10–15 years, a substantial amount of work has been done by the scientific, regulatory, and business communities to elucidate the effects and risks of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the environment. Objective: This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues regarding the effects of PPCPs...
Chapter
Full-text available
The primary goal for environmental protection is to eliminate or minimize the exposure of humans and ecosystems to potential contaminants. With the number of environmental contaminants increasing annually, more than 2,000 new chemicals are manufactured or imported each year for use in the USA, understanding the sources of contaminants, the movement...
Article
Full-text available
Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxicology has presented new avenues to develop exposure biomarkers and inv...
Article
Ammonia can cause adverse reproductive and mortality effects in individual fish by interacting with the central nervous system. The last published study that assessed the effects of ammonia on fathead minnow reproduction was a lifecycle study conducted in 1986. Our study's main goal was to re-evaluate ammonia toxicity on fathead minnow Pimephales p...
Article
Full-text available
Elutriate bioassays are among numerous methods that exist for assessing the potential toxicity of sediments in aquatic systems. In this study, interlaboratory results were compared from 96-h Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas static-renewal acute toxicity tests conducted independently by two laboratories using elutriate samples prepared fro...