James A. Landay

James A. Landay
Stanford University | SU · Department of Computer Science

PhD

About

301
Publications
92,025
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19,305
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (301)
Preprint
We can create Virtual Reality (VR) interactions that have no equivalent in the real world by remapping spacetime or altering users' body representation, such as stretching the user's virtual arm for manipulation of distant objects or scaling up the user's avatar to enable rapid locomotion. Prior research has leveraged such approaches, what we call...
Chapter
Designers have long known the benefits of iteration and rapid prototyping. Many experienced photographers follow a similar process, in particular of iterating in camera: trying out different angles and compositions, varying lighting, adjusting a subject’s pose, etc. However, amateurs often do not realize the benefits of capturing variations of a si...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic stress has been associated with a variety of pathophysiological risks including developing mental illness. Conversely, appropriate stress management, can be used to foster mental wellness proactively. Yet, there is no existing method that accurately and objectively monitors stress. With recent advances in electronic-skin (e-skin) and wearab...
Chapter
The current literature on developing tools for early childhood computer science education focuses primarily on the content of the lessons and how to embed that content into educational technologies. However, in considering “CS For All” it is critical to understand how the environment and approach surrounding the technology itself can best serve bot...
Chapter
In the coming era of ubiquitous robotics we envision the need for the effortless design of contextually-aware interactions with robots. Ubiquitous robots create a number of challenges for designers. Firstly, due to their dynamic nature, prototyping requires skillful programming and is often time consuming. Moreover, these devices are often context-...
Article
Self-tracking practices enable users to record and analyze their personal data. In recent years, non-digital forms of manual self-tracking, such as bullet journaling, have gained popularity. We conduct a survey (N = 404) and follow-up interviews (N = 18) to better understand users' motivations for physical tracking, the challenges they face with th...
Conference Paper
Numerous technologies now exist for promoting more active lifestyles. However, while quantitative data representations (e.g., charts, graphs, and statistical reports) typify most health tools, growing evidence suggests such feedback can not only fail to motivate behavior but may also harm self-integrity and fuel negative mindsets about exercise. Ou...
Article
Full-text available
Commutes provide an opportune time and space for interventions that mitigate stress-particularly stress accumulated during the workday. In this study, we test the efficacy and safety of haptic guided slow breathing interventions of short duration while driving. We also present design and experimental implications for evolving these interventions fr...
Chapter
To better understand the issues designers face as they interact with developers and use developer tools to create websites, we conducted a formative investigation consisting of interviews, a survey, and an analysis of professional design documents. Based on insights gained from these efforts, we developed Poirot, a web inspection tool for designers...
Article
Concern about algorithmically-curated content and its impact on democracy is reaching a fever pitch worldwide. But relative to the role of social media in electoral processes, the role of search results has received less public attention. We develop a theoretical conceptualization of search results as a form of media-search media-and analyze search...
Conference Paper
Augmented Reality (AR) has the potential to expand our capability for interacting with and comprehending our surrounding environment. However, current AR devices treat electronic appliances no different than common non-interactive objects, which substantially limits the functionality of AR. We present InfoLED, a positioning and communication system...
Article
Lack of physical activity has been shown to increase disease and reduce life expectancy. In response, mobile devices are increasingly being used to support people's health and fitness by tracking physical activity. Prior work shows that the type of feedback, either ambient or via notification, affects users' behavior towards their physical activity...
Conference Paper
Digitization of education has brought a tremendous amount of online materials that are potentially useful for language learners to practice their reading skills. However, these digital materials rarely help with conversational practice, a key component of foreign language learning. Leveraging recent advances in chatbot technologies, we developed Bo...
Conference Paper
To better understand the issues designers face as they interact with developers and use developer tools to create websites, we conducted a formative investigation consisting of interviews, a survey, and an analysis of professional design documents. Based on insights gained from these efforts, we developed Poirot, a web inspection tool for designers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Quadcopters have been used as hovering encountered-type haptic devices in virtual reality. We suggest that quadcopters can facilitate rich haptic interactions beyond force feedback by appropriating physical objects and the environment. We present HoverHaptics, an autonomous safe-to-touch quadcopter and its integration with a virtual shopping experi...
Conference Paper
Advances in conversational AI have the potential to enable more engaging and effective ways to teach factual knowledge. To investigate this hypothesis, we created QuizBot, a dialogue-based agent that helps students learn factual knowledge in science, safety, and English vocabulary. We evaluated QuizBot with 76 students through two within-subject st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is the first on-road study testing the efficacy and safety of guided slow breathing interventions in a car. This paper presents design and experimental implications when evolving from prior simulator to on-road scenarios. We ran a controlled study (N=40) testing a haptic guided breathing system in a closed circuit under stress and not-stressed...
Article
Full-text available
We present the use of in-car virtual reality (VR) as a way to create calm, mindful experiences for passengers and, someday, autonomous vehicle occupants. Specifically, we describe a series of studies aimed at exploring appropriate VR content, understanding the influence of car movement, and determining the length and other parameters of the simulat...
Conference Paper
As drone-based entertainment becomes more popular, researchers have explored different forms of expression and systems to support drone performances. However, most of these systems are pre-programmed and do not interact with the body movement of dancers in real-time. In response, some have presented drone performances using bulky camera systems to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interactive maps have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, helping us reach destinations and discovering our surroundings. Yet, designing map interactions is not straightforward and depends on the device being used. As mobile devices evolve and become independent from users, such as with robots and drones, how will we interact with the maps they p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the delivery of fast breathing interventions in a driving context, given the proven effects of high-paced breathing on autonomic arousal. Through in-lab simulator studies, we demonstrate the feasibility of using haptic guidance to increase breathing rate, intensity, and heart rate as well as subjective perceptions of alert...
Conference Paper
We interact with dozens of web interfaces on a daily basis, making inclusive web design practices more important than ever. This paper investigates the impacts of web interface design on ambient belonging, or the sense of belonging to a community or culture. Our experiment deployed two content-identical webpages for an introductory computer science...
Conference Paper
This SIG focuses on new definitions of Natural User Interface (NUI). With the adoption of wearable devices, VR & AR displays, affective computing, and voice user interface, we think it's necessary to review our understanding and definition of NUI. This SIG aims to expand discussion and development related to NUI in two areas: first, what experience...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the delivery of fast breathing interventions in a driving context, given the proven effects of high-paced breathing on autonomic arousal. Through in-lab simulator studies, we demonstrate the feasibility of using haptic guidance to increase breathing rate, intensity, and heart rate as well as subjective perceptions of alert...
Article
We developed a set of 17 usability heuristics for speech-based smart devices. An expert evaluation of three popular devices shows that these heuristics can be used to uncover existing usability problems as well as help design new interfaces.
Article
Full-text available
Motivated by the idea that slow breathing practices could transform the automobile commute from a depleting, mindless activity into a calming, mindful experience, we introduce the first guided slow breathing intervention for drivers. We describe a controlled in-lab experiment (N=24) that contrasts the effectiveness and impact of haptic and voice gu...
Conference Paper
Today's most common user interfaces represent an incremental change from the GUI popularized by the Apple Macintosh in 1984. Over the last 30 years the dominant hardware has changed drastically while the user interface has barely moved: from one hand on a mouse to two fingers on a panel of glass. I will illustrate how we are building on-body interf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stress affects the lives of millions of people every day. In-situ sensing could enable just-in-time stress management interventions. We present the first work to detect stress using the movements of a car's existing steering wheel. We extend prior work on PC peripherals and demonstrate that stress, expressed through muscle tension in the limbs, can...
Article
With the ubiquity of mobile touchscreen devices like smartphones, two widely used text entry methods have emerged: small touch-based keyboards and speech recognition. Although speech recognition has been available on desktop computers for years, it has continued to improve at a rapid pace, and it is currently unknown how today's modern speech recog...
Article
Full-text available
Background The daily commute could be a right moment to teach drivers to use movement or breath towards improving their mental health. Long commutes, the relevance of transitioning from home to work, and vice versa and the privacy of commuting by car make the commute an ideal scenario and time to perform mindful exercises safely. Whereas driving sa...
Article
Personal drones are becoming more mainstream and are used for a variety of tasks, such as delivery and photography. The exposed blades in conventional drones raise serious safety concerns. To address this, commercial drones have been moving towards a safe-to-touch design or have increased safety by adding propeller guards. The affordances of safe-t...
Conference Paper
Haptic interfaces are ideal in situations where visual/auditory attention is impossible, unsafe, or socially unacceptable. However, conventional (vibrotactile) wearable interfaces often possess a limited bandwidth for expressing information. We explore a novel form of tactile stimulation through brushing, and demonstrate BrushTouch, a wearable prot...
Conference Paper
As drones become ubiquitous, it is important to understand how cultural differences impact human-drone interaction. A previous elicitation study performed in the USA illustrated how users would intuitively interact with drones. We replicated this study in China to gain insight into how these user-defined interactions vary across the two cultures. W...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This demo presents an instance of Inquire, a tool designed to support qualitative researchers in the early stages of research. The tool enables the search over millions of users' records to extract early insights to aid in the formulation of research strategies. The tool presents the work described in the Inquire paper by Paredes, et. al. [12] in t...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The daily commute could be a right moment to teach drivers to use movement or breath towards improving their mental health. Long commutes, the relevance of transitioning from home to work, and vice versa and the privacy of commuting by car make the commute an ideal scenario and time to perform mindful exercises safely. Whereas driving sa...
Article
We present a system to capture video footage of human subjects in the real world. Our system leverages a quadrotor camera to automatically capture well-composed video of two subjects. Subjects are tracked in a large-scale outdoor environment using RTK GPS and IMU sensors. Then, given the tracked state of our subjects, our system automatically compu...
Article
With laptops and desktops, the dominant method of text entry is the full-size keyboard; now with the ubiquity of mobile devices like smartphones, two new widely used methods have emerged: miniature touch screen keyboards and speech-based dictation. It is currently unknown how these two modern methods compare. We therefore evaluated the text entry p...
Poster
Full-text available
The average commute time in the US is close to 30 minutes each way. In a world where we wouldn’t need to “drive” the car while commuting, what would be the best use of this time? We see autonomous vehicles as an opportunity to help people reach wellness and high productivity levels. After all, commute time is not just moving from point A to point B...
Conference Paper
Smartwatches and activity trackers are becoming prevalent, providing information about health and fitness, and offering personalized progress monitoring. These wearable devices often offer multimodal feedback with embedded visual, audio, and vibrotactile displays. Vibrations are particularly useful when providing discreet feedback, without users ha...
Conference Paper
Personal drones are becoming popular. It is challenging to design how to interact with these flying robots. We present a Wizard-of-Oz (WoZ) elicitation study that informs how to naturally interact with drones. Results show strong agreement between participants for many interaction techniques, as when gesturing for the drone to stop. We discovered t...
Article
Full-text available
Organizing conference sessions around themes improves the experience for attendees. However, the session creation process can be difficult and time-consuming due to the amount of expertise and effort required to consider alternative paper groupings. We present a collaborative web application called Frenzy to draw on the efforts and knowledge of an...
Conference Paper
Taxonomies are a useful and ubiquitous way of organizing information. However, creating organizational hierarchies is difficult because the process requires a global understanding of the objects to be categorized. Usually one is created by an individual or a small group of people working together for hours or even days. Unfortunately, this centrali...
Article
In this paper, we present the design of Hero, a suite of learning tools that combine teacher-created extracurricular challenges with in-class motivational tools to help parents become more involved in their child's education, while also engaging students in their own learning. To inform the design, we conducted field studies and interviews involvin...
Patent
Full-text available
Access to resource(s) intended to be shared with specific groups of individuals is controlled using concise tests of shared knowledge instead of (or in addition) to accounts and access control lists. Users can readily learn the concept and choose questions that will control the access by the desired group with little effort. Such questions can be r...
Conference Paper
Flashcard systems typically help students learn facts (e.g., definitions, names, and dates), relying on intense initial memoriztion with subsequent tests delayed up to days later. This approach does not exploit the short, sparse, and mobile opportunities for microlearning throughout the day, nor does it support learners who need the motivation that...
Conference Paper
Flashcard systems typically help students learn facts (e.g., definitions, names, and dates), relying on intense initial memoriztion with subsequent tests delayed up to days later. This approach does not exploit the short, sparse, and mobile opportunities for microlearning throughout the day, nor does it support learners who need the motivation that...
Article
Few means currently exist for home occupants to learn about their water consumption: e.g., where water use occurs, whether such use is excessive and what steps can be taken to conserve. Emerging water sensing systems, however, can provide detailed usage data at the level of individual water fixtures (i.e., disaggregated usage data). In this paper,...
Article
The GroupEnergyTable is an interactive tabletop that lets users explore shared electricity and transportation data, view energy tips, and set goals. A two-month study shows how the GroupEnergyTable can help decrease electricity use and change travel habits.
Article
Interest in online education is surging, as dramatized by the success of Khan Academy and recent Stanford on-line courses, but the technology for online education is in its infancy. Crowdsourcing mechanisms will likely be essential in order to reach the full potential of this medium. This paper sketches some of the challenges and directions we hope...
Article
We present the Vocal Joystick engine, a real-time software library which can be used to map non-linguistic vocalizations into realizable continuous control signals. The system is designed to strike a balance between low latency and accurate recognition while simultaneously taking advantage of the rich complexity of sounds producible by the human vo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The success of a computer system depends upon a user choosing it, but the field of Human-Computer Interaction has little ability to predict this user choice. We present a new method that measures user choice, and quantifies it as a measure of utility. Our method has two core features. First, it introduces an economic definition of utility, one that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Learning a new language is hard, but learning to use it confidently in conversations with native speakers is even harder. From our field research with language learners, with support from Cognitive Psychology and Second Language Acquisition, we argue for the value of contextual microlearning in the many breaks spread across different places and thr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We conducted a quantitative experiment to determine the performance characteristics of non-speech vocalization for discrete input generation in comparison to existing speech and keyboard input methods. The results from the study validated our hypothesis that non-speech voice input can offer significantly faster discrete input compared to a speech-b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present Gestalt, a development environment designed to support the process of applying machine learning. While traditional programming environments focus on source code, we explicitly support both code and data. Gestalt allows developers to implement a classification pipeline, analyze data as it moves through that pipeline, and easily transition...
Conference Paper
Human Computation, along with much of the Internet, only works when humans find tasks fun, enjoyable, or valuable enough to outweigh the time and effort they require to complete. The more value, or utility, that a task and interface provides, the more "work" humans will do. However, we do not yet know how to objectively measure the fun, enjoyment,...
Conference Paper
Ubiquitous computing (Ubicomp) is bringing computing off the desktop and into our everyday lives. For example, an interactive display can be used by the family of an elder to stay in constant touch with the elder's everyday wellbeing, or by a group to visualize and share information about exercise and fitness. Mobile sensors, networks, and displays...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recent work in muscle sensing has demonstrated the poten- tial of human-computer interfaces based on finger gestures sensed from electrodes on the upper forearm. While this approach holds much potential, previous work has given little attention to sensing finger gestures in the context of three important real-world requirements: sensing hardware su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eco-feedback technology provides feedback on individual or group behaviors with a goal of reducing environmental impact. The history of eco-feedback extends back more than 40 years to the origins of environmental psychology. Despite its stated purpose, few HCI eco-feedback studies have attempted to measure behavior change. This leads to two overarc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Paper prototyping offers unique affordances for interface design. However, due to its spontaneous nature and the limitations of paper, it is difficult to distill and communicate a paper prototype design and its user test findings to a wide audience. To address these issues, we created FrameWire, a computer vision-based system that automatically ext...
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle modification is a key facet of the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Mobile devices that people already carry provide a promising platform for facilitating these lifestyle changes. This paper describes key lessons learned from the development and evaluation of two mobile systems for encouraging physical activity. We argue tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The greatest contributor of CO2 emissions in the average American household is personal transportation. Because transportation is inherently a mobile activity, mobile devices are well suited to sense and provide feedback about these activities. In this paper, we explore the use of personal ambient displays on mobile phones to give users feedback ab...