James C. Kaufman

James C. Kaufman
University of Connecticut | UConn · Department of Educational Psychology

PhD

About

452
Publications
524,087
Reads
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17,218
Citations
Introduction
I study creativity. Right now focused on creativity and positive outcomes, such as meaning and equity. Also creativity assessment and creativity's relationship to other constructs (intelligence, personality, motivation, etc). Prone to develop too many theories.
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
University of Connecticut
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2003 - August 2013
August 2002 - May 2013
California State University, San Bernardino
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
August 1995 - May 2001
Yale University
Field of study
  • Cognitive Psychology

Publications

Publications (452)
Article
Full-text available
The Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) is a common creativity assessment. According to this technique, the best judges of creativity are qualified experts. Yet what does it mean to be an expert in a domain? What level of expertise is needed to rate creativity? This article reviews the literature on novice, expert, and quasi-expert creativity rat...
Article
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College admissions testing typically focuses on grade point average (GPA) and SAT scores. Without disputing the importance of these predictors, one may wonder whether they are enough by themselves to determine eventual academic success. One possible additional construct, creativity, is examined via the lens of nonbiased assessment. It is argued tha...
Article
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Most investigations of creativity tend to take one of two directions: everyday creativity (also called "little-c"), which can be found in nearly all people, and eminent creativity (also called "Big-C"), which is reserved for the great. In this paper, the authors propose a Four C model of creativity that expands this dichotomy. Specifically, the aut...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Psychology of Wisdom: An Introduction is the first comprehensive coursebook on wisdom, providing an engaging, balanced, and expert introduction to the psychology of wisdom. It provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the psychological science of wisdom, covering wide-ranging perspectives. Each chapter includes extensive pedagogy, incl...
Article
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The Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scales (K-DOCS) assess individual differences in creativity across five domains (Everyday, Scholarly, Performance, Science, and Artistic). We provide data on the psychometric properties and the structural and nomological validity of the German adaptation of the K-DOCS from three samples (Ntotal = 1,379). Our findin...
Article
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Students display resistance, including academic dishonesty, at all educational levels. In the present study, we qualitatively examined the extent and incidence of academic misbehaviors by 101 US college students (Mage = 22.98 years, SD = 6.70). Using a combination of self-reported closed- and open-ended questions, we developed a multi-faceted under...
Chapter
We live in a world shaken by a pandemic and the subsequent (currently ongoing) lockdown. The COVID-19 virus is invisible yet has been the dominant topic since 2020. This increasing awareness (and respect) for the invisible may, we hope, transfer to how gifted programs perceive the new conception of transformational giftedness. In this chapter, we c...
Article
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The term “creativity” can conjure various ideas and meanings. It’s no surprise that methods for measuring such a concept vary widely and are not without controversy. This is particularly true among people with ASD, who are a unique yet incredibly diverse group of individuals. This paper provides an overview of the assessment of creativity among ind...
Article
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In this article we raise two linked questions in relation to positive creativity (creativity that can help transform the world to a better place): (1) Why does a great deal of positive creativity fly under the radar? and (2) What can be accomplished to enhance the visibility and frequency of positive creativity? Building off of the recent CASE mode...
Chapter
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Preprint
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The dark side of creativity entails using original thought to meet a selfish, negative, or evil goal, with or without the deliberate intent to harm others. Recent empirical advances have studied the behavioral correlates of such creativity, including associations with aggression, deception, and subclinical psychopathy. The time, therefore, seems ap...
Article
Full-text available
The dark side of creativity entails using original thought to meet a selfish, negative, or evil goal, with or without the deliberate intent to harm others. Recent empirical advances have studied the behavioral correlates of such creativity, including associations with aggression, deception, and subclinical psychopathy. The time, therefore, seems ap...
Preprint
Narrative text permeates our lives from job applications to journalistic stories to works of fiction. Developing automated metrics that capture creativity in narrative text has potentially far reaching implications. Human ratings of creativity in narrative text are labor-intensive, subjective, and difficult to replicate. Across 27 different story p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Narrative text permeates our lives from job applications to journalistic stories to works of fiction. Developing automated metrics that capture creativity in narrative text has potentially far reaching implications. Human ratings of creativity in narrative text are labor-intensive, subjective, and difficult to replicate. Across 27 different story p...
Article
Full-text available
Myths about creativity keep contributing to its mysterious aura despite our increasing scientific understanding of this complex phenomenon. This study examined the prevalence of known creativity myths across six countries from diverse cultural backgrounds and explored why some people believe in them more than others. Results revealed persistent, wi...
Article
What is the aim of giftedness? Is the goal to narrow in on the gifts of a select few or to nurture everyone’s gifts such that they may be exchanged with each other? Drawing from creativity theory, we emphasize the possible interactive element of giftedness. Current paradigms risk ignoring hidden creativities and for potential to remain in the shado...
Article
Creativity, and more recently dark creativity, have yet to be studied in relation to moral foundations, especially against the background of dark traits. This study identified moral foundations that predicted creativity, particularly malevolent creativity, after accounting for Dark Triad/Tetrad traits. Data (N = 529, Mage = 20.10 years, SD = 4.55)...
Article
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For much of 2020, countries around the world fought against the COVID-19 pandemic. Many countries went into lockdown to control the fast spread of the virus. The unusual restrictions and confinement of the lockdown brought about new challenges for people’s everyday lives. With flexibility, adaptability, and problem-solving at the core of its nature...
Preprint
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Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS) is a self-report of creative behavior in five distinct domains. The present study aims to translate K-DOCS into Russian and evaluate its psychometric properties. The psychometric analysis was performed on a sample of adults recruited through Yandex Toloka (N = 1011; Mage = 35.94, SDage = 10.95) from vari...
Article
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Students display resistance in the classroom in numerous ways, often in the form of academic misconduct. Some argue that resistance can reflect cleverness and creativity, rather than apathy. This investigation aimed to develop a psychometric tool to examine classroom resistance as well as identify individual and situational determinants of the same...
Article
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A deeper understanding of the processes leading to problem framing and behind finding solutions to problems should help explain variability in the quality of the solutions to those problems. Using Sternberg’s WICS model as the conceptual basis of problem solving, this article discusses the relations between creative, analytical, practical, and wisd...
Article
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The Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS; Kaufman, J. C. (2012). Counting the muses: Development of the Kaufman domains of creativity scale (K-DOCS). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 6(4), 298-308. doi:10.1037/a0029751) is a self-report assessment of five creative domains: Everyday, Scholarly, Performance, Scientific, and...
Article
Most studies investigating the effects of motivation on creativity have employed a social-psychological approach and used a dichotomous conceptualization of motivation (i.e., intrinsic and extrinsic). However, trait motivation may exist on a continuum and, although individual differences in motivation have also been found to predict creativity, no...
Article
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Secondary education around the world has been significantly disrupted by covid-19 . Students have been forced into new ways of independent learning, often using remote technologies, but without the social nuances and direct teacher interactions of a normal classroom environment. Using data from the School Attitudes Survey—which surveys students reg...
Preprint
The original 90-item Creative Behavior Inventory (CBI) was a landmark self-report scale in creativity research, and the 28-item brief form developed nearly 20 years ago is a popular measure of everyday creativity. Relatively little is known, however, about the psychometric properties of this widely used scale. In the current research, we conduct a...
Article
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Research on everyday creativity—the “little c” creative activities people do in their everyday lives—commonly uses self-report scales to assess people’s engagement in different activities. The present research presents a detailed psychometric analysis of the Biographical Inventory of Creative Behaviors (BICB), a 34-item yes/no checklist of common c...
Article
The concept of “creativity” as a desirable attribute within education is long-standing. The fields of education and creativity have developed, and periodically intersected with, government reports, policies, commentaries, and advice. Recently, an increasing number of countries have emphasized creativity in their official curricula. However, the jou...
Chapter
This edited volume provides views and perspectives of researchers studying creativity from various social scientific areas including education, psychology, management, and entrepreneurship. This chapter concludes the book and provides an integrative view of team creativity by bridging the different research areas and chapters.
Chapter
In this chapter, we highlight creativity’s role in giftedness. We first highlight the three Ds present in how creativity can apply to giftedness: its developmental trajectory, issues of domain specificity, and array of diverse perspectives. We highlight some theories of creativity that are particularly relevant for the field of giftedness, and then...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an abrupt change in routines and livelihoods all around the world. This public health crisis amplified a number of systemic inequalities that led to populations needing to grapple with universally difficult truths. Yet some individuals, firms, and countries displayed resilient and creative responses in coping with...
Article
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Despite the growing call for enhancing creativity in STEM fields, creativity is still largely absent in contemporary engineering education. Developing creativity-supportive environments in engineering education requires an understanding of the creative process itself, particularly as it applies to engineering. Engineering students from a public uni...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on everyday creativity—the “little c” creative activities people do in their everyday lives—commonly uses self-report scales to assess people’s engagement in different activities. The present research presents a detailed psychometric analysis of the Biographical Inventory of Creative Behaviors (BICB), a 34-item yes/no checklist of common c...
Article
Full-text available
It is often assumed that people with high ability in a domain will be excellent raters of quality within that same domain. This assumption is an underlying principle of using raters for creativity tasks, as in the Consensual Assessment Technique. While several prior studies have examined expert-novice differences in ratings, none have examined whet...
Article
Past research has demonstrated that the hierarchical value structures of creative individuals differ systematically from their less creative counterparts. However, earlier studies used a global creativity score, which is inconsistent with both creativity’s movement toward a domain‐specific viewpoint, and Lebedeva et al.’s 2019 study suggests the re...
Article
The present study examines effort in narrative creative writing (operationalized as time‐on‐task) using a new assessment approach, the storyboard task. Participants (N = 125) completed alternate forms of the storyboard task in two sessions five weeks apart. They also completed measures of divergent thinking and self‐reported ideational behavior. Ti...
Chapter
As seen through the lens of creativity research, poetry is a multifaceted and complex domain. The importance of creativity in poetry may be best understood in the exploration of expert-level poets as opposed to studying a layperson's journey through what would be considered everyday poetry creativity. Instead, the observation of more eminent levels...
Article
Recent research has emphasized the promise of Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) to bolster empathy. The underlying mechanisms of such an intriguing outcome are, however, underexplored. The present study examines the effect of distinct but interrelated user experiences (UX) dimensions underlying the bolstering effect of IVR on empathy. Sixty-five youn...
Chapter
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This entry reviews contemporary models of creativity within psychology by focusing on key theories and frameworks from the 1950s until today. This review is organized chronologically, but also in thematic clusters developed at different historical times. The authors hope this review will inspire both a deeper reflection on the role of context and h...
Article
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Creativity is increasingly recognized as an important skill for success in the field of engineering, but most traditional, post‐secondary engineering education programs do not reward creative efforts. Failing to recognize creativity or creative efforts can have particularly negative effects for those students with attention deficit hyperactivity di...
Article
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The advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0) and a broader digital transformation of society is driving both a renewed focus on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education as well as a recognition that creativity is a prerequisite for employment in the 21 st century. Together, these elements are the catalyst f...
Article
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How teachers perceive creative students, and what are the commonalities and specificities of such perception among teachers from different countries? To explore this question, we asked teachers from Australia, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom (total N = 933) to answer a set of items describing different traits of their students. Network and fa...
Chapter
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This chapter addresses some of the confusion and inconsistencies of language in the field of mind wandering. It emphasizes the importance of consistent terminology, referencing the field of creativity as an example of an area of study that faced a similar problem. In an attempt to unify past and present research, a framework of terms is proposed th...
Article
This entry reviews contemporary models of creativity within psychology by focusing on key theories and frameworks from the 1950s until today. This review is organized chronologically, but also in thematic clusters developed at different historical times. The authors hope this review will inspire both a deeper reflection on the role of context and h...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the Broadway musical The Mystery of Edwin Drood, by Rupert Holmes, as a case study through which to discuss and highlight modern creativity theories. The musical is viewed through the lens of the Five As, Four Cs, and many other person and product approaches.
Article
Why does creativity matter? When you approach life with a creative attitude, you are more open to new ideas and possibilities, better able to understand others’ perspectives, and more likely to seek out multiple solutions to problems. Despite the stereotype of the mad genius, everyday creativity is just as important. You can use it to help you impr...
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Este manifiesto, discutido por 20 académicos y académicas que representan diversas líneas de investigación sobre la creatividad, marca un cambio conceptual dentro de los estudios de este campo. Los enfoques socioculturales han hecho contribuciones sustanciales al concepto de creatividad en las últimas décadas y hoy pueden proporcionar un conjunto d...
Article
One common self‐assessment of creativity is the Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K‐DOCS). This article provides support for a Turkish translation of the instrument, offering exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to determine whether the factors were consistent across cultures. The participants consisted of two groups. The first group con...
Article
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This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a creative problem-solving program for enhancing creativity and character in young children. The program was drafted based on an extensive review of current literature and existing programs on young children’s creativity, creative character, and creative problem solving. After experts in creative edu...
Article
In this paper, we organize past and present theories and models of creativity by using a new conceptual framework—the creativity matrix—with the aim of highlighting the dimensions of creativity we know a lot about and those we tend to either ignore or find difficult to study. This matrix is formed by bringing together a developmental model of creat...
Article
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Creativity self-assessments (CSAs) are frequently used in empirical research. However, they are often chosen for the sake of expediency. If used as outcome variables, there are legitimate concerns with their accuracy or validity. However, CSAs are most valuable when serving other purposes. In this review, I establish a categorization of CSAs based...
Chapter
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A history of creativity research
Article
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Despite an ongoing surge of interest in creativity (both in academia and the public eye), it is essential that researchers focus on why creativity matters. Studies that empathize variables that help increase creativity are absolutely valuable, but I argue that need more work on how creativity can lead to positive outcomes. Much of the existing lite...
Article
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There were four broad takeaways from the commentaries by the distinguished contributors. First, there was a caution on focusing too much on the positive outcomes. Second, there were several important considerations noted that can enrich the discussion. Third, people made a strong case for revisiting old outcomes with new methods and theories. Final...
Article
Creative metacognition (CMC) is an understudied component of creative growth. It refers to people’s ability to monitor and evaluate their creative functioning. In this study we focus on an important element of CMC, creative metacognitive accuracy: people’s ability to recognize and properly assess the creativity of their ideas when solving divergent...
Article
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The field of creativity remains misunderstood by the general public and implicit beliefs, in particular an Arts Bias, continue to permeate popular culture. This has the potential to derail efforts to embed creativity in the 21st century classroom, at a time when it is most needed. We therefore ask if teachers endorse such an Arts Bias in creativity...
Article
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Being creative is considered a desirable trait, yet most empirical studies emphasize how to increase creativity rather than explore its possible benefits. A natural connection is how creativity can enhance life’s meaning. Many of the core concepts in work on the meaning of life, such as the needs for coherence, significance, and purpose or the desi...
Article
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The Amusement Park Theory of Creativity, which represents both domain‐specific and domain‐general perspectives of creativity, calls for more research on how individual difference constructs are related to creativity at all ends of the domain‐specificity and general spectrum. Toward this goal, this study examined emotional intelligence (using the Em...
Article
How does the current replication crisis, along with other recent psychological trends, affect scientific creativity? To answer this question, we consider current debates regarding replication through the lenses of creativity research and theory. Both scientific work and creativity require striking a balance between ideation and implementation and b...
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For many years, researchers have debated the role of “domain” in creativity. Opinion remains divided, but a common view is that creativity is a combination of domain-general elements, coupled with domain-specific manifestations, usually in the form of different kinds of products. Discussions of domains and creativity frequently take place in very b...
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Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Nature of Human Creativity - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Article
Background/Context Creativity is an indispensable force in intellectual, social, cultural, and economic development. Yet societal forces conspire to erode it. Educators have despaired for many years over how schools often fail to encourage creativity, but society as a whole is just as guilty. But how do schools and society fail to encourage, or act...
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If IQs continue to rise over generation, why has the world been unable to solve basic recurrent problems? This paper argues that creativity, which is overlooked in IQ tests and showing no signs of a similar increase, may be part of the reason of why the Flynn Effect has not led to a better world. Creativity's predictive power for traditional positi...
Book
In a post-truth, fake news world, we are particularly susceptible to the claims of pseudoscience. When emotions and opinions are more widely disseminated than scientific findings, and self-proclaimed experts get their expertise from Google, how can the average person distinguish real science from fake? This book examines pseudoscience from a variet...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the nature of intelligence and phenomena associated with intelligence. It opens by defining intelligence, and then considers both Western and culturally based views. Then it considers cognitive, biological, and psychometric (IQ-test-based) views of intelligence. It goes on to discuss the heritability of intelligence and then mo...
Chapter
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The question of motivation and creativity has been extensively studied, often with the lens of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. However, when this work considers intrinsic motivation, it is often in the guise of how to maintain someone’s passion for a topic, as opposed to understanding how and why someone has developed his or her intense interes...
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This brief essay argues for the importance for more work on how creativity predicts positive outcomes, with a particular emphasis on expanding our definitions of these positive outcomes. The way that creativity may lead to increased equity and social justice is used as an example of these type of potential research questions.