James F Juola

James F Juola
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven- Emeritus Prof. · University of Kansas - Emeritus Prof.

PhD

About

111
Publications
18,385
Reads
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3,891
Citations
Citations since 2017
12 Research Items
784 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120140
Introduction
Human technology interaction, robotics, visual information processing, cognition, and memory
Additional affiliations
August 1999 - April 2018
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
Position
  • Professor
May 1989 - June 2010
Philips
Position
  • Consultant
August 1985 - July 2014
Eindhoven University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1968 - June 1972
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Full-text available
Behaviors directed to achieving goals and managing tasks in a set period of time play important roles when people engage in learning ac-tivities. These behaviors, labeled goal orientation and time management, have been widely studied as part of self-regulated learning models. Previous works have traditionally employed self-reports to study these va...
Article
Full-text available
Goal orientation and time management have been major components of most self-regulated learning models. They are also especially relevant for adaptative outcomes in the field of education. Goal orientation and time management have traditionally been measured through self-reports, and, although few studies have explored both variables, a positive an...
Article
Full-text available
Managing time effectively requires making decisions to plan the order of execution of different tasks, so that the maximum gain is achieved in a given period. We designed a test called My Schedule to assess time management, and we report a study of its psychometric properties. Through an online web server, we administered My Schedule along with two...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present research is to assess goal orientation (mastery and performance) by developing an objective behavioral test. We elaborated the Mastery Performance-Goal Orientation Test, a task that allows assessment of goal orientation along a single dimension. We studied its reliability and validity by conducting two studies. In Study 1 (N...
Article
Full-text available
The Atkinson-Shiffrin theory describes and explains some of the processes involved in storing and retrieving information in human memory. Here we examine predictions of related models for search and decision processes in recognizing information in long-term memory. In some models, recognition is presumably based on a test item’s familiarity judgmen...
Article
In experimental psychology, a unique model of general processing is often sought to represent the behaviors of all individuals. We address the question of whether seeking this objective - a unique model - is the most fruitful scientific strategy by studying a specific case example. In order to approach an answer to such a question, we compared the...
Article
There is increasing interest in the readability of text presented on small digital screens. Designers have come up with novel text presentation methods, such as moving text from right to left, line-stepping, or showing successive text segments such as phrases or single words in a RSVP format. Comparative studies have indicated that RSVP is perhaps...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing significant change (or reliable change) in a person often involve comparing the responses of that person in two administrations of a test or scale. Several procedures have been proposed to determine if a difference between two observed scores is statistically significant or rather is within the range of mere random fluctuations due to mea...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the readability of text presented on small digital screens. Designers have come up with novel text presentation methods, such as moving text from right to left, line-stepping, or showing successive text segments such as phrases or single words in a RSVP format. Comparative studies have indicated that RSVP is perhaps...
Chapter
Full-text available
Attention has been regarded as the guardian of consciousness. This guardian has several modes of operation, e.g., attention that is guided by external sensory inputs (bottom-up activation) and that which is maintained by internal goals (top-down intention). Attention can be widely dispersed or focused on a single, narrow task. Attention can also be...
Article
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The ageing population phenomenon is pushing the design of innovative solutions to provide assistance to the elderly. In this context a socially–assistive robot can act as a proactive interface in a smart-home environment, providing multimodal communication channels and generating positive feelings in users. The present paper reports results of a sh...
Article
Demographic developments have challenged our research on how to assist elderly people by using robots. The KSERA (Knowledgeable SErvice Robots for Aging) project integrates smart home technology and a sociallyassistive robot to extend independent living for elderly people, in particular those with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The s...
Article
Full-text available
College students searched for single target letters in word and unpronounceable nonword displays of four, five, or six letters in length. The displays were typed in either intact upper-or lowercase form or in an alternating mixture of upper- and lowercase letters. Response times and error rates were less for words than for nonwords. Search rates, a...
Article
Full-text available
Three groups of 10 Ss each solved a list of 60 anagrams. In a set group (S) the first 45 anagrams were five-letter words rearranged into a 54123 letter-order pattern. In a random-set group (RS) the first 30 anagrams were in several varying letter arrangements followed by 15 anagrams in the 54123 order. A random group (R) received 45 anagrams in var...
Article
Full-text available
The present research addresses the question of how visual predictive information and implied causality affect audio-visual synchrony perception. Previous research has shown a systematic shift in the likelihood of observers to accept audio-leading stimulus pairs as being apparently simultaneous in variants of audio-visual stimulus pairs that differ...
Article
The design of socially acceptable behaviours is becoming one major issue for the development of robots that are able to interact with humans in unconstrained environments. In particular, social behaviours such as gazing, mutual positioning or gesturing allow robots to initiate and maintain an information exchange with humans. This paper focuses on...
Article
Children in the fourth and sixth grades searched memory sets of two, three, or four items for the presence of a given word or picture probe. The memory sets were all of one form on any trial, being either words or easily nameable pictures, and the probe form was varied to match or mismatch the form of the memory items. Subjects responded more rapid...
Article
Sixty Ss were divided into two groups to be criterion trained or overtrained on a probability matching problem. The probabilities used were 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30. After the training period these were reversed to become 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70 for the occurrence of the same objects. The over-learning reversal effect was demonstrated in that overtr...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain works properly only if the components are perceived in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we quantified cross-modal interactions in the human brain for audiovisual stimuli with temporal asynchronies, using a paradigm from rhythm perception. In this method, participants ha...
Article
Full-text available
Ss memorized a target list of 40 nouns, half of which were from one semantic category (animals) and the remainder from another (body parts). In a recognition test, Ss were presented with a series of 40 targets (list items) and 40 distractors. Every item in the test sequence was preceded by an item that was either a target or distractor and semantic...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent study, Greenberg and Bjorklund (1978) reported data that they interpreted as supporting a differential-category-encoding account of typicality effects. In the present article, we point out several studies that contradict the conclusions drawn by Greenberg and Bjorklund. In addition, we present a replication of their study, but with a gr...
Article
Full-text available
A group of 10 subjects participated in a memory search task and a visual search task in different sessions. The subjects searched for a given target letter in three-, four-, and five-letter words and pronounceable nonwords. There were no significant differences in either the reaction time (RT) data or the error rates between the two tasks. Mean RT...
Article
Full-text available
The near future will see an increasing demand of elder care and a shortage of professional and infor- mal caregivers. In this context, ageing societies would benefit from the design of intelligent homes that provide assistance. The choice of interfaces between the assistive environment and the user is of great importance and determines the degree o...
Article
Humanoid robots that share the same space with humans need to be socially acceptable and effective as they interact with people. In this paper we focus our attention on the definition of a behavior-based robotic architecture that (1) allows the robot to navigate safely in a cluttered and dynamically changing domestic environment and (2) encodes emb...
Conference Paper
One of the most common tasks of a robot companion in the home is communication. In order to initiate an information exchange with its human partner, the robot needs to attract the attention of the human. This paper presents results of a user study (N=12) with elderly people (62 - 70 years) to evaluate different modalities for attracting attention....
Article
Full-text available
The integration of visual and auditory inputs in the human brain occurs only if the components are perceived in temporal proximity, that is, when the intermodal time difference falls within the so-called subjective synchrony range. We used the midpoint of this range to estimate the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). We measured the PSS for aud...
Presentation
Full-text available
Talk that was part of a minisymposium on smart robots for elderly care
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we review empirical studies concerning the effectiveness of stereoscopic displays in medicine. The domains covered in this review are: diagnosis, pre-operative planning, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and training/teaching. For diagnosis, stereoscopic viewing of medical data has been shown to improve the sensitivity of tumor detecti...
Conference Paper
Behaviour based navigation frameworks present the need of mechanisms for behaviour coordination. Algorithms inspired by processing principles of the human brain can provide effective solutions to the coordination problem. Here we present the use of the dynamic neural field, a recurrent neural network, as behaviour coordination layer in robotics nav...
Conference Paper
Personal robots that share the same space with humans need to be socially acceptable and effective as they interact with people. In this paper we focus our attention on the definition of a behaviour-based robotic architecture that, (1) allows the robot to navigate safely in a cluttered and dynamically changing domestic environment and (2) encodes e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gaze direction is an important communicative cue. In order to use this cue for human-robot interaction, software needs to be developed that enables the estimation of head pose. We began by designing an application that is able to make a good estimate of the head pose, and, contrary to earlier head pose estimation approaches, that works for non-opti...
Conference Paper
Embodied nonverbal cues are fundamental for regulating human-human social iteractions. The physical embodiment of robots makes it likely that they will have to exhibit appropriate nonverbal interactive behaviors. In this paper we propose a model of the user's proximity based on a superposition of quasi-Gaussian probability distributions which allow...
Article
Full-text available
Synchrony perception for audio-visual stimulus pairs is typically studied by using temporal order judgment (TOJ) or synchrony judgment (SJ) tasks. Research has shown that estimates of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) obtained using these two methods do not necessarily correspond. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the PSS estimate o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Gaze direction is an important communicative cue. In order to use this cue for human-robot interaction, software needs to be developed that enables the estimation of head pose. We began by designing an application that is be able to make a good estimate of the head pose, and, contrary to earlier neural network approaches, that works for non-optimal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the growing need for elder care, research is focusing on robotic assistance at home. Thus, robots must navigate in cluttered, domestic, indoor environments with the purpose of interacting with a person. Here we present a behaviour based navigation model enhanced with a low level decision making process that allows the robot to approach a human...
Article
Audio-visual stimulus pairs presented at various relative delays, are commonly judged as being "synchronous" over a range of delays from about -50 ms (audio leading) to +150 ms (video leading). The center of this range is an estimate of the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS). The judgment boundaries, where "synchronous" judgments yield to a pre...
Article
Full-text available
When an audio-visual event is perceived in the natural environment, a physical delay will always occur between the arrival of the leading visual component and that of the trailing auditory component. This natural timing relationship suggests that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) should occur at an auditory delay greater than or equal to 0...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mobile persuasion is using a mobile device to motivate people to change their behavior in a positive way. Thus there is the potential in investigating how mobile technology could motivate people to change their behavior towards energy use in a home setting. In this paper we report a pilot study that was conducted to determine which of three visuali...
Article
The phenomenon of "categorical perception" has played an important role in speech research. When a specific (combination of) feature(s) of a speech stimulus is varied along a physical dimension, categorical perception is reflected by two observations: (1) the percept of the sound changes abruptly from one category to another, e.g., from "ba" to "da...
Article
Full-text available
When observers are asked to report a feature of a single target displayed in rapid serial visual presentation, they frequently make errors. Most frequently, a feature from the to-be-reported dimension pertaining to a stimulus presented near the target is reported. These migrations are so-called illusory conjunctions in the time domain. From paralle...
Article
Full-text available
Participants searched for one of two target letters in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) sequence of 17 successive frames, each containing four letters arranged into a box around a central fixation point. In control trial blocks, the participants had no information about when or where one of the target letters would appear. In other trial b...
Article
Despite the abundance of research on the perception of information presented as graduated or proportional circles on static maps, such experiments have been rare for animated map displays. However, such experimental results might be beneficial for selecting optimal methods for depicting temporal change on graduated circle maps. In the present exper...
Article
The perception of audio‐visual delays by human observers is typically characterized by two quantities: the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the sensitivity to asynchrony. The PSE can be derived from a temporal order judgment (TOJ) procedure or from the outcomes of a synchronous‐successive response paradigm. Sensitivity to asynchrony is derive...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments, we examined the effects of task and location switching on the accuracy of reporting target characters in an attentional blink (AB) paradigm. Single-character streams were presented at a rate of 100 msec per character in Experiment 1, and successive pairs of characters on either side of fixation were presented in Experiment 2. On...
Article
There has been a controversy in the apparent motion literature regarding the influence of 3-D distances between motion tokens on correspondence matching. The current series of experiments indicates that this discrepancy results because the effect of three-dimensional distance is too small to be detected unless the retinal coordinates of the motion...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of amount of prior target information (Experiment 1) and semantic priming (Experiment 2) in an attentional gating task. The goal was to determine some causes of the processing deficits commonly observed in perceiving successive visual stimuli. Items in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSV...
Article
Full-text available
Young and older adults searched for a target character in a 3-item display. On each trial, both a symbolic cue (arrow at fixation) and a spatial cue (abrupt onset of one item) could indicate the target's position. Participants were told to use the central arrow cue on all trials because it had 75% validity. The onset cue also had 75% validity for h...
Article
E. Weichselgartner and G. A. Sperling (1987), using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), estimated that attention could be moved to a new spatial location within 300-400 ms. H. J. Müller and P. M. Rabbit (1989) used a spatial cuing task and found a similar time course for voluntarily redeploying attention. A separate phenomenon known as the att...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated strategic variation in reliance on phonological mediation in visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, semantically related or unrelated word primes preceded word, pseudohomophone (e.g., trane), or nonpseudohomophone (e.g., trank) targets in a lexical decision task. Semantic priming effects were found for words, and r...
Article
Ideas about how visual attention is distributed over space include spotlight, zoom lens, and various resource allocation models. Spotlight and serial allocation models assume that attention is narrowly focused and switches from one object to another in visual search. Zoom lens and parallel allocation models, on the other hand, describe a flexible g...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments examined adult age differences in the controlled allocation of visual selective attention. Both experiments were identical with the exception of the stimulus display where targets and distractors were linearly increased with eccentricity in Experiment 2. A spatial cuing task was used with four cue-target presentation intervals (SOAs...
Article
There are a number of applications in consumer and industrial product environments in which there is a need to display a message in a restricted space. Two general display methods were compared in the present research using an eight-character horizontal display. Text appeared either as a sequence of small right-to-left jumps ('leading'), or as a se...
Article
Full-text available
We determined the relative effectiveness and tradeoffs among central, peripheral, and abrupt onset cues in directing attention to a potential target character. Central cues were arrows located at the fixation point, whereas peripheral cues were arrows occurring about 3 degrees away from fixation, near the location of a potential target. These were...
Article
Full-text available
We determined the relative effectiveness and tradeoffs among central, peripheral, and abrupt onset cues in directing attention to a potential target character. Central cues were arrows located at the fixation point, whereas peripheral cues were arrows occurring about 3° away from fixation, near the location of a potential target. These were contras...
Article
An experiment was designed to determine whether speech input is a valuable alternative or addition to manual input. Subjects used both speech and mouse input for control purposes in a document-annotation system. Speech recognition was realized by a speaker-dependent speech-recognition board. In separate sessions, subjects used either a mouse or spe...
Article
Full-text available
The relative effectiveness of central arrow, peripheral arrow, and abrupt-onset cues was assessed in a character recognition task. On each trial, either a central or a peripheral arrow cue was presented 0, 100, or 200 msec before the appearance of a three-digit display. Two of the digits were "uncamouflaged" from previous figure-eight masks, wherea...
Article
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Signal-detection methodology was employed to examine the assumption that in a lexical-decision task context effects are primarily the result of post-access processes. Experiment 1, in which prime-relatedness was varied within subjects, found changes in target sensitivity (d) without corresponding changes in the response criterion. This outcome was...
Article
Full-text available
Three experiments tested young adults' abilities to use size and location cues to find and identify a target letter in a visual field containing 8 to 12 letters. Location cues (relatively near to or far from the fovea) and size cues (relatively large or small) were given before the display. Compared with response times on neutral, no-cue trials, lo...
Article
Three experiments tested young adults' abilities to use size and location cues to find and identify a target letter in a visual field containing 8 to 12 letters. Location cues (relatively near to or far from the fovea) and size cues (relatively large or small) were given before the display. Compared with response times on neutral, no-cue trials, lo...
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine how visual attention is allocated in response to pairwise combinations of location, color, and size cues. Subjects viewed displays of eight letters arranged into an 'X' pattern emanating from a central fixation point. The letters varied on the dimensions of location (foveal or parafoveal positions), size (la...
Article
Full-text available
Is there a difference in the kind of attention elicited by an abrupt-onset peripheral cue and that elicited by an instruction (e.g., a central arrow cue) to move attention to a peripheral location? In Experiment 1, we found that peripheral cues are no more effective in orienting attention than are central cues. No evidence was found for separable a...
Article
There are a number of different ways to present text on computer-controlled displays, and these vary in their relative readabilities. ‘Electronic pages’ can be made to be almost as readable as high-quality printed pages. Alternative text display formats can make use of some of the flexibility inherent in computers—for example, by presenting text th...
Article
The effect of colour differences on visual searching in videotex displays has been investigated in several experiments, including one with accurate measurements of eye movements.
Article
Recognition latency for reporting which of two possible target letters was present in an otherwise empty field was measured in conditions in which distance, but not direction, relative to the fixation point was validly cued, invalidly cued, or uncued in advance. The cues indicated that the letter could occur either just inside or outside of a circl...
Article
Full-text available
Experiment 1 compared paragraph comprehension for texts shown either as normal pages on a computer terminal screen or as rapid serial visual presentations (RSVPs) of small text segments to a common location. Over several days of practice, reading comprehension was equivalent in the normal presentation mode and the RSVP format. When successive RSVP...
Article
Text was presented on a cathode-ray tube screen in a format called "leading," in which the text was moved in discrete jumps of one or more characters at a time from right to left. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that jumps of from 4 to 10 characters at a time produced no significant comprehension differences, but reading comprehension was poorer f...
Article
Just, Carpenter, and Woolley propose that measures of single-word processing times, such as gaze durations during normal reading or durations of reader-controlled exposures, can be used both for developing theories of comprehension and for determining the course of new reading technologies. We argue that better understanding of comprehension proces...
Article
Full-text available
Phonology and orthography are closely related in some languages, such as English, and they are nearly unrelated in others, such as Chinese. The effects of these differences were assessed in a study of the roles of phonemic, graphemic, and semantic information on lexical coding and memory for Chinese logographs and English words. Some of the stimuli...
Article
Full-text available
Tested perceptibility and readability of letter strings, words, and running text presented as sequences of rapid serial visual presentations (RSVPs) via a computer display. Exps I and II showed that 28 college students could rapidly and accurately detect the presence or absence of a target letter in single letter strings and in RSVPs of 5 successiv...
Article
A visual search task for target letters in multiletter displays was used to investigate information-processing differences between college students and presecond-grade children (mean age = 7 years, 4 months). The stimulus displays consisted of single words, pronounceable pseudowords, and unpronounceable nonwords varying in length from three to five...
Article
A visual search task was used to investigate the development of word processing skills used in reading meaningful prose. Children from the second and fourth grades and college students were asked to locate a prespecified letter, syllable, word, or category exemplar as they read through sentences. Target detection time, sentence reading time, and se...
Article
In order to identify the process or processes responsible for impaired naming by aphasic patients, ten aphasic adults and ten normal adults performed three independent tasks--picture naming, modified Sternberg picture recognition, and modified Sternberg random shape recognition (Sternberg, 1966). Response times and error percentages were the depend...
Article
Literate adults can use their familiarity with specific words and their knowledge of English orthography to facilitate word recognition processes. The development of word superiority effects in visual perception was investigated in the present study using a search task with kindergarten (5.7 years old), second (8.0 years old), and fourth grade chil...