James O Hill

James O Hill
University of Colorado | UCD · Anschutz Health and Wellness Center

Ph.D.

About

561
Publications
166,014
Reads
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53,950
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
17367 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
Additional affiliations
November 1992 - present
University of Colorado Denver
Position
  • Professor; Executive Director
October 1992 - May 2015
University of Colorado
Position
  • Managing Director
September 1986 - November 1992
Vanderbilt University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
August 1978 - May 1981
University of New Hampshire
Field of study
  • Physiological Psychology
September 1969 - May 1974
University of Tennessee
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (561)
Article
Objective This study was designed to determine whether intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) aimed at weight loss lowers cancer incidence and mortality. Methods Data from the Look AHEAD trial were examined to investigate whether participants randomized to ILI designed for weight loss would have reduced overall cancer incidence, obesity‐related ca...
Article
Objective: To examine the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial randomized 5,145 participants with type 2 diabetes and overweight/obesity to a ILI or diabetes support and education. Although the primary outcome did not differ between the groups, th...
Article
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Controversies regarding the putative health effects of dietary sugar, salt, fat, and cholesterol are not driven by legitimate differences in scientific inference from valid evidence, but by a fictional discourse on diet-disease relations driven by decades of deeply flawed and demonstrably misleading epidemiologic research. Over the past 60 years, e...
Article
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish...
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Previously published findings from the Beef WISE Study (Beef’s Role in Weight Improvement, Satisfaction, and Energy) indicated equivalent weight loss between two energy-restricted higher protein (HP) diets: A HP diet with ≥4 weekly servings of lean beef (B; n = 60) and a HP diet restricted in all red meats (NB; n = 60). Long-term adherence to dieta...
Article
Understanding the impacts of the built environment on physical activity (PA) is essential to promoting children’s PA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of schoolyard renovations and a PA recess curriculum alone and in combination on children’s PA. This was a 2 (learning landscape [LL] vs. non-LL) × 2 (curriculum intervention...
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Reducing sugar intake is a major public health goal but many consumers are reluctant to use low calorie sweeteners. Two studies were conducted in healthy adults aged 18 to 65 to investigate whether addition of culinary spices to foods reduced in sugar could preserve hedonic liking. Test foods, black tea, oatmeal, and apple crisp, were prepared in f...
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The inability to produce sustainable lifestyle modifications (e.g., physical activity, healthy diet) remains a major barrier to reducing morbidity and mortality from prevalent, preventable conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a model that builds on and extends foundational theory and research to suggest novel approaches that may he...
Chapter
Increasing physical activity through structured aerobic exercise should be a cornerstone of behavioral weight loss programs. Recently, numerous scientific and popular media pieces have discounted the role of exercise for weight loss, which may discourage those trying to lose weight from exercising. However, existing data clearly demonstrate that ex...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare patterns of objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, ≥ 3.00 metabolic equivalents [METs]), light-intensity physical activity (LPA, 1.50-2.99 METs), and sedentary behavior (SB, < 1.50 METs) in successful weight loss maintainers (WLMs), normal weight controls (NC), and c...
Article
Background Lifestyle interventions have been shown to improve physical function over the short term; however, whether these benefits are sustainable is unknown. The long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function were assessed using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. Methods Overweight and obese (B...
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Introduction: This study sought to determine whether 10 years of assignment to intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) relative to diabetes support and education leads to better cognition. We examine intervention effects overall and among clinical subgroups, and report correlations between computer-administered and interviewer-administered cognitiv...
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Objective: To examine the relationship between objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and 4-year weight loss (WL) and WL maintenance among individuals with diabetes enrolled in the Look AHEAD trial. Methods: MVPA was measured in a subgroup of lifestyle intervention participants with accelerometry data at bas...
Article
Background: Diabetes adversely impacts cognition. Lifestyle change can improve diabetes control and potentially improve cognition. We examined whether weight loss through reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity was associated with slower cognitive aging in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The Look AHEAD randomi...
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of a low vs. high intensity aerobic training on biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with obesity. Methods: Sixty-two adolescents with obesity (age: 15±14 years, BMI: 34.87±4.22 kg.m-2) were randomized to receive either a high intensity training (HIT, n=31) or a low intensity t...
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Previous studies have found that obesity could influence academic performance. The aim of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the association between obesity and academic performance in school children. A systematic review of English articles was undertaken by using databases PubMed/Medline, ERIC, LILACS, SciELO and W...
Article
Intentional weight loss is an important treatment option for overweight persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the effects on long term fracture risk are not known. The purpose of this Look AHEAD analysis was to evaluate whether long term intentional weight loss would increase fracture risk in overweight or obese persons with DM. Look AHEA...
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Objective The objective of this randomized equivalence trial was to determine the impact of consuming lean beef as part of a high protein (HP) weight‐reducing diet on changes in body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health. Methods A total of 120 adults (99 female) with overweight or obesity (BMI: 35.7 ± 7.0 kg m⁻²) were randomly assig...
Article
Objective: To assess whether an average of 10 years of lifestyle intervention designed to reduce weight and increase physical activity lowers the prevalence of cognitive impairment among adults at increased risk due to type 2 diabetes and obesity or overweight. Methods: Central adjudication of mild cognitive impairment and probable dementia was...
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Purpose: The dietary habits contributing to weight loss maintenance are not sufficiently understood. We studied weight loss maintainers in comparison with regainers, to identify the differentiating behaviors. Methods: The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers. Participants had intentionally lost ≥10 % of th...
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Objective: To investigate the effects of multidisciplinary treatment with and without psychological counseling on obese adolescents’ self‐reported quality of life. Methods: Seventy‐six obese adolescents (15.87 ± 1.53 y) were allocated into psychological counseling group (PCG; n = 36) or control group (CG; n = 40) for 12 weeks. All participants rece...
Article
Background/objectives: The limited success in addressing the current obesity epidemic reflects the insufficient understanding of the regulation of energy balance. The present study examines the longitudinal association of body weight with physical activity (PA), total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and total daily energy intake (TDEI). Subjects/me...
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Background: This study contributes to the literature by using accelerometers to describe sedentary behavior (SB) patterns in US children. The purpose of this study was to examine SB patterns in fifth-graders by specifically focusing on in-school versus out-of-school SB patterns to identify when (during the school day or outside of the school day)...
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Background While physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive performance and well-being, office workers are essentially sedentary. We compared the effects of physical activity performed as (i) one bout in the morning or (ii) as microbouts spread out across the day to (iii) a day spent sitting, on mood and energy levels and cognitive funct...
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Objective: To investigate the effects of multidisciplinary treatment with and without psychological counseling on obese adolescents' self-reported quality of life. Methods: Seventy-six obese adolescents (15.87±1.53 y) were allocated into psychological counseling group (PCG; n=36) or control group (CG; n=40) for 12 weeks. All participants receive...
Article
Full-text available
Physical fitness (PF) is a construct of health- and skill-related attributes which have been associated with academic performance (AP) in youth. This study aimed to review the scientific evidence on the association among components of PF and AP in children and adolescents. A systematic review of articles using databases PubMed/Medline, ERIC, LILACS...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the 1971-2010 United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability (LAFA) per capita caloric consumption estimates. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE) was calculated for nationally representative samples of US adults, 20-74 years, using the Institute...
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The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early members...
Article
Purpose: To investigate whether CRF is associated with academic performance in Brazilian students, independently of body mass index (BMI), fatness and socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Three hundred and nine two 5th and 6th grade students (193 girls) (12.11±0.75 years old) were evaluated in 2012. Skinfold thickness measures were performed, an...
Article
Background Findings from the Look AHEAD trial showed no significant reductions in the primary outcome of cardiovascular disease incidence in adults with type 2 diabetes randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss compared with those randomly assigned to diabetes support and education (control). We examined whether the i...
Article
Purpose: This study examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on objectively-assessed PA over a 4-year period among older adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Data from 2400 participants (age: 59.3±6.9 yrs; BMI: 36.1±5.9 kg/m) with accelerometry data from the Look AHEAD trial were included in the analyses. Participants ra...
Article
Background: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. Objective: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle compared with the effect of simple energy restric...
Article
Objective Nearly 20 years ago, participants in behavioural weight loss programmes reported goals that greatly exceeded the amount of weight typically produced by these programmes. Whether having unrealistic weight loss goals impacts weight loss or attrition is unclear. The intent of the current study was to revisit current weight loss goals and exa...
Article
Despite the rapid rise in obesity worldwide, few strategies have been effective in treating this epidemic. An emerging strategy is to focus on preventing excessive weight gain rather than weight reduction. The proposed intervention, small change approach (SCA), is an innovative weight gain prevention strategy in which individuals monitor their usua...
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A retrospective study of kids' meals purchased at Walt Disney World was conducted to determine acceptance rates for healthy sides and beverages. Purchase data from all 145 Walt Disney World restaurants were analyzed using a log-linear model and a Poisson regression. Across all restaurants, 47.9% and 66.3% of guests accepted healthy default sides an...
Article
Genetic studies have identified a glutamate-ammonia ligase gene (GLUL) polymorphism associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to determine whether GLUL rs10911021 is associated prospectively with adjudicated cardiovascular composite end points among overweight/obese individuals...
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Objective: To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year-long behavioral weight loss treatment program. Methods: The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight-stable people wi...
Article
Background: Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain. Objective: The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults. Design: Partici...
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Little is known about how the intensity of aerobic training influences appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Our goal was to assess the effect of low and high intensity aerobic trainings on food intake and appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Forty three obese adolescents (age: 13-18y, BMI: 34.48 +/- 3.94 kg/m(2)) were ra...
Article
In-person weight loss maintenance visits have been shown to reduce weight regain after initial weight loss. This study examined, in a primary care population, whether in-person visits plus portion-controlled meals were more effective in reducing 12-month weight regain than mailed materials plus portioncontrolled meals. Study participants (n = 106)...
Article
Objectives : The primary purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators of Fuel Up to Play 60 (FUTP60) program implementation. Methods : This was an observational study occurring over 20 months in 4 schools in metropolitan Denver, Colorado. Key informant interviews and FUTP60 surveys examined the barriers and facilitators of progr...
Article
Energy flux, the rate of energy conversion from absorption to expenditure or storage, is a critical component of understanding weight management. Individuals who maintain body weight over time have common characteristics including a relatively high level of physical activity and minimal changes in body composition, muscle mass and metabolic rate. A...
Article
With the rising prevalence of obesity, hedonic eating has become an important theme in obesity research. Hedonic eating is thought to be that driven by the reward of food consumption and not metabolic need, and this has focused attention on the brain reward system and how its dysregulation may cause overeating and obesity. Here, we begin by examini...
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Objective The aim of this study was to explore the impact of body weight change following intentional weight loss on measures of physical performance in adults with diabetes.Design and methodsFour hundred fifty individuals with type 2 diabetes (age, 59.0 ± 6.9 years; body mass index, 35.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2) who participated in the Look AHEAD Movement and...
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Aims/hypothesis: Both obesity and genetics contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether a genetic risk score (GRS) prospectively predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and whether behavioural weight loss could diminish this association. Methods: Look AHEAD (Acti...
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Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and type 2 diabetes, are clearly the leading public health problems facing the world in the 21st century.1 The causes of NCDs are predominately unhealthful lifestyles such as physical inactivity, poor diets, smoking, unhealthful sleep habits and not managing s...
Article
To determine the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention versus a comparison group on body composition in obese or overweight persons with type 2 diabetes at baseline and at 1, 4, and 8 years. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a subset of 1019 Look AHEAD study volunteers randomized to intervention or compar...
Article
Background: It is unclear whether an intensive program of weight loss combined with exercise prevents the onset of knee pain among those at high risk. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) prevents incident knee pain compared with a diabetes support and education (DSE) comparison group among overweight adults with diabetes....
Article
We need all sectors of society involved in reducing obesity. The food industry's effort to reduce energy intake as part of the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation is a significant step in the right direction and should be recognized as such by the public health community. We also need to get organizations that promote physical inactivity, such as...
Article
Objective To assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial.Methods Overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg m−2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45-76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes (n = 964) at four clinics in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluatin...
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Background: Due to the high prevalence of obesity, individuals may be desensitized to weight as a personal health concern. Purpose: To evaluate changes in obesity awareness associated with a statewide public education campaign in Colorado. Methods: Cross-sectional random digit dial telephone surveys (n = 1,107 pre, n = 1101 post) were conducted bef...
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Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controll...
Article
Background: Long-term effects of behavioural weight loss interventions on diabetes complications are unknown. In a secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) multicentre randomised clinical trial, we assessed whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) affects the development of nephropathy in people with type 2 dia...
Article
Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers.Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weig...
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Unlabelled: Adults often consume more fat than is recommended. We examined factors that may improve liking of reduced fat and reduced saturated fat foods, including the addition of herbs and spices and habitual consumption of different high-fat and low-fat food items. We randomized adults to taste 3 different conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat...
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Objective: To assess the relative impact of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on use and costs of health care within the Look AHEAD trial. Research design and methods: A total of 5,121 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an ILI that promoted weight loss or to a comparison condition of diabetes suppor...
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This article summarizes presentations from “Neurocognition: The Food–Brain Connection” symposium held at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 28 April 2014. Presenters reviewed research from several disciplines, including neurobiology, neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience, and nutrition,...
Article
Background. Compared with adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus, those with the disease experience more limitations in their physical functioning (PF). Look AHEAD is a large multicenter trial that examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes compared with diabetes support and educati...
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Full-text available
Background: Breakfast is associated with lower body weight in observational studies. Public health authorities commonly recommend breakfast consumption to reduce obesity, but the effectiveness of adopting these recommendations for reducing body weight is unknown. Objective: We tested the relative effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip...
Article
Objective To compare the efficacy of non-nutritive sweetened beverages (NNS) or water for weight loss during a 12-week behavioral weight loss treatment program.Methods An equivalence trial design with water or NNS beverages as the main factor in a prospective randomized trial among 303 men and women was employed. All participants participated in a...
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Most adults consume more fat than is recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. We examined whether adding herbs and spices to reduced-fat foods would improve their consumer liking. We recruited adults 18-65 years old to taste three lunch conditions: full fat (FF), reduced fat with no added spice (RF), and reduced fat plus spice (RFS). Su...
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It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. Forty-three obese adolescents (age: 15.7±1.3y, BMI: 34.3±4.1kg/m2) partici...