James M. Gibbons

James M. Gibbons
Bangor University · School of Natural Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

114
Publications
21,703
Reads
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2,491
Citations
Citations since 2016
66 Research Items
1548 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Additional affiliations
November 2006 - March 2016
Bangor University
Position
  • Lecturer
August 1998 - October 2006
University of Nottingham
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
Full-text available
Global scenario modelling for climate stabilization lacks national resolution, particularly for the agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sector, impeding effective national climate policymaking. We generate 850 randomized scenarios of activity combinations for Ireland’s AFOLU sector in the year 2050 and evaluate associated greenhouse ga...
Article
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement commits 197 countries to achieve climate stabilisation at a global average surface temperature less than 2 ∘C above pre-industrial times using nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to demonstrate progress. Numerous industrialised economies have targets to achieve territorial climate neutrality by 2050, primarily in the form...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Paris Agreement commits 197 countries to achieve climate stabilisation at a global average surface temperature less than 2 °C above pre-industrial times, using nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to demonstrate progress vis-à-vis this goal. Numerous industrialised economies have targets to achieve territorial climate neutrality by 2050,...
Article
The environmental impacts of increasing pasture productivity in the United Kingdom’s (UK) uplands is under-researched. A field trial on a representative upland farm investigated the effect of implementing pasture improvement options on unimproved land between 2017 and 2019. The options were cultivation (ploughing and rotovating) and reseeding in co...
Article
This study utilises data collected from Costa Rican dairy farmers to conduct a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment and the first Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) for dairy production in Latin America. Ninety dairy farms across five farm typologies were assessed, reflecting Costa Rica’s diverse agroclimatic zones and varying degrees of dai...
Article
Full-text available
Recent environmental footprint comparisons between meat and plant-based meat analogues do not consider nutritional density holistically, nor the high carbon opportunity costs (COC) of land requirements, which are critical in terms of climate stabilisation targets. We performed an attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 100 g serving of cooke...
Article
Full-text available
Ruminant livestock are raised under diverse cultural and environmental production systems around the globe. Ruminant livestock can play a critical role in food security by supplying high-quality, nutrient-dense food with little or no competition for arable land while simultaneously improving soil health through vital returns of organic matter. Howe...
Article
Background: mycobacterial cells contain complex mixtures of mycolic acid esters. These can be used as antigens recognised by antibodies in the serum of individuals with active tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In high burden populations, a significant number of false positives are observed; possibly these antigens are also recogni...
Article
While milk is a major agricultural commodity, dairy farming also supports a large share of global beef production. In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of dairy farming systems, dairy-beef production is often ignored or ‘allocated off’, which may give a distorted view of production efficiencies. This study combines LCA with Data Envelopment Analy...
Article
Full-text available
Conservation science needs more high-quality impact evaluations, especially ones that explore mechanisms of success or failure. Randomized control trials (RCTs) provide particularly robust evidence of the effectiveness of interventions (although they have been criticized as reductionist and unable to provide insights into mechanisms), but there hav...
Article
The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers is one of the most important land management practices proposed to improve crop and pasture productivity. The use of such fertilisers in excess can lead to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, linked to climate change, as well as ammonia (NH3) emissions, linked to eutrophication and soil acidification.. This con...
Article
Full-text available
Straw is an important livestock bedding material facing increasing demand for alternative uses in Europe and is often transported long distances from arable to livestock regions. Alternative bedding materials cultivated directly on livestock farms could potentially avoid this transport and competition for use. For the first time, we applied consequ...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of many widely used conservation interventions is poorly understood because of a lack of high-quality impact evaluations. Randomized control trials (RCTs), in which experimental units are randomly allocated to treatment or control groups, offer an intuitive way to calculate the impact of an intervention by establishing a reliable...
Article
Full-text available
Milk and beef production generates environmental burdens globally and locally. Across many regions a typical dairy intensification pathway is for dairy farms to specialize on milk production and reduce the co-production of beef (i.e. 'dairy-beef'). Dairy-beef thus reduces and beef needs to be produced elsewhere if beef production is to be maintaine...
Article
Full-text available
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being used as conservation tools in the marine environment. Success of MPAs depends upon sound scientific design and societal support. Studies that have assessed societal preferences for temperate MPAs have generally done it without considering the existence of discrete groups of opinion within society...
Data
Questionnaire used for data collection. Questionnaire used for the collection of data on trains during the study period. All questions are included.
Data
Choice experiment data. Raw data used for the choice experiment models.
Article
Full-text available
Background Randomised Control Trials (RCTs) are used in impact evaluation in a range of fields. However, despite calls for their greater use in environmental management, their use to evaluate landscape scale interventions remains rare. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) incentivise land users to manage land to provide environmental benefits. We...
Article
Natural regeneration is crucial for silvicultural approaches based on the continuous presence of a forest cover, or Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF). Light is considered one of the most important factors affecting regeneration growth under canopy cover. Sitka spruce, western hemlock and Douglas fir are important forestry species both in Europe and i...
Article
Full-text available
Pasture-based milk is increasingly preferred by consumers owing to its perceived socio-economic, animal welfare and environmental benefits. However, nitrogen excretion from pasture-based dairy farming is also a large source of nitrogen leaching and emission of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. Ryegrass bred to express elevated concentrations...
Article
Full-text available
Background While the importance of conserving ecosystems for sustainable development is widely recognized, it is increasingly evident that despite delivering global benefits, conservation often comes at local cost. Protected areas funded by multilateral lenders have explicit commitments to ensure that those negatively affected are adequately compen...
Data
Fig. S4. Population distribution within a 2 km buffer of CAZ. Established protected areas managed by Madagascar National Parks (with 2 Km buffer around them) have been excluded as different compensation right exist there. The population model is based on Landscan 2007 data distributed with the EcoEngine algorithm in WaterWorld.
Data
Fig. S1. How households gain access to land in the study sites. Y-axis shows the overall percentage of plots in each site being accessed through one of the five ways listed–total adding up to 100% for each site. Error bars show 95% confidence intervals.
Data
Fig. S3. Pictures showing the context of the field work presented in this paper. a), b) The biodiversity of the CAZ is world-renowned. c), d) 10s of 1000s of people live around the CAZ new protected area, traditionally most people depend economically on clearing land for agriculture in a swidden system known locally as ‘tavy.’ e) The CAZ protected...
Data
Table S1. Attributes and levels of the choice experiment (reference levels in bold).
Data
Survey instruments for phase three of field work. Contingent valuation of the compensation recieved by housholds (in English and Malagasy).
Data
Fig. S2. The value of the compensation projects as a percentage of household opportunity cost. Data is for 62 recipients of compensation (all from site 1), 2 years after compensation was received. The value of compensation is estimated from our contingent valuation while the opportunity cost of conservation is estimated from the choice experiment.
Data
Survey instruments for phase one of field work. (household survey and choice experiment in English and Malagasy).
Data
Fig. S5. Examining goodness of fit of the modelled population from existing sources with our population data collected from the study areas. Our field data shows the primary census data collected in each fokontany during 2014/2015 (population data from p4ges field sites) plotted against the population estimates for those sites from LandScan 2007 (L...
Data
Table S2. The coefficients from the choice experiment. Lower and upper bounds are 95% confidence intervals.
Data
Survey instruments for phase two of field work. (Agricultural survey in English and Malagasy).
Data
Fig. S6. Example choice card of the Discrete Choice Experiment used to estimate opportunity costs.
Data
Table S3. The annualised opportunity costs of conservation per household (USD).
Preprint
There is general agreement that conservation decision-making should be evidence-informed, but many evaluations of intervention effectiveness do not attempt to account for confounding variables and so provide weak evidence. Randomised Control Trials (RCTs), in which experimental units are randomly allocated to treatment or control groups, offer an i...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is general agreement that conservation decision-making should be evidence-informed, but many evaluations of intervention effectiveness do not attempt to account for confounding variables and so provide weak evidence. Randomised Control Trials (RCTs), in which experimental units are randomly allocated to treatment or control groups, offer an i...
Data
Summary boxplot of scaled metric data for each year analysed (2001–2014). (EPS)
Data
Summary of FBS farms included in the analysis. (DOCX)
Data
Scree plot for PCA for all farms for all years showing a distinct “knee” after PC3. (EPS)
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of the sustainability of intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the average farm level may not represent farm diversity and is potentially insufficient to evaluat...
Article
Full-text available
There is a major gap in funding required for conservation, especially in low income countries. Given the significant contribution of taxpayers in industrialized countries to funding conservation overseas, and donations from membership organisation, understanding the preferences of ordinary people in a high income country for different attributes of...
Data
Excel file containing metadata, summary, variable names, results and the survey code for android phones. (XLSX)
Data
Oral consent script and attribute explanation. (DOCX)
Data
Table A. Campaign dates during the choice experiment field experiemnt during August 2016. Table B. Respondents and total paying visitors to the Zoo based on ticket sales the four week experimental period in July/ August 2016. (DOCX)
Data
Table A. results of the MIXL base model with all respondents. Table B. Results of the MIXL model with socio- economic and marketing exposure interactions (standard error in parenthesis). Table C. Results of the MIXL base model conducted only with the sample of respondents that gave a real donation during either marketing campaign. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Hemispherical photography (HP), implemented with cameras equipped with “fisheye” lenses, is a widely used method for describing forest canopies and light regimes. A promising technological advance is the availability of low‐cost fisheye lenses for smartphone cameras. However, smartphone camera sensors cannot record a full hemisphere. We investigate...
Poster
Full-text available
Calibration of predictive growth models for Sitka spruce (SS), western hemlock (WH) and Douglas fir (DF) as function of light availability, as support for CCF planning, and analysis of their differences in terms of shade-tolerance behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
Milk and beef production cause 9% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have shown that dairy intensification reduces the carbon footprint of milk by increasing animal productivity and feed conversion efficiency. None of these studies simultaneously evaluated indirect GHG effects incurred via telecon...
Article
Full-text available
Background During pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) antibodies are generated to trehalose esters of mycolic acids which are cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Attempts have been made to use these complex natural mixtures in serological tests for PTB diagnosis. Aim The aim of this work was to determine whether a serological test based...
Data
Analysis of results by sample group. (DOCX)
Data
Average responses for each serum in quadruplicate for each assay, together with standard deviations. (DOCX)
Data
Analysis of results by sub-groups (where available). (DOCX)
Book
Full-text available
We are grateful to the AHDB, SARIC and the NERC administrators who have provided context and advice during this research. We also want to thank John Williams and Lizzie Sagoo of ADAS for their expert advice on nutrient research throughout the project. Finally, the research team would like to thank all participants of the workshop that took place on...
Article
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil solution represents a complex mixture of organic molecules and plays a central role in carbon and nitrogen cycling in plant–microbial–soil systems. We tested whether excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to characterize DOM and support previous findings that the majority of DOM...
Article
Fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG) are typically characterized by high spatial and temporal variability and large sample sizes (e.g. >30) are thus required to obtain a reliable estimate of the population mean and variance when using simple random sampling (SRS). Sample size, however, is often constrained by budget (time, labor) and therefore practica...
Article
Full-text available
There is extensive debate about the potential impact of the climate mechanism REDD+ on the welfare of forest-dwelling people. To provide emission reductions, REDD+ must slow the rate of deforestation and forest degradation: such a change will tend to result in local opportunity cost to farmers at the forest frontier. Social safeguard processes to m...