James Dinicolantonio

James Dinicolantonio
St. Luke's Hospital (MO, USA) · Preventive Cardiology

Pharm.D.

About

268
Publications
263,562
Reads
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6,578
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Introduction
Dr. DiNicolantonio is a cardiovascular research scientist at Saint Luke’s Mid America Heart Institute. Dr. DiNicolantonio is the author or co-author of over 200 medical publications and serves as the Associate Editor of British Medical Journal’s (BMJ) Open Heart. Dr. DiNicolantonio is on the editorial advisory board of several medical journals including Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
St. Luke's Hospital (MO, USA)
Position
  • Cardiovascular Research Scientist
Description
  • My testimony to the Canadian Senate Committee on the harms of refined carbohydrates and added sugars https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIlaGlBVphI&feature=youtu.be

Publications

Publications (268)
Article
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For reasons that remain unclear, endogenous synthesis and tissue levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) tend to decline with increasing age in at least some tissues. When CoQ10 levels are sufficiently low, this compromises the efficiency of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, such that production of superoxide by site 2 increases and the rate of ad...
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Ferulic acid, a bacterial metabolite of anthocyanins, seems likely to be a primary mediator of the health benefits associated with anthocyanin-rich diets, and has long been employed in Chinese cardiovascular medicine. In rodent studies, it has exerted wide-ranging antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, the molecular basis of which remains rathe...
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In people with metabolic syndrome, episodic exposure of pancreatic beta cells to elevated levels of both glucose and free fatty acids (FFAs)—or glucolipotoxicity—can induce a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This in turn can lead to a chronic state of glucolipotoxicity and a sustained loss of GSIS, ushering in type 2 diabetes. L...
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This is the french traduction of: @article{dinicolantonio2018sugar, title={Sugar addiction: is it real? A narrative review}, author={DiNicolantonio, James J and O’Keefe, James H and Wilson, William L}, journal={British journal of sports medicine}, volume={52}, number={14}, pages={910--913}, year={2018}, publisher={BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Briti...
Article
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Interactions of antigens with the mast cell FcεRI-IgE receptor complex induce degranulation and boost synthesis of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators and cytokines. Activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) functions as a central hub in this signaling. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 opposes Syk activity; stimulation of NADPH oxidase by FcεRI activat...
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Chronic kidney disease is characterized by markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, vascular calcification, and ventricular hypertrophy, and is associated with increased systemic oxidative stress. Hyperphosphatemia, reflecting diminished glomerular phosphate (Pi) clearance, coupled with a compensatory increase in fibroblast growth fact...
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Activation of various isoforms of NADPH oxidase contributes to the pathogenesis of asthma at multiple levels: promoting hypercontractility, hypertrophy, and proliferation of airway smooth muscle; enabling lung influx of eosinophils via VCAM-1; and mediating allergen-induced mast cell activation. Free bilirubin, which functions physiologically withi...
Article
Over the past decade there has been a considerable debate whether fish oil supplementation works to prevent and/or treat cardiovascular disease. This is due to the fact that previous studies testing fish oil in Italy and Japan found significant reductions in all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular events, whereas more recent s...
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A recent retrospective study has provided evidence that COVID-19 infection may be notably less common in those using supplemental melatonin. It is suggested that this phenomenon may reflect the fact that, via induction of silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), melatonin can upregulate K63 polyubiquitination of the mitochondrial antiviral-signallin...
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Oxidative stress and increased cytoplasmic calcium are key mediators of the detrimental effects on neuronal function and survival in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Pathways whereby these perturbations arise, and then prevent dendritic spine formation, promote tau hyperphosphorylation, further amplify amyloid β generation, and induce neuronal apoptosis,...
Article
Magnesium and vitamin D each have the possibility of affecting the immune system and consequently the cytokine storm and coagulation cascade in COVID-19 infections. Vitamin D is important for reducing the risk of upper respiratory tract infections and plays a role in pulmonary epithelial health. While the importance of vitamin D for a healthy immun...
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Inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes that form in response to a variety of stress signals and that serve to catalyze the proteolytic conversion of pro-interleukin-1β and pro-interleukin-18 to active interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, central mediators of the inflammatory response; inflammasomes can also promote a type of cell death kno...
Article
Previous research demonstrates that, in clinically relevant concentrations, azithromycin can boost the ability of RNA viruses to induce type 1 interferon by amplifying the expression and virally-mediated activation of MDA5. O-GlcNAcylation of MAVS, a down-stream target of MDA5, renders it more effective for type 1 interferon induction. High-dose gl...
Article
Inflammatory cytokine storms in the lungs are a potential consequence of RNA viruses. One issue that may increase the risk of developing inflammatory cytokine storms in the lungs during viral infections is an imbalance in the dietary omega-6/3 ratio. Indeed, over the past 100 years the omega-6/3 ratio in the Western world has increased from approxi...
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Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechani...
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Most of the global population is deficient in long-chain marine omega-3s. In particular, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, is important for brain and eye development. Additionally, DHA plays a significant role in mental health throughout early childhood and even into adulthood. In the brain, DHA is important for cellular...
Article
Counterproductive lung inflammation and dysregulated thrombosis contribute importantly to the lethality of advanced COVID-19. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR), expressed by a wide range of immune cells, as well as endothelial cells and platelets, exert cAMP-mediated anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects that potentially could be highly protec...
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The high rate of thrombotic complications associated with COVID-19 seems likely to reflect viral infection of vascular endothelial cells, which express the ACE2 protein that enables SARS-CoV-2 to invade cells. Various proinflammatory stimuli can promote thrombosis by inducing luminal endothelial expression of tissue factor (TF), which interacts wit...
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Spirulina, a cyanobacteria commonly referred to as a blue-green algae, is one of the oldest lifeforms on Earth. Spirulina grows in both fresh and saltwater sources and is known for its high protein and micronutrient content. This review paper will cover the effects of spirulina on weight loss and blood lipids. The currently literature supports the...
Article
The majority of acute coronary syndromes are caused by the rupture of plaques rendered vulnerable by oxidized lipids, inflammation, and a thin fibrous cap with reduced collagen and smooth muscle cell content.2 Thus, stabilizing and reversing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques can help to prevent cardiovascular events. In this regard, long-chain ome...
Article
Recently, 3 large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. We reviewed this evidence and considered it in the context of the large and growing body of data on the CV health effects of marine omega-3s. One RCT examining 8...
Article
There has been a raging debate whether marine omega-3s are effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Our review paper discusses the landmark clinical studies testing the benefits of marine omega-3s. Moreover, for the first time, the REDUCE-IT study tested a high dose of marine omega-3s (4 grams of icosapent ethyl per day) on top of st...
Article
The gaseous physiological modulator hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently been shown to exert a variety of neuroprotective effects. In particular, the treatment of transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with agents that release H2S aids preservation of cognitive function, suppresses brain production of amyloid beta, and decreases tau pho...
Article
Many cancers and pre-cancerous lesions convert membrane-bound arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosanoids that promote the survival, growth, and spread of cancer. In contrast, the long-chain omega-3s eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can competitively inhibit AA’s interaction with the enzymes that give rise to eicosanoids, while a...
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Background: Evidence suggests that the overconsumption of added sugars can induce fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. Aim: To propose a hypothesis that added sugars induce copper deficiency which can lead to hepatic iron overload, fatty liver disease, insulin resistance and eventually non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Setting: On average, th...
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Salt has notoriously been blamed for causing an increase in the urinary excretion of calcium and thus is considered to be a risk factor for osteoporosis. However, the increase in the urinary excretion of calcium with higher sodium intakes can be offset by the increased intestinal absorption of dietary calcium. Thus, the overall calcium balance does...
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IMS: The long-term impact of beta blockers on prognosis in patients treated with contemporary therapies for coronary artery disease remains to be defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: All observational studies evaluating the impact of beta blockers in patients treated with coronary revascularization and contemporary therapies and adjusted with multivariate...
Article
Although clinical trials with glucosamine in osteoarthritis have yielded mixed results, leading to doubts about its efficacy, the utility of glucosamine for preventing joint destruction and inflammation is well documented in rodent models of arthritis, including models of spontaneous osteoarthritis. The benefit of oral glucosamine in adjuvant arthr...
Article
Purpose of review: To evaluate the evidence for population-wide sodium restriction. Recent findings: The recommendations for population-wide sodium restriction largely rely on one surrogate marker (blood pressure). However, recent evidence suggests that when looking beyond blood pressure (e.g. heart rate, aldosterone, renin, cholesterol, triglyc...
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Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine li...
Article
The potential cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) benefits of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (OM3) have been intensely studied and debated for decades. Initial trials were performed in patients with low use of maximal medical therapy for CVD, and reported significant mortality benefits with the use of 1 g/day OM3 intervention following myocardia...
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Coffee, a complex brew containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, exerts potent effects on long-term human health. Recently, a plethora of studies have been published focusing on health outcomes associated with coffee intake. An inverse association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality has been seen consistently in large pro...
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Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the human body. Deficiency in thiamine can lead to neurological abnormalities and congestive heart failure (HF), known as dry beriberi and wet beriberi respectively. Several populations are at higher risk for thiamine deficiency, most notably persons with c...
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Because serum magnesium does not reflect intracellular magnesium, the latter making up more than 99% of total body magnesium, most cases of magnesium deficiency are undiagnosed. Furthermore, because of chronic diseases, medications, decreases in food crop magnesium contents, and the availability of refined and processed foods, the vast majority of...
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Traditionally, the leading hypothesis regarding the development of obesity involves caloric imbalance, whereby the amount of calories consumed exceeds the amount of calories burned which causes obesity. Another hypothesis for why we get fat has surfaced in the last decade which is the idea that the overconsumption of added sugars and refined carboh...
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Background: The purpose of this article is to discuss the evidence regarding potential macrovascular and microvascular benefits of fibrate therapy in general and fenofibrate specifically. Methods: We performed a literature review summarizing the results of studies testing fibrates on relevant. Results: Although statins are the first line thera...
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A recent controlled trial has established that high-dose biotin supplementation – 100 mg, three times daily – has a stabilizing effect on progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this effect has been attributed to an optimization of biotin’s essential cofactor role in the brain, a case can be made that direct stimulation of soluble guanylat...
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Fatty liver disease affects up to one out of every two adults in the western world. Data from animal and human studies implicate added sugars (eg, sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup) in the development of fatty liver disease and its consequences. Added fructose in particular, as a component of added sugars, may pose the greatest risk for fatty li...
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Objectives This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety outcomes between subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) and transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (TV-ICD). Background The S-ICD was developed to minimize complications related to the conventional TV-ICD. Direct comparison of clini...
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In animal studies, sugar has been found to produce more symptoms than is required to be considered an addictive substance. Animal data has shown significant overlap between the consumption of added sugars and drug-like effects, including bingeing, craving, tolerance, withdrawal, cross-sensitisation, cross-tolerance, cross-dependence, reward and opi...
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Recently, debate has erupted in both the scientific community and throughout the lay public around whether a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet is better for weight loss. In other words, is it better to cut fat or cut carbohydrate for weight loss. However, going beyond this debate (fat versus carbohydrate), are questions around whether certain fatty...
Book
We all know the dangers of sugar and salt: but the danger attributed to the second white crystal has more to do with getting too little of it, not too much. A leading cardiovascular research scientist and doctor of pharmacy overturns conventional thinking about salt and explores instead the little-understood importance of it, the health dangers of...
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The "Salt Blood Pressure Hypothesis" states that an increase in the intake of salt leads to an increased in blood pressure and subsequently increases the risk for cardiovascular events, which has been a point of contention for decades. This paper covers the history and some of the key players pertaining to ‘The Salt Wars’ during the first half of t...
Article
For decades the notion that an excessive consumption of salt (NaCl) leads to hypertension has persisted. However, this idea is based on opinion and not scientific proof. Despite this, every health organisation, agency and clinicians around the world have been advising salt restriction especially to hypertensive patients. The present review article...
Article
Objectives: In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), current guidelines discourage treatment of the non-culprit lesions at the time of the primary intervention. Latest trials have challenged this strategy suggesting benefit of early complete revascularization. We performed a Bayesian multiple treatment network meta-analysis of random...
Article
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the physiologically normal levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the thresholds for development of atherosclerosis and adverse coronary events are in the 30 to 70 mg/dL range. More patients have been studied in randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of statins on outcomes than...
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Objectives Hypertension is well established as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although there is undeniable evidence to support the beneficial effects of antihypertensive therapy on morbidity and mortality, adequate blood pressure management still remains suboptimal. Research into the treatment of hypertension has produced a multitu...
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In 1980, a significant segment of the US population was already overweight or obese, but obesity standards did not exist. Therefore, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) held the Workshop on Body Weight, Health and Longevity to correct the deficiency so that data could be improved. The workshop concluded:In the United States, the weight associat...
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The updated 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published in January 2016, have stirred much controversy since the advisory report first appeared. Several important changes have been made, with some recommendations having greater scientific evidence for their support than others. The focus of this review is to discuss specific recommendations fr...
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Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), generated in the microenvironment of cancer cells, can drive the proliferation, invasion, and migration of cancer cells by activating G protein-coupled LPA receptors. Moreover, in cancer cells that have metastasized to bone, LPA signaling can promote osteolysis by inducing cancer cell production of cytokines, such as IL...
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Obesity has traditionally been thought of as a state of caloric imbalance, where the intake of calories exceeds the expenditure or ‘burning’ of calories. However, a more nuanced appreciation for the complex biochemistry and physiology of cellular energy generation suggests that obesity is a state of hormonal imbalance causing increased shunting of...
Article
Objectives National dietary guidelines were introduced in 1977 and 1983, by the USA and UK governments, respectively, with the ambition of reducing coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality by reducing dietary fat intake. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis by the present authors, examining the randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence avail...