James Conigrave

James Conigrave
The University of Sydney · Discipline of Addiction Medicine, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health

PhD

About

40
Publications
8,976
Reads
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250
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Background and aims: To reduce health and social inequities, it is important to understand how drinking patterns vary within and between Indigenous peoples. We aimed to assess variability in estimates of Indigenous Australian drinking patterns and to identify demographic and methodological factors associated with this. Design: A three-level meta...
Article
There has been emerging interest in the role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) given alcohol consumption stimulates immune cells to secrete peripheral pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether an abnormal inflammatory cytokine profile exists...
Article
Background and aims: Unhealthy alcohol consumption is a key concern for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ('Indigenous') communities. It is important to identify and treat at-risk drinkers, to prevent harms to physical or social wellbeing. We aimed to test whether training and support for Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS)...
Article
Objective: Based on prior theory and research (Ciarrochi & Heaven, 2009; Eagly & Wood, 1999), we hypothesized that the link between empathy and friendship would be moderated by sex: girls will nominate empathic boys as friends, whereas boys will not tend to nominate empathic girls. Method: We collected measures of empathy, friendship social supp...
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Objectives: To what extent is the frame of reference of overlapping friendship communities important for young people's feelings of discrimination and subjective well-being? That is, do youth feel better or worse to the extent that they feel less or more discrimination than their friends? Method: Participants (N = 898; Mage = 14.13; SDage = 3.37...
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Background Disadvantage and transgenerational trauma contribute to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians being more likely to experience adverse health consequences from alcohol and other drug use than non-Indigenous peoples. Addressing these health inequities requires local monitoring of alcohol and other drug use. While c...
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Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (‘Indigenous’) Australians experience a greater burden of disease from alcohol consumption than non-Indigenous peoples. Brief interventions can help people reduce their consumption, but people drinking at risky levels must first be detected. Valid screening tools (e.g., AUDIT-C) can help clinicians i...
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Self-determination theory holds that the intrinsic and extrinsic content of people's aspirations differentially affect their wellness. An evidence base spanning nearly 30 years indicates that focusing on intrinsic goals (such as for growth, relationships, community giving, and health) promotes well-being, whereas a focus on extrinsic goals (such as...
Article
Several initiatives have sought to increase the number of First Nations individuals with a higher degree in research (i.e., PhD or research masters)—in Australia and in similarly colonised countries. However, little has been written on day‐to‐day support structures and mechanisms that might help First Nations Australian candidates thrive in postgra...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that experiences of autonomy lead people to be more prosocial, whereas experiences of control lead to antisocial actions. In this meta-analysis, we tested the links between autonomy and prosociality, and control and antisociality, across 139 reports (167 studies) with 1,189 effect sizes (N = 75,546 participant...
Article
Full-text available
Background Unhealthy alcohol use is a key concern for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (‘Indigenous Australian’) communities. Due to systematic disadvantage and inter-generational trauma, Indigenous Australians may be less likely to have satisfied basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). When people are need-thwarted,...
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Background Few studies have examined links between current alcohol dependence and specific harms among Indigenous Australians. We investigated these associations as well as help seeking for drinking, awareness of local treatments and recommendations to help family or friends cut down or stop drinking in two Indigenous communities. Methods A repres...
Article
Full-text available
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that experiences of autonomy lead people to be more prosocial, whereas experiences of control lead to antisocial actions. In this meta-analysis, we tested the links between autonomy and prosociality, and control and antisociality, across 139 reports (167 studies) with 1,189 effect sizes (N = 75,546 participant...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians have identified alcohol consumption as an area of concern. Accurate screening tools are required to help detect and assist at-risk drinkers, and to provide accurate data to policy makers. The Finnish method (determining drinking patterns based on the last two to four drinki...
Article
Introduction: Aboriginal clients accessing Aboriginal community-controlled residential alcohol and other drug rehabilitation services in New South Wales, Australia believe they have better outcomes due to culturally appropriate care. However, there is a paucity of published treatment outcome data. This study aims to identify predictors of treatmen...
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Background and aims There is a higher prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among Indigenous populations, but there have been few studies of the effectiveness of screening and treatment in primary health care. Over 24 months, we tested whether a model of service-wide support could increase screening and any alcohol treatment. Design Cluster randomiz...
Article
Introduction Measuring self-reported alcohol use is challenging in any population, including when episodic drinking may be common. Drinking among Indigenous Australians has been shown to vary greatly within and between communities. However, most survey methods assume ‘regular’ patterns of drinking. National estimates have also been shown to underes...
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Abstract Objective: Preliminary reports suggested that liquor retailers used COVID-19 to promote alcohol through sponsored posts on Facebook and Instagram. To further understand the advertising practices during this period, we aimed to determine whether packaged liquor retailers increased their posts during COVID-19 or used COVID-19 to promote alco...
Article
Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence of current alcohol dependence in Indigenous Australian communities. Here we identify the frequency of reported symptoms, estimate the prevalence and describe the correlates of current alcohol dependence. Methods: A representative sample of Indigenous Australians (16+ years) was recruited from an...
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Introduction SMART Recovery is a popular mutual support group program. Little is known about its suitability or perceived helpfulness for Indigenous peoples. This study explored the cultural utility of SMART Recovery in an Australian Aboriginal context. Methods An Indigenous‐lensed, multi‐methods, exploratory study design was used to develop initi...
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Background Pharmacological and behavioural treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are effective but the uptake is limited. Primary care could be a key setting for identification and continuous care for AUD due to accessibility, low cost and acceptability to patients. We aimed to synthesise the literature regarding differential models of care f...
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Background: First Nations peoples of Australia, New Zealand, the United States of America (USA) and Canada are more likely to be non-drinkers than other people in these countries. However, those who do drink may be at greater risk of alcohol-related harms (at a population level) due to the ongoing impacts from colonisation and associated oppressio...
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Background: Alcohol affects Indigenous communities globally that have been colonised. These effects are physical, psychological, financial and cultural. This systematic review aims to describe the prevalence of current (12-month) alcohol dependence in Indigenous Peoples in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States of America, to identif...
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Background: Population estimates of alcohol consumption vary widely among samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. Some of this difference may relate to non-representative sampling. In some communities, household surveys are not appropriate and phone surveys not feasible. Here we describe activities undertaken to...
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Background: Unhealthy alcohol use involves a spectrum from hazardous use (exceeding guidelines but no harms) through to alcohol dependence. Evidence-based management of unhealthy alcohol use in primary health care has been recommended since 1979. However, sustained and systematic implementation has proven challenging. The Continuing Quality Improv...
Presentation
Full-text available
Analysing content from an online support group for those aiming to /r/Stopdrinking.
Preprint
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Objectives. Using an experimental design, we tested whether a short mindfulness intervention led to improvements in state mindfulness and golf putting performance.Design. This study was a registered, double-blind, randomised crossover design.Method. Experienced golfers (N = 116) were randomly allocated to receive either a mindfulness or attention-c...
Article
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Background Alcohol consumption among Indigenous Australians can be irregular, depending on social and geographic context. The Finnish method uses the last four drinking occasions to estimate drinking quantity and pattern. The Grog Survey App is an interactive and visual tablet computer application which uses touch-screen technology to deliver quest...
Article
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Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is highly prevalent and accounts globally for 1.6% of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) among females and 6.0% of DALYs among males. Effective treatments for AUDs are available but are not commonly practiced in primary health care. Furthermore, referral to specialized care is often not successful and pat...
Article
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Introduction Indigenous peoples who have experienced colonisation or oppression can have a higher prevalence of alcohol-related harms. In Australia, Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) offer culturally accessible care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples. However there are many competing health, socioec...
Article
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Background: The Grog Survey App is a visual and interactive tablet computer-based survey application. It has been shown to be an accurate and acceptable tool to help Indigenous Australians describe what they drink. Methods: The Grog Survey App was used to enquire into patterns of drinking in a stratified sample of Indigenous Australians in urban...
Preprint
Full-text available
Experiments suggest that people who believe their attributes are malleable should be more resilient in the face of failure. Does this mean that incremental theorists maintain higher self-esteem? We explore this question meta-analytically. We synthesised research from 34 studies to show that the relationship between self-esteem and incremental theor...
Preprint
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Background: Intervention-related research suggests that there are two ways to combat the negative consequences of low self-esteem: improving the level of self-esteem, or reducing the links between low self-esteem and negative outcomes (L. Hayes & Ciarrochi, 2015). Incremental theories tend to prevent low-self-esteem from occurring in response to fa...
Article
Abstract Background Addictions contribute significantly to the overall disease burden for Indigenous peoples of colonised countries. Mutual support groups are one of the most common addiction recovery resources, however their effectiveness for Indigenous peoples is unclear. Methods A PRISMA-informed search was performed to retrieve empirical studie...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Alcohol consumption among Indigenous Australians can involve a stop-start pattern of drinking, with consumption well above recommended guidelines on each occasion. Such intermittent drinking patterns can make screening for risky drinking difficult. This study evaluates the ability of several short alcohol screening tools, contained in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Recent technological advances have led to the proliferation of ambulatory devices for non-invasively assessing cardiac activity. While these devices have exciting implications for conducting research outside the laboratory, it is critical that this increased mobility does not compromise data quality. As a test case, we assess the efficac...
Article
We examined acceptability and feasibility of a tablet application (“App”) to record self-reported alcohol consumption among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Four communities (1 urban; 3 regional/remote) tested the App, with 246 adult participants (132 males, 114 females). The App collected (a) completion time; (b) participant feed...
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We evaluated STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) coursework selection by women and men (representative longitudinal sample, 10,370 Australians) in senior high school and university, controlling achievement and expectancy-value variables. A near-zero total effect of gender on high school STEM enrollment reflected pathways favori...

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