James D Chalmers

James D Chalmers
University of Dundee · Tayside Clinical Research Centre

MBChB, PhD

About

595
Publications
69,631
Reads
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14,288
Citations
Citations since 2016
369 Research Items
11899 Citations
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Publications

Publications (595)
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objective: Bronchiectasis exacerbations are significant events in the natural course of the disease and determine long-term clinical outcomes. This review aims to discuss the definition, causes, risk factors, management and prevention of bronchiectasis exacerbations. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for relevant articles pub...
Article
Full-text available
The global burden of bronchiectasis in children and adolescents is being recognised increasingly. However, marked inequity exists between, and within, settings and countries for resources and standards of care afforded to children and adolescents with bronchiectasis compared with those with other chronic lung diseases. The European Respiratory Soci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cilia are small microtubule-based structures found on the surface of most mammalian cells, which have key sensory and sometimes motile functions. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a type of ciliopathy caused by defects in motile cilia. The genetic basis of PCD is only partially understood. Studying a cohort of 11 human patients with PCD, we find...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Identifying risk factors for poor outcomes can help with risk stratification and targeting of treatment. Risk factors for mortality and exacerbations have been identified in bronchiectasis but have been almost exclusively studied in European and North American populations. This study investigated the risk factors for poor outcome in...
Article
Full-text available
Neisseria species are frequently identified in the bronchiectasis microbiome, but they are regarded as respiratory commensals. Using a combination of human cohorts, next-generation sequencing, systems biology, and animal models, we show that bronchiectasis bacteriomes defined by the presence of Neisseria spp. associate with poor clinical outcomes,...
Article
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Introduction Despite improvements in medical science and public health, mortality of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has barely changed throughout the last 15 years. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has once again highlighted the central importance of acute respiratory infections to human health. The “network of excellence on Community Acquired P...
Preprint
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Background Most studies of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 focus on circulating antibody, giving limited insights into mucosal defences that prevent viral replication and onward transmission. We studied nasal and plasma antibody responses one year after hospitalisation for COVID-19, including a period when SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was introduced. Methods Plas...
Article
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Background Neutrophil serine proteases are involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and increased serine protease activity has been reported in severe and fatal infection. We investigated whether brensocatib, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-1 (DPP-1; an enzyme responsible for the activation of neutrophil serine proteases), would improve outcom...
Preprint
Rationale: Neutrophils are important in the pathophysiology of COVID19 but the molecular changes contributing to altered neutrophil phenotypes following SARS-CoV-2 infection are not fully understood. Objectives: To use quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to explore neutrophil phenotypes following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and during re...
Article
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Background The number of individuals recovering from severe COVID-19 is increasing rapidly. However, little is known about physical behaviours that make up the 24-h cycle within these individuals. This study aimed to describe physical behaviours following hospital admission for COVID-19 at eight months post-discharge including associations with acu...
Article
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Background and Objective Brensocatib is an investigational, first-in-class, selective, and reversible dipeptidyl peptidase 1 inhibitor that blocks activation of neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs). The NSPs neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3 are believed to be central to the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases, incl...
Poster
Full-text available
Background: In studies that aim to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infection, the reduction in the load of the key pathogens of interest in sputum is usually reported. Although microbial culture is considered the gold standard for quantifying and identifying pathogens in clinical samples, molecular methods, e.g. q...
Article
The last decade of research has revolutionized our understanding of respiratory microbiology, revealing that the lungs and airways contain diverse and dynamic microbial communities in health and disease. This "respiratory ecosystem"-a densely interconnected environment of microbial and host interactions-represents a tremendous and under-appreciated...
Article
Introduction: Infection is a key component of the pathophysiology of bronchiectasis. Characterisation of the microbiome offers a higher degree of sensitivity and resolution than traditional culture to evaluate the importance of infection in determining the risk of exacerbation and long-term outcomes, including mortality, in bronchiectasis. Methods:...
Article
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Background No effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions exist for patients with long COVID. We aimed to describe recovery 1 year after hospital discharge for COVID-19, identify factors associated with patient-perceived recovery, and identify potential therapeutic targets by describing the underlying inflammatory profiles of the...
Article
Rationale: Lung Clearance index (LCI) has good intra-visit repeatability with better sensitivity in detecting lung disease on CT scan compared to Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) in adults with bronchiectasis. Alternative multiple breath washout (MBW) parameters have not been systematically studied in bronchiectasis. Objectives: To de...
Article
Rationale Bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two disease entities with overlapped clinical features and co-diagnosis frequently occurs (termed as the 'COPD-bronchiectasis association'). Objectives To investigate the sputum microbiome and proteome in patients with bronchiectasis, COPD, and the 'COPD-bronchiectasis as...
Article
Full-text available
Neutrophilic inflammation has a key role in the pathophysiology of multiple chronic lung diseases. The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has emerged as a key mechanism of disease in neutrophilic lung diseases including asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and, most recently, bronchiectasis. NETs are large, web-like structures composed of...
Article
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Given the large numbers of people infected and high rates of ongoing morbidity, research is clearly required to address the needs of adult survivors of COVID-19 living with ongoing symptoms (long COVID). To help direct resource and research efforts, we completed a research prioritisation process incorporating views from adults with ongoing symptoms...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction Shared characteristics between COVID-19 and pulmonary fibrosis, including symptoms, genetic architecture, and circulating biomarkers, suggests interstitial lung disease (ILD) development may be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods The UKILD Post-COVID study planned interim analysis was designed to stratify risk groups and est...
Article
Background Inhaled antibiotics have been incorporated into contemporary European and British guidelines for bronchiectasis, yet no inhaled antibiotics have been approved in the United States or Europe for the treatment of bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is common in patients with bronchiectasis, contr...
Article
Rationale: Bronchiectasis is classically considered a neutrophilic disorder but eosinophilic subtypes have recently been described. Objectives: To use multiple datasets available through the EMBARC consortium to characterise eosinophilic bronchiectasis as a clinical entity focussing on the impact of eosinophils on bronchiectasis exacerbations....
Article
Background: Bronchiectasis is a common but under-diagnosed chronic disorder characterised by permanent dilation of the airways arising from a cycle of recurrent infection and inflammation. Symptoms including chronic, persistent cough and productive phlegm are a significant burden for people with bronchiectasis, and the main aim of treatment is to...
Chapter
Bronchiectasis is characterized by chronic, irreversible dilatation of the bronchi with thickening of the airway walls linked to chronic infection and inflammation that cause the associated loss of supportive tissue structures. Microbes are central protagonists in bronchiectasis, underpinning pathogenesis, and guiding treatment decisions. Historica...
Article
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Hospitalised patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have a high mortality rate. There are an increasing number of published randomised controlled trials for anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and other treatments. The European Respiratory Society Living Guidelines for the Management of Hospitalised Adults with COVID-19 were published recently...
Article
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Background Reported prevalence of immunodeficiencies in bronchiectasis patients is variable depending on the frequency and extent of immunological tests performed. ERS Guidelines recommend a minimum bundle of tests. Broadening the spectrum of immunological tests could increase the number of patients diagnosed with an immunodeficiency and those who...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There are currently no effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for Long-COVID. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focussed on previously described four recovery clusters five months after hospital discharge, their underlying inflammatory profiles and relationship with clinical outcomes at one year. Metho...
Article
Pneumonia is a common acute respiratory infection that affects the alveoli and distal airways; it is a major health problem and associated with high morbidity and short-term and long-term mortality in all age groups worldwide. Pneumonia is broadly divided into community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia. A large variety of microorga...
Article
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Persistent ill health after acute COVID-19-referred to as long COVID, the post-acute COVID-19 syndrome, or the post-COVID-19 condition-has emerged as a major concern. We undertook an international consensus exercise to identify research priorities with the aim of understanding the long-term effects of acute COVID-19, with a focus on people with pre...
Article
Full-text available
Bronchiectasis, due to its highly heterogenous nature, requires an individualised approach to therapy. Patients experience symptoms and exacerbations driven by a combination of impaired mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and airway infection. Treatment of bronchiectasis aims to enhance airway clearance and to address the underlying causes o...
Article
Macrolide antibiotics are well known for their antibacterial properties, but extensive research in the context of inflammatory lung disease has revealed that they also have powerful immunomodulatory properties. It has been demonstrated that these drugs are therapeutically beneficial in various lung diseases, with evidence they significantly reduce...
Article
Background: There is limited information regarding the effects of air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), nitric oxide (NO 2 ), nitrous oxide (NO) and particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM10), on acute limb ischaemia (ALI), a peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often with a poor clinical outcome. Patients and methods: We...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background SARS-CoV2 binds to the respiratory epithelium. Little is known about the recovery and regeneration of the epithelium following COVID-19. Poor recovery could leave individuals at risk of secondary bacterial infection and persistent symptoms.The aim of this study was to assess epithelial recovery following SARS-CoV2 infection across a rang...
Conference Paper
Introduction The British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines for the management of Bronchiectasis advise that sputum samples are sent for microbiology at baseline and at exacerbation. Guidelines recommend that antibiotic treatment at exacerbations should be guided by previous sputum microbiology. Amoxicillin and Doxycycline are guideline recommended...
Conference Paper
Introduction COVID-19 is reported to cause profound systemic inflammation. Anti-inflammatory treatments such as corticosteroids and anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies reduce mortality. Identifying inflammatory biomarkers associated with increased morbidity and mortality may allow both prediction of outcomes and identification of further thera...
Conference Paper
Introduction COVID-19 has been reported to induce a ‘cytokine storm’ distinct from other acute respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Understanding the similarities and differences in inflammatory profiles between SARS-CoV-2 infection and other respiratory infections may aid diagnosis, as well as the potential to repurpose therapies such as steroids...
Article
Background Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are difficult to diagnose and treat. Biomarkers to identify patients with active infection or at risk of disease progression would have clinical utility. Sputum is the most frequently used matrix for diagnosis of NTM lung disease. Research Question Can sputum proteomics be used to identify...
Article
Introduction Recent randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in Bronchiectasis have failed to reach their primary endpoints, suggesting a need to reassess how we measure treatment response. Exacerbations, quality of life (QOL) and lung function are the most common endpoints evaluated in bronchiectasis clinical trials. We aimed to determine the relationshi...
Article
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Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods...
Article
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Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods:...
Article
Full-text available
Background The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis represent chronic airway diseases associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Bacteria and viruses are commonly implicated in acute exacerbations; however the significance of fungi in these airways remains poorly defined. While COPD and bronchiectasis remain recognized risk fa...
Article
Full-text available
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease is a chronic respiratory infection associated with declining lung function, radiological deterioration and significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Patients often have underlying lung conditions, particularly bronchiectasis and COPD. NTM pulmonary disease is difficult to treat because myc...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The coexistence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis (BE) seems to be common and associated with a worse prognosis than for either disease individually. However, no definition of this association exists to guide researchers and clinicians. Methods We conducted a Delphi survey involving expert pulmonologis...
Article
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The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2021 Report recommends inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-containing regimens as part of pharmacological treatment in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) and frequent exacerbations, particularly with eosinophilic inflammation. However, real-world studies reveal overprescription...
Article
Full-text available
Leukotrienes play a central pathophysiological role in both paediatric and adult asthma. However, 35% to 78% of asthmatics do not respond to leukotriene inhibitors. In this study we tested the role of the LTA4H regulatory variant rs2660845 and age of asthma onset in response to montelukast in ethnically diverse populations. We identified and genoty...