James T Carlton

James T Carlton
Williams College · Maritime Studies Program

About

252
Publications
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Publications

Publications (252)
Article
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Recent global trade disruptions, due to blockage of the Suez Canal and cascading effects of COVID-19, have altered the movement patterns of commercial ships and may increase worldwide invasions of marine non-indigenous species. Organisms settle on the hulls and underwater surfaces of vessels and can accumulate rapidly, especially when vessels remai...
Chapter
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As human communities become increasingly interconnected through transport and trade, there has been a concomitant rise in both accidental and intentional species introductions, resulting in biological invasions. A warming global climate and the rapid movement of people and vessels across the globe have opened new air and sea routes, accelerated pro...
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Aims The present study is the first attempt to grasp the scale and richness of marine biological invasions in Macaronesia. We pioneered a comprehensive non‐native species (NNS), inventory in the region to determine their diversity patterns and native distribution origins. NNS were defined here as the result of both introductions and range expansion...
Article
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Biological invasions are a major driver of biodiversity loss and socioeconomic burden globally. As invasion rates accelerate worldwide, understanding past invasion dynamics is essential to inform predictions of future invaders and impacts. Owing to a high diversity of pathways and current biosecurity gaps, aquatic systems near urban centres are esp...
Article
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Discoveries of persistent coastal species in the open ocean shift our understanding of biogeographic barriers. Floating plastic debris from pollution now supports a novel sea surface community composed of coastal and oceanic species at sea that might portend significant ecological shifts in the marine environment.
Article
Cryptic species are a common phenomenon in cosmopolitan marine species. The use of molecular tools has often uncovered cryptic species occupying a fraction of the geographic range of the original morphospecies. Ship-worms (Teredinidae) are marine bivalves, living in drift and fixed wood, many of which have a conserved morphology across cosmopolitan...
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William Anderson Newman passed away on December 26th 2020 at his home in La Jolla, California, aged 93. Bill spent much of his academic life at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and also had a long and enduring association with the California Academy of Sciences. A marine biologist with deep interests in palaeontology and geology, Bill made spec...
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A marine bioinvasions Rapid Assessment Survey in August 2019, focused on marina floating pontoons in Rhode Island, Connecticut and New York recorded 21 non-indigenous, 22 cryptogenic and 2 range-expanding species. Five non-indigenous species (NIS) were found at more than 70% of the 10 sampled sites: three ascidians, Botryllus schlosseri (Pallas, 17...
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Susan Lynn Williams (1951–2018) was an exceptional marine ecologist whose research focused broadly on the ecology of benthic nearshore environments dominated by seagrasses, seaweeds, and coral reefs. She took an empirical approach founded in techniques of physiological ecology. Susan was committed to applying her research results to ocean managemen...
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William John Haugen (Bill) Light (Fig. 1) was born on 05 January 1938 in Waco, McLennan County, Texas USA, and died on 18 January 2020 in Marietta, Georgia, at the age of 82. He was buried in the Georgia National Cemetery, Canton, GA. As an infant, he was adopted by Col. Orin Haugen and his wife Marion Sargent. Colonel Haugen died in February 1945...
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Unprecedented rates of introduction and spread of non-native species pose burgeoning challenges to biodiversity, natural resource management, regional economies, and human health. Current biosecurity efforts are failing to keep pace with globalization, revealing critical gaps in our understanding and response to invasions. Here, we identify four pr...
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The spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata (Okuda, 1937) was originally described from Japan and has since been reported as a non-indigenous species in soft bottom communities in the Northeast Pacific, the Mediterranean Sea, around Europe, Australia, Brazil, and Florida. The diagnostic features of the adults are palps with ramified yello...
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Aim The introduction of aquatic non‐indigenous species (ANS) has become a major driver for global changes in species biogeography. We examined spatial patterns and temporal trends of ANS detections since 1965 to inform conservation policy and management. Location Global. Methods We assembled an extensive dataset of first records of detection of A...
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Widespread non-native species tend to demonstrate an apparent lack of selectivity in habitat requirements, feeding regimes, and reproductive needs, while displaying a tendency to thrive in human-modified habitats. The high phenotypic plasticity typical of sessile, substrate-attached marine species may enhance their chances of survival and spread in...
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Aim While warming temperatures are expected to facilitate the poleward movement of species previously restricted to more equatorial waters, the arrival and persistence of cold‐water species in more equatorward waters are relatively unprecedented. The native north‐east Pacific ascidian Corella inflata Huntsman, 1912, has spread southward and invaded...
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One of the most thoroughly studied marine snails in the world is the North Atlantic periwinkle Littorina littorea. In 2013, Buckland-Nicks et al. reported upon an “extensive community of organisms” living “inside” L. littorea in Nova Scotia, Canada. Conflicting with this report is a vast body of research on this snail since the mid-nineteenth centu...
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Biological invasions are a global consequence of an increasingly connected world and the rise in human population size. The numbers of invasive alien species – the subset of alien species that spread widely in areas where they are not native, affecting the environment or human livelihoods – are increasing. Synergies with other global changes are ex...
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Global biodiversity is both declining and being redistributed in response to multiple drivers characterizing the Anthropocene, including synergies between biological invasions and climate change. The Antarctic marine benthos may constitute the last biogeographic realm where barriers (oceanographic currents, climatic gradients) have not yet been bro...
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As plastic pollution in the environment has increased rapidly in the last half century, so too has the study of the effects of plastic on marine, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. From this research, a series of new terms has emerged to describe the phenomena unique to the presence of plastic-based materials in nature. In this short note, we brin...
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In 2014 a DNA‐based phylogenetic study confirming the paraphyly of the grass subtribe Sporobolinae proposed the creation of a large monophyletic genus Sporobolus, including (among others) species previously included in the genera Spartina, Calamovilfa, and Sporobolus. Spartina species have contributed substantially (and continue contributing) to ou...
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Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on the shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made...
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Maximenko et al. Integrated Marine Debris Observing System Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse an...
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Reproductive strategies, whether sexual or asexual, are critical aspects of introduction success and spread for non-indigenous species. The Western Pacific Diadumene lineata (Verrill, 1869), the world’s most widely distributed sea anemone due to numerous introductions, is believed to reproduce only by asexual means outside of its home range. Over t...
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Biological invasions are often characterized by a phase of post-establishment expansion in which the invading species increases its range through colonization of new geographic areas. These expansions are predicted to result in specific genetic signatures, most notably decreased genetic diversity with distance from the point of introduction. The As...
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An account is given of hydroids collected in 2015 and 2016 from port and harbor fouling communities in the Galápagos Islands. Also included is the hydroid of Ectopleura media, discovered on the wreck of the tanker Jessica near Isla San Cristóbal in 2001. Among 20 species reported herein were six anthoathecates and 14 leptothecates. Most common in t...
Article
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The biofouling community on Santa Cruz and Baltra Islands, Galapagos, was surveyed in 2016 based on samples from settlement plates deployed in 2015 and 2016 at three different sites. We report numerous new records for the Galapagos fauna: one novel family (Opheliidae), nine novel genera, and 15 novel species records were documented in a total of se...
Article
An account is given of hydroids collected in 2015 and 2016 from port and harbor fouling communities in the Galápagos Islands. Also included is the hydroid of Ectopleura media, discovered on the wreck of the tanker Jessica near Isla San Cristóbal in 2001. Among 20 species reported herein were six anthoathecates and 14 leptothecates. Most common in t...
Article
Aim On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered a massive tsunami that resulted in the largest known rafting event in recorded history. By spring 2012, marine debris began washing ashore along the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada with a wide range of Asian coastal species attached. We used this unique dataset, where the...
Article
The Galápagos Islands are recognized for their unique biota and are one of the world’s largest marine protected areas. While invasions by non-indigenous species are common and recognized as a significant conservation threat in terrestrial habitats of the Archipelago, little is known about the magnitude of invasions in its coastal marine waters. Bas...
Chapter
The introduction of non-native species is an important element of global change in marine ecosystems. This phenomenon is considered to be among the main direct drivers of biodiversity change, exacerbated as it is by climate change, pollution, habitat loss and other human-induced disturbances. Some edible marine non-native species have been widely d...
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The human-mediated introduction of marine non-indigenous species is a centuries-if not millennia-old phenomenon, but was only recently acknowledged as a potent driver of change in the sea. We provide a synopsis of key historical milestones for marine bioinva-sions, including timelines of (a) discovery and understanding of the invasion process, focu...
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Recent years have witnessed growing appreciation for the ways in which human-mediated species introductions have reshaped marine biogeography. Despite this we have yet to grapple fully with the scale and impact of anthropogenic dispersal in both creating and determining contemporary distributions of marine taxa. In particular, the past several deca...
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Epizoic barnacles are widely reported among all sea turtles, which often support obligate and facultative epibiotic barnacles of the genera Chelonibia, Platylepas, and Stomatolepas. In contrast, the occurrence of epizoic barnacles on freshwater turtles appears to be uncommon. Here, we report and describe the first occurrence of a barnacle (Amphibal...
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We report the first direct evidence for the transoceanic transport of living marine Ostracoda. Seven benthic, phytal species, Sclerochilus verecundus Schornikov, 1981, Sclerochilus sp. 1, Sclerochilus sp. 2, Obesostoma cf. setosum (Okubo, 1977), Obesostoma sp., Paradoxostomatidae sp., and Xestoleberis setouchiensis Okubo, 1979, were transported in...
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Forty-nine species of Western Pacific coastal bryozoans were found on 317 objects (originating from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami of 2011) that drifted across the North Pacific Ocean and landed in the Hawaiian Islands and North America. The most common species were Scruparia ambigua (d’Orbigny, 1841) and Callaetea sp. Of 36 bryozoans...
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Marine debris from the Great Tsunami of 2011 represents a unique transport vector for Japanese species to reach Pacific North America and Hawaii. Here we characterize the invasion risk of invertebrate species associated with tsunami debris using a screening-level risk assessment tool - the Canadian Marine Invasive Screening Tool (CMIST). Higher-ris...
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Nearly 300 coastal marine species collected from >630 debris items from the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami have landed alive along the North American Pacific coast and the Hawaiian Archipelago. We synthesized life history, environmental, and distributional traits for 103 of these species and compared species with (n=30) and without (n...
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Twelve species of sponges (Calcarea and Demospongiae) were found on Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris (JTMD) that washed ashore in Oregon, Washington, and Hawai‘i. All taxa but one determined to species level are amphi-Pacific, with three having type localities in California (Leucosolenia eleanor Urban, 1906, Hymeniacidon sinapium de Laubenfels, 1930,...
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The Tohoku tsunami of March 2011 ejected a vast amount of debris into the Pacific Ocean. Wood boring shipworms (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) were either already present in, or settled on, the wooden fraction of this debris, offering a unique opportunity to study shipworm diversity in rafted wood of a known origin and time of ocean entry. Lumber and other...
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A new species of the cheilostome bryozoan genus Bugula Oken, 1815, Bugula tsunamiensis, is described from Japan, having rafted across the North Pacific Ocean on numerous objects released into the ocean by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and landing in the Hawaiian Islands and on the Pacific Coast of the United States. This is the...
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The family Teredinidae (shipworms) contains 70-plus species of boring bivalves specialized to live in and digest wood. Traditional means of species identification and taxonomy of this group encounter numerous challenges, often compounded by the diverse and dynamic nature of shipworm ecology and distribution. Modern integrative taxonomic methods are...