James Byrne

James Byrne
University of Massachusetts Lowell | UML · School of Criminology and Justice Studies

PhD Criminal Justice Rutgers University 1983

About

96
Publications
40,069
Reads
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1,246
Citations
Introduction
Professor, School of Criminology and Justice Studies; Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Victims & Offenders ; and Director, the Global Community Corrections Initiative www.globcci.org My current research focuses on global crime and justice issues, the community context of crime, the measurement of criminal thinking in the general population, and the use( and misuse) of community-level risk measures to assess individual-level risk.
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - September 2016
Griffith University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2013 - August 2014
Griffith University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 1984 - present
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses a deceptively simple two-part question: what are the desired core skills obtained by completing the requirements for an undergraduate degree in criminal justice? And is it possible to obtain these skills outside the traditional university setting? Awarding academic credit for training, time spent in occupational roles, or lif...
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We review the nature and extent of COVID-19 outbreaks across corrections systems globally, and document the types of front-end, in-prison, and back-end mitigation strategies used to address the COVID-19 problem in the 50 countries with the largest prison systems; these countries house over 90% of the global prison population. For most countries, th...
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This article examines country-level variations in the extent of COVID-19 outbreaks in prisons and jails across the African region. Differences in the use of front-end, in-prison, and back-end mitigation strategies are identified. We conclude our regional overview by providing a preliminary assessment of the short-term impact of these varied mitigat...
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This article documents country-level differences in the extent of COVID-19 outbreaks in corrections systems across the European region. Variations in the timing, duration, and intensity of front-end, in-prison, and back-end mitigation strategies are also identified. We conclude by providing a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of these mit...
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This article highlights the unique nature of the Oceanic region and its impact on the extent of COVID-19 outbreaks in the Oceanic region, both within correctional and community settings. Mitigation strategies implemented in Australia, New Zealand, Papa New Guinea, and Fiji are identi ed, and the reasons for the di erences we identi ed in how govern...
Article
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This article highlights regional variation in the extent of COVID-19 outbreaks in prisons throughout Asia. Stark differences in the utilization of front-end, in-prison, and back-end mitigation strategies designed to prevent and control COVID-19 outbreaks in these prison systems are identified. We conclude by offering our assessment of the nature an...
Article
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This article documents the extent of COVID-19 outbreaks in the North American, Central American, and Caribbean regions, and then compares the country-specific COVID-19 mitigation strategies implemented in the largest prison systems in these regions. We offer a preliminary assessment of the short-term impact of the COVID-19 prison mitigation strateg...
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This article highlights intra-regional variation in the extent of COVID-19 outbreaks in South America generally, and then provides an assessment of the nature and extent of outbreaks in South American prisons. Country-level differences in front-end, within-prison, and back-end early release mechanisms are also described. The article concludes with...
Article
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Research Summary In this article, we provide a global snapshot of the recent (2000–2018) expansion of the private sector's involvement in both institutional and community corrections systems. Variation in the use of private‐sector organizations to manage both institutional and community correction populations is examined within and across global re...
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The recent inclusion of community-level risk variables in (some) fourth generation risk assessment instruments, ostensibly to make more accurate individual-level predictions of the likelihood of reoffending among the populations of probationers and parolees under community supervision, is examined in the following review. This development raises a...
Article
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CRIMINOLOGICAL THEORIES ABOUT why people commit crime are used—and mis-used—every day by legislative policy makers and community corrections managers when they develop new initiatives, sanctions, and programs; and these theories are also being applied—and misapplied—by line commu­ nity corrections officers in the workplace as they classify, supervi...
Chapter
Over the last several decades, politicians in the United States and in several other countries have waged wars on drugs and wars on crime that have relied on a punishment-based response to these problems, with a focus on the crime and not the individual and community context that shapes the life course of the offender. Given the documented failure...
Article
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Our review of global trends in the use of incarceration reveals that both the number of people incarcerated worldwide and the global rate of incarceration continue to increase in every global region. In addition, there have been sizable global increases in the use of pretrial detention, the proportion of female prisoners, the proportion of foreign...
Article
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This article summarizes available research on the impact of the increased use of incarceration on crime rates and identifies the effects of incarceration on individual offenders (specffic deterrence, rehabffitation effects) and on communities (incapacitation, general deterrence effects). The author then compares crime reduction effects of incarcera...
Chapter
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The risk-need-responsivity framework is based on a review of the empirical literature on offender factors that affect recidivism. The emphasis is on responsivity or the alignment of the risk and need profile with programs that are suitable to reduce recidivism. The empirical basis for the three-part framework is reviewed in this chapter with attent...
Article
This paper addresses a simple question: what have researchers in the United States and other countries learned about probation performance generally and the effectiveness of specific probation practices in particular? While the ‘science’ derived from the evaluation studies is still weak, it has been argued that probation could be organized along th...
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This article examines the use of community-based sentencing options within federal sentencing guidelines and offers specific recommendations for expanding the use of these sanctions. We begin by describing how the types of offenders and types of crimes prosecuted in our federal court system have changed since the passage of the Sentencing Reform Ac...
Article
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The following special issue of Victim and Offenders, "Separating Science from Nonsense: Evidence-Based Research, Policy, and Practice in Criminal and Juvenile Justice Settings" is designed to explore how—and where—evidence- based research can be applied to a wide range of criminal and juvenile justice issues. Contributors to this special issue were...
Article
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The following article examines the results of evidence-based reviews of what works in several areas, including the general and specific impact of prison and jail sentences, sentencing alternatives (or preentry strategies), and the recent proliferation of reentry initiatives. The findings included here underscore three points: (1) we need to greatly...
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Article
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The current paper, and the special journal issue that it introduces, focuses on one of the most enduring debates in criminology: whether individuals who break the law—either as children or adults—can change their behavior with assistance from professionals in the social service or correctional system. A key element of life-course criminology is the...
Article
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This article addresses two fundamental questions: 1) Can we accurately identify a subgroup of high risk inmates who will likely be involved in various forms of prison violence; and if so, 2) Is there an empirical research supporting the contention that current classification systems reduce the risk posed by those offenders predicted to be violent (...
Article
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It should come as no surprise that there is no “one-stop shopping” offender typology available that can identify the risk level, targeted treatment protocols, and control levels of the offender groups examined in this special issue: murderers, sex offenders, batterers, violent prisoners, and violent mentally ill offenders. We are in desperate need...
Article
New explanations of cultural processes are sought, in part, because existing hypotheses are at odds with new wave contemporary empirical findings. Namely, a growing body of scholarship calls into question the “racial invariance” hypothesis proposed by Sampson and Wilson (1995), particularly as it applies to Latinos. Based on these findings, it stan...
Article
While there has been much attention focused on offenders, crime, and desistance from crime through the life course, researchers have largely ignored victimization and desistance from victimization through the life course. Focusing specifically on domestic violence among a cohort of offenders and victims in a single court setting (Quincy, Massachuse...
Article
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In order to distinguish prison myth from reality, the authors examine both official and unofficial estimates of the violence and disorder in prison, as well the dual issues of whether drug abuse and gang activity in prison can be directly linked to the level of violence and disorder in correctional institutions. Based on this review, current respon...
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In the following study, the authors examine factors that explain citizen participation in crime prevention activities in Boston. Using survey data from a random sample, census data, and official crime and arrest data, the authors identified a wide range of individual- and community-based indicators that could potentially explain citizen involvement...
Article
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Minority (over) representation in the criminal justice system remains a puzzle, both from a policy and an intervention perspective. Cross-sectional reviews of the policies and practices of the criminal justice system often find differential rates of involvement in the criminal justice system that are associated with the nature of the criminal charg...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Full-text available
Current approaches of the criminal justice system in the United States focus on community control rather than the provision of services and treatment for returning prisoners; however, reentry is a primary focus of correctional systems around the world. Now that reentry initiatives have become more prominent within the American criminal justice syst...
Article
Full-text available
Minority (over) representation in the criminal justice system remains a puzzle, both from a policy and an intervention perspective. Cross-sectional reviews of the policies and practices of the criminal justice system often find differential rates of involvement in the criminal justice system that are associated with the nature of the criminal charg...
Book
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Th e Tools of the Trade presents the research literature to the fi eld in a way that translates research into practice. As a strategy, it is an on-site training tool. Each chapter is devoted to helping line staff understand core concepts with key exercises devoted to applying the core concepts. Th e manual is designed to allow supervisors, mid-leve...
Article
The Reentry Partnership Initiative (RPI) was one of three early efforts by the Office of Justice Programs (OJP) to explore community-based models for offender reintegration. This article describes the RPI concept as developed in eight sites, and the issues that are encountered in reframing reentry to focus on community-oriented public safety goals....
Technical Report
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As part of the Research Partnership Initiative (RPI) process evaluation, the researchers conducted six focus groups in various sites with offenders in various stages of the structured reentry phases. The focus groups were designed to learn more about the offenders and their experience in transitioning back into the community. The focus groups obser...
Article
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The last decade has been marked by significant shifts in crime control policies, particularly those policies designed to address the unique problems created by drug offenders, alcohol offenders, sex offenders and mentally ill offenders. The decision to expand the use of prisons and jails for offenders in these categories is examined in this article...
Article
No abstract available. Intensive Probation Supervision Intensive Supervision Intermediate Sanctions Correctional Decision Making Offender Sentencing Adult Crime Adult Offender Criminal Justice System 06-07
Article
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Police administrators across the country are developing a range of community-oriented policing strategies at a time when community corrections administrators are moving in the opposite direction by applying traditional, offender-based policing concepts to probation and parole practice. I highlight the limitations of this new wave of intermediate sa...
Article
Decision makers are now considering a variety of strategies for building a structured hierarchy of sanctions within the juvenile justice system. These efforts are linked to the perception that we need to increase both the level of control over juvenile offenders “at risk” in the community and the degree of accountability by decision makers for indi...