James Brown

James Brown
Aston University · Department of Biosciences

PhD Biomedical Science

About

98
Publications
33,295
Reads
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2,366
Citations
Introduction
James Brown currently works at the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Aston University. James does research in a number of diverse areas, including obesity, diabetes, exercise physiology, ageing and breast cancer.
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
Aston University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2013 - August 2017
Aston University
Position
  • Lecturer
October 2009 - September 2013
Aston University
Position
  • Research Associate
Education
September 1999 - March 2005
University of Wolverhampton
Field of study
  • Diabetes

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presents considerable barriers to a successful research career. Universities need to start taking this into account to ensure that talented researchers are retained in the sector and given an equal opportunity to succeed.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Diabetes is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathophysiology of both being linked to metabolic, endothelial, renal, angiogenic and platelet abnormalities. We hypothesised that abnormalities in these systems are more adverse in those whose CVD is compounded by diabetes, compared to those with diabetes or CVD...
Article
Epidemiological studies show that higher circulating levels of odd chain saturated fatty acids (FA: C15:0 and C17:0) are associated with lower risk of metabolic disease. These odd chain saturated fatty acids (OCSFA) are produced by α-oxidation in peroxisomes, de novo lipogenesis, from the diet and by gut microbiota. Although present at low concentr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Diabetes is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the pathophysiology of both being linked to metabolic, endothelial, renal, angiogenic and platelet abnormalities. We hypothesised that abnormalities in these systems are more adverse in those whose CVD is compounded by diabetes, compared to those with diabetes or CVD...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lockdown measures have been enforced globally in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the comorbidity burden in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), these lockdown measures may have a particularly negative impact on sleep health, quality of life (QoL), and depression/stress levels in this population. The aim of this study wa...
Article
The past 50 years have seen a growing ageing population with an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); now, nearly half of all individuals with diabetes mellitus are older adults (aged ≥65 years). Older adults with T2DM present particularly difficult challenges. For example, the accentuated heterogeneity of these patients, the po...
Article
White adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that releases an array of adipokines, which play a key role in regulating metabolic homeostasis and multiple other physiological processes. An altered adipokine secretion profile from adipose tissue depots frequently characterizes obesity and related cardio-metabolic diseases. Asprosin is a recently...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fagonia indica is a perennial plant grown in arid climates and utilised in traditional medicine as a treatment for cancer. Previous research has highlighted potential antineoplastic effects of Fagonia indica against breast cancer cell lines. Despite this, there has been little research demonstrating the potential of an aqueous extract of Fagonia in...
Article
Full-text available
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of short noncoding RNAs which regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA, inducing translational repression and messenger RNA degradation. This regulation of gene expression by miRNAs in adipose tissue (AT) can impact on the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis, particularly considering the...
Article
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ABCC1 and ABCC4 utilize energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport many different molecules, including drugs, out of the cell and, as such, have been implicated in causing drug resistance. However recently, because of their ability to transport signaling molecules and inflammatory mediators, it has been proposed that ABCC1 and ABCC4 may play a role in...
Article
Background: Young-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DMY) is considered to have a more aggressive disease phenotype, unfavourable long-term outcomes, and a close association with low-grade chronic inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the circulating inflammatory profile in a cohort of adults with T2DMY and assess its potential associations. Met...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global healthcare problem and therefore raising awareness within young learners is imperative. An AMR roadshow was designed to take key stage 4 students' learning 'out of the classroom', assess pre-existing knowledge of AMR and determine the impact of the roadshow on knowledge retention. Knowledge and subsequent...
Presentation
Full-text available
Determinants of physical activity are stronger predictors of health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome than physical activity behaviours
Article
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Increased public awareness of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a key component of effective antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Educational theatre combined with an expert panel was used to engage the public about AMR through delivery of a play entitled "The drugs don't work". Audience knowledge and understanding of AMR were measured by pre- and...
Article
Full-text available
Breast cancer (BC) is the primary cause of women cancer death, which could be prevented by EGCG that has been recently shown several health properties included anti-cancer, however the mechanism underpinning still poorly understood. In this study, several biological activities of both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were evaluated in response to EGCG. Ce...
Article
Background: Early onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with prolonged exposure to hyperglycaemia and increased propensity to chronic complications. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the phenotypic characteristics and risk factors in a multi-ethnic cohort of young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DMY). Methods: 100 young a...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 15% of elderly patients are readmitted within 28 days of discharge. This costs the NHS and patients. Previous studies show telephone contact with patients -post-discharge can reduce readmission rates. This service -evaluation used a cohort design and compared 30-day emergency readmission rate in patients identified to receive a commun...
Article
Full-text available
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its main constituents, i.e., crocin and crocetin, are natural carotenoid compounds, which have been reported to possess a wide spectrum of properties and induce pleiotropic anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and neuroprotective effects. An increasing number of experimental, animal, and human studies have investigated...
Article
Full-text available
Background Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care, (ii) diet alone, and...
Poster
Full-text available
The effect of exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Poster presented at the BASES Conference 2018 - received of the Human Kinetics Student Poster Presentation Award
Preprint
Background: Typically, management of PCOS focuses on lifestyle changes (exercise and diet), aiming to alleviate symptoms, and lower the associated risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to analyse evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in the management of PCOS, when compared to (i) usual care; (ii) diet alone; and...
Article
Currently there is a lack of consensus on the possible adverse health effects of E-cigarettes (ECs). Important factors including cell model employed and exposure method determine the physiological relevance of EC studies. The present study aimed to evaluate EC cytotoxicity using a physiologically relevant in-vitro multicellular model of human airwa...
Article
Full-text available
Aquaporins are membrane proteins that regulate cellular water flow. Recently, aquaporins have been proposed as mediators of cancer cell biology. A subset of aquaporins, referred to as aquaglyceroporins are known to facilitate the transport of glycerol. The present study describes the effect of gene knockdown of the aquaglyceroporin AQP3 on MDA-MB-2...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Irisin is a hormone released mainly from skeletal muscle after exercise which increases adipose tissue energy expenditure. Adipocytes can also release irisin after exercise, acting as a local adipokine to induce white adipose tissue to take on a brown adipose tissue-like phenotype, suggesting that irisin and its receptor may represent...
Article
Full-text available
The phenomenon of a discrepancy between glycated haemoglobin levels and other indicators of average glycaemia may be due to many factors but can be measured as the glycation gap (GGap). This GGap is associated with differences in complications in patients with diabetes and may possibly be explained by dissimilarities in deglycation in turn leading...
Article
Full-text available
Although widely popular as smoking cessation tools, limited information is available on the health effects of E-cigarette (EC) use. An urgent requirement of EC research is a standard testing method to investigate possible adverse effects. The present study aims to assess EC cytotoxicity using an in-vitro multicellular human airways model. Human bro...
Article
Full-text available
Human aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel protein in brain astrocytes. Hypothermia is known to cause astrocyte swelling in culture, but the precise role of AQP4 in this process is unknown. Primary human cortical astrocytes were cultured under hypothermic (32°C) or normothermic (37°C) conditions. AQP4 transcript, total protein and surfac...
Article
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adolescents and young adults is dramatically increasing. Similar to older-onset type 2 diabetes, the major predisposing risk factors are obesity, family history, and sedentary lifestyle. Onset of diabetes at a younger age (defined here as up to age 40 years) is associated with longer disease exposure and increas...
Article
Full-text available
Bardoxolone-methyl (BAR) is reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic effects. BAR activates Nrf2 and may ameliorate oxidative stress through induction of antioxidant genes, but also inhibits NFkB. However, off-target effects, probably concentration-dependent, have limited the clinical use of BAR. Nrf2 regulates expre...
Data
The effect of sonication time on the nanoparticle size.
Data
The effect of PLGA:DS ratio on DLC and EE.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite being poor representations of human airways architecture, innumerable animals, especially rodents, have been used in cigarette smoking studies. The advent of Electronic-cigarettes (ECs) could herald a further escalation, with data from in-vivo experiments already increasingly published. The current study aims to demonstrate the application...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Though widely perceived as harmless, limited information is available on E-cigarette (EC) cytotoxicity. Numerous factors impede EC research, including cell model employed and method of exposure. The present study aims to compare two in vitro methodologies to explore the effects of these choices. Bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B were plated in 24...
Article
Full-text available
Lipid-induced dysfunction of the liver, especially steatohepatitis, is becoming increasingly prevalent and may be an important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Elevated circulating saturated fatty acids contribute to steatohepatitis and T2DM while other plasma free fatty acids appear protective. Activated PPARα is involved in regula...
Article
Full-text available
Disulfiram (DS), an anti-alcoholism drug, shows very strong cytotoxicity in many cancer types. However its clinical application in cancer treatment is limited by the very short half-life in the bloodstream. In this study, we developed a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-encapsulated DS protecting DS from the degradation in the bloodstream. The ne...
Data
Table S1 Multiple linear regression model predicting plasma TNFα. Table S2 Multiple linear regression model predicting plasma IL‐6. Table S3 Multiple linear regression model predicting plasma TGFβ1. Fig. S1 Fatty acids do not elicit cytokine production from THP1 monocytes. Fig. S2 The inflammatory effects of saturated fatty acids are mitigated...
Data
Fig. S4 Transfection with siPPARγ knocks down PPARγ expression compared to scrambled siPPARγ.
Article
Full-text available
Tumour cells show greater dependency on glycolysis so providing a sufficient and rapid energy supply for fast growth. In many breast cancers, estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptor-positive cells proliferate in response to growth factors and growth factor antagonists are a mainstay of treatment. However, triple negative breast...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in lipid metabolism associate with age-related disease development and lifespan. Inflammation is a common link between metabolic dysregulation and aging. Saturated fatty acids (FAs) initiate pro-inflammatory signalling from many cells including monocytes; however, no existing studies have quantified age-associated changes in individual...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting more than 35 million people worldwide. Brain hypometabolism is a major feature of AD, appearing decades before cognitive decline and pathologic lesions. To date, the majority of studies on hypometabolism in AD have used transgenic animal models or imaging studies of the human b...
Article
Full-text available
The convoy principal states that any system is only as functional as its ‘slowest’ unit. As organisms are made up of interconnected networks of physiological systems, it is possible that this principle applies to the biology of ageing. Often biogerontology will focus either on organismal ageing (mechanisms associated with increased longevity of a l...
Article
Current anti-angiogenic treatments involve the attenuation of signalling via the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor/receptor (VEGF/VEGFR) axis. Stimulation of angiogenesis by VEGF requires the activation of the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) signal transduction pathway which is inhibited by Plasma Membrane Cal...
Article
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p>Two of the greatest crises that civilisation faces in the 21st century are the predicted rapid increases in the ageing population and levels of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. A growing amount of evidence now supports the notion that energy balance is a key determinant not only in metabolism but also in the process of cel...
Article
Objective: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a crucial regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Among the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by VEGF, activation of the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling axis has emerged as a critical mediator of angiogenic proces...
Article
Full-text available
Background/aim: Heparanase (HPA) contributes to breast cancer metastasis by facilitating the breakdown of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. High expression of HPA is thought to be associated with increased nodal involvement and poor survival in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in breast cancer i...
Article
Full-text available
Although a lot of hard work against cancer to reduces its spread but it still continues to kill with abandon. The need for a biomarker for cancer early detection becomes the most mind concentrated scientists. MicroRNAs the tiny non coding RNA molecules opened new path for the scientists to determine the cancer in its early stages. Expression of mic...
Article
Full-text available
Intermittent fasting is a lifestyle intervention in which individuals limit calorie consumption on consecutive or alternate days whilst maintaining normal calorie consumption on other days. Studies have reported multiple benefits of intermittent fasting, including weight loss, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced cardiovascular risk. This revie...
Article
Full-text available
Excess calorie consumption is associated with metabolic disorders and increased incidence of morbidity. Restricting calorie content, either by daily calorie restriction or intermittent fasting periods, has multiple benefits including weight loss and improved body composition. Previous research has shown that restricting calories in this way can inc...
Article
T cells are required for an effective adaptive immune response. The principal function of T cells is to promote efficient removal of foreign material by identifying and mounting a specific response to non-self. A decline in T cell function in ageing is thought to contribute to reduced response to infection, vaccination and an increase in autoimmuni...
Article
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The ageing process is strongly influenced by nutrient balance, such that modest calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in mammals. Irisin, a newly described hormone released from skeletal muscles after exercise, may induce CR-like effects by increasing adipose tissue energy expenditure. Using telomere length as a marker of ageing, this study inv...
Article
Full-text available
M icroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non coding RNA, found to play critical roles in tumor progression. The aim of this project was to investigate the expression of miR-21, miR-26b, miR-429 and miR-378 in human breast cancer tissues. By using TaqMan qRT-PCR assay to detect the expression of these selected miRNAs in 12 pairs of breast cancer tissues and t...
Article
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by impaired beta cell function and insulin resistance. T2D susceptibility genes identified by Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are likely to have roles in both impaired insulin secretion from the beta cell as well as insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to use gene expression profiling to assess...
Article
Full-text available
The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN) to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating ne...
Data
Supplementary figures. Figure S1: dHL60 cell viability is not changed with 10µM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or 5µM sulphoraphane (SFN) treatments over 16 hours as measured by trypan blue exclusion. Figure S2: dHL60 cell phagocytic capacity is not compromised in the presence of 10µM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or 5µM sulphoraphane (SFN) treatments...