James D Benson

James D Benson
University of Saskatchewan | U of S · Department of Biology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

101
Publications
6,998
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,362
Citations
Citations since 2017
43 Research Items
694 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Cryobiologist developing mathematical techniques for optimal cryopreservation of cells and tissues.

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Cryopreservation provides a critical tool for dairy herd genetics management. Due to widely varying inter- and within-bull post thaw fertility, recent research on cryoprotectant extender medium has not dramatically improved suboptimal post-thaw recovery in industry. This progress is stymied by the interactions between samples and the many component...
Article
Full-text available
Cryopreservation is a way to preserve germplasm with applications in agriculture, biotechnology, and conservation of endangered animals. Cryopreservation has been available for over a century, yet, using current methods, only around 50% of spermatozoa retain their viability after cryopreservation. This loss is associated with damage to different sp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cryopreservation provides a critical tool for dairy herd genetics management. Due to widely varying inter- and within-bull post thaw fertility, recent research on cryoprotectant extender medium has not dramatically improved suboptimal post-thaw recovery in industry. This progress is stymied by the interactions between samples and the many component...
Article
There is considerable interest in breeding programs to “rescue” semen with poor post-thaw fertility from bulls known as “bad freezers”. We hypothesized that there may be an interaction between the post-thaw recovery of sperm and the efficacy of antioxidant addition to extenders. The current study assesses the effects of antioxidant additives hydrox...
Article
Cryopreservation of gametes has revolutionized both animal agriculture and human reproductive medicine. Although many new technologies have tremendously improved the cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos, osmotic stress encountered during the equilibration process can cause their loss of function. Rational cryoprotective agent (CPA) equilibration...
Article
Vitrification is a promising cryopreservation technique for complex specimens such as tissues and organs. However, it is challenging to identify mixtures of cryoprotectants (CPAs) that prevent ice formation without exerting excessive toxicity. In this work, we developed a multi-CPA toxicity model that predicts the toxicity kinetics of mixtures cont...
Article
Successful cryopreservation requires the addition of cryoprotective agents (CPAs). The addition of permeating CPAs, such as glycerol, is associated with some risk to the cells and tissues. These risks are both related to the CPA themselves (CPA toxicity) and to the volume response of the cell (osmotic damage). To minimize the potential for damage d...
Preprint
Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) oocytes are an important species for aquaculture and as a model species for multiple scientific fields. Despite their importance, methods of cryopreserved biobanking of oocytes are currently not possible. Optimized cryoprotectant loading may enable vitrification methods of cryopreservation and thus long term stora...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study we challenge the paradigm of using the Boyle van 't Hoff (BvH) relation to relate cell size as a linear function of inverse extracellular osmotic pressure for short time periods (~5 to 30 mins). We present alternative models that account for mechanical resistance (turgor model) and ion osmolyte leakage (leak model), which is not accou...
Article
Successful cryopreservation of complex specimens, such as tissues and organs, would greatly benefit both the medical and scientific research fields. Vitrification is one of the most promising techniques for complex specimen cryopreservation, but toxicity remains a major challenge due to the high concentration of cryoprotectants (CPAs) needed to vit...
Article
This paper reports a microfluidic lab-on-chip for dynamic particle sizing and real time individual cell membrane permeability measurements. To achieve this, the device measures the impedance change of individual cells or particles at up to ten time points after mixing with different media, e.g. dimethyl sulfoxide or DI water, from separate inlets....
Chapter
Cryobiology is a multiscale and interdisciplinary field. The scope and scale of interactions limit the gains that can be made by one theory or experiment alone. Because of this, modeling has played a critical role in both explaining cryobiological phenomena and predicting improved protocols. Modeling facilitates understanding of the biophysical and...
Article
Cryopreservation in a vitrified state has vast potential for long-term storage of tissues and organs that may be damaged by ice formation. However, the toxicity imparted by the high concentration of cryoprotectants (CPAs) required to vitrify these specimens remains a hurdle. To address this challenge, we previously developed a mathematical approach...
Article
Prediction of solute and solvent transport in cells is central to developing and testing cryopreservation protocols. As we show here, however, the models used can be difficult to accurately numerically integrate in some key cases, and thus are a challenge to implement when determining the time dependent cell state during cryoprotectant equilibratio...
Article
A number of studies have explored the use of membrane permeable (usually metabolizable) and membrane impermeable saccharides to protect cells in general, and sperm in particular during cryopreservation. Critical concentrations for protective levels of sugars frequently range between 50 mmol/L and 500 mmol/L, where efficacy is attributed to the suga...
Article
In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are currently cryopreserved in a solution of 40% glycerol. While glycerol is not inherently toxic to humans, it must be removed prior to transfusion to prevent intravascular osmotic hemolysis. The current deglycerolization procedure requires about 45 min per RBC unit. We previously presented predictions sugg...
Article
Modeling coupled heat and mass transport in biological systems is critical to the understanding of cryobiology. In Part I of this series we derived the transport equation and presented a general thermodynamic derivation of the critical components needed to use the transport equation in cryobiology. Here we refine to more cryobiologically relevant i...
Article
In the previous two manuscripts we outlined the general theory of heat and mass transport in a cell-liquid-ice system with general boundaries and nonideal and nondilute assumptions. Here we simplify the models considerably by presenting a reduction to a spherically symmetric system-a spherical cell with an encroaching spherical ice front. We also r...
Article
Full-text available
Physicochemical properties of water molecules as the main compositions of the freezing media can be affected by the electromagnetic fled. The purpose of this study was to apply extremely low repetition rate electromagnetic fields (ELEFs) to change the molecular network of water molecules existing in freezing media used for human sperm cryopreservat...
Article
Modeling a cell's response to encroaching ice has informed the development of cryopreservation protocols for four decades. It has been well documented that knowledge of the cellular state as a function of media and cooling rate faciliate informed cryopreservation protocol design and explain mechanisms of damage. However, previous efforts have negle...
Article
For more than fifty years the human red blood cell (RBC) has been a widely studied model for transmembrane mass transport. Existing literature spans myriad experimental designs with varying results and physiologic interpretations. In this review, we examine the kinetics and mechanisms of membrane transport in the context of RBC cryopreservation. We...
Article
There is growing need for cryopreserved tissue samples that can be used in transplantation and regenerative medicine. While a number of specific tissue types have been successfully cryopreserved, this success is not general, and there is not a uniform approach to cryopreservation of arbitrary tissues. Additionally, while there are a number of long-...
Article
Animals use multiple strategies to maintain spatial orientation. Dead reckoning is a form of spatial navigation that depends on self-movement cue processing. During dead reckoning, the generation of self-movement cues from a starting position to an animal's current position allow for the estimation of direction and distance to the position movement...
Article
Full-text available
Ice-free cryopreservation, known as vitrification, is an appealing approach for banking of adherent cells and tissues because it prevents dissociation and morphological damage that may result from ice crystal formation. However, current vitrification methods are often limited by the cytotoxicity of the concentrated cryoprotective agent (CPA) soluti...
Article
Modeling plays a critical role in understanding the biophysical processes behind cryopreservation. It facilitates understanding of the biophysical and some of the biochemical mechanisms of damage during all phases of cryopreservation including CPA equilibration, cooling, and warming. Modeling also provides a tool for optimization of cryopreservatio...
Article
Since Mazur’s work a half century ago, modeling of the biophysical processes of single cell cryopreservation has been successful in providing a theoretical groundwork for cryopreservation induced damage hypotheses. Important contributions have included both biophysical explanations of osmotic damage during CPA equilibration due to too aggressive or...
Article
There is a long history of cryobiologists adapting a Coulter counter to measure cellular biophysical parameters including establishing that cells are ideal osmometers, estimating water and solute permeabilities and their activation energies, and measuring isosmotic volume. These techniques have been used in many cell types to facilitate prediction...
Article
The prediction of the cellular state as a function of extracellular concentrations and temperatures has been of interest to physiologists for nearly a century. One of the most widely used models in the field is one where mass flux is linearly proportional to the concentration difference across the membrane. These fluxes define a nonlinear different...
Article
Full-text available
Mathematical modeling plays an enormously important role in understanding the behavior of cells, tissues, and organs undergoing cryopreservation. Uses of these models range from explanation of phenomena, exploration of potential theories of damage or success, development of equipment, and refinement of optimal cryopreservation/cryoablation strategi...
Article
Optimization of cryopreservation protocols for cells and tissues requires accurate models of heat and mass transport. Model selection often depends on the configuration of the tissue. Here, a mathematical and conceptual model of water and solute transport for whole hamster pancreatic islets has been developed and experimentally validated incorporat...
Article
In Part I, we documented differences in cryopreservation success measured by membrane integrity in four mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) lines from different genetic backgrounds (BALB/c, CBA, FVB, and 129R1), and we demonstrated a potential biophysical basis for these differences through a comparative study characterizing the membrane permeability...
Article
Full-text available
Simple and effective cryopreservation of human oocytes would have an enormous impact on the financial and ethical constraints of human assisted reproduction. Recently, studies have demonstrated the potential for cryopreservation in an ice-free glassy state by equilibrating oocytes with high concentrations of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and rapidly cooli...
Article
Rapid and safe equilibration of cells with and from high concentrations of permeating solutes is of great interest to cryobiologists. This equilibration is limited by at least two competing factors: cells and tissues have volume or concentration constraints (known as osmotic tolerance limits) and the toxicity of permeating solutes is considered to...
Article
Whereas storage of red blood cells (RBCs) in a refrigerated state allows a shelf life of a few weeks, RBCs frozen in 40% glycerol have a shelf life of 10 years. Despite the clear logistical advantages of frozen blood, it is not widely used in transfusion medicine. One of the main reasons is that existing post-thaw washing methods to remove glycerol...
Article
The post-thaw recovery of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is often assumed to be adequate with current methods. However as this publication will show, this recovery of viable cells actually varies significantly by genetic background. Therefore there is a need to improve the efficiency and reduce the variability of current mESC cryopreservation m...
Article
The impact of successful cryopreservation of spermatozoa can be found in many fields, including agriculture, laboratory animal medicine, and human assisted reproduction, providing a cost-effective and efficient method to preserve genetic material for decades. The success of any cryobiologic protocol depends critically on understanding the fundament...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the design, modeling, fabrication and characterization MEMS Coulter counter that can detect and monitor the dynamic cell impedance changes in situ as a function of time after mixing isolated cell populations with different extracellular media within 0.3 s from the start of mixing. The novelty of this design is the use of multi-...
Article
Full-text available
Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial, and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic condition...
Article
Cryopreservation nearly universally depends on the equilibration of cells and tissues with high concentrations of permeating chemicals known as cryoprotective agents, or CPAs. Despite their protective properties, CPAs can cause damage as a result of osmotically-driven cell volume changes, as well as chemical toxicity. In this study, we have used pr...
Article
The estimation of several cellular biophysical parameters must be made in order to mathematically predict optimal cryopreservation protocols. These parameters include total cell volume, osmotically inactive volume, cell surface area, and relative water and solute permeabilities. Recent attention has been paid to the determination of the osmotically...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, We report the design, modeling, fabrication and characterization MEMS Coulter counter which can monitor the dynamic cell impedance changes in situ as a function of time after mixing isolated cell populations with different extracellular media. The device consists of a multilayer of SU-8 microchannel which is divided into a passive mi...
Article
Recently a new solute and solvent transmembrane cellular transport model accounting for non-dilute solute concentrations was introduced. This model depends on a second or third order polynomial expansion in mole fraction of Gibbs energy for solutes and solvents along with a mixing term that depends only on single solute data. This model is applicab...
Conference Paper
A novel MEMS Coulter counter for cell monitoring and detection is designed, fabricated and tested in this paper. Microfabrication is employed to form a multilayered sandwich structure consisting of an SU-8 microchannel on a glass substrate covered by a PDMS lid. The microchannel is further divided into a passive mixing region, a focusing region usi...
Article
Full-text available
Cell volume and concentration regulation in the presence of changing extracellular environments has been studied for centuries, and recently a general nondimensional model was introduced that encompassed solute and solvent transmembrane flux for a wide variety of solutes and flux mechanisms. Moreover, in many biological applications it is of consid...
Article
Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit...
Article
A novel MEMS-based Coulter counter is designed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The Coulter counter is used for detection and monitoring the impedance changes of cells as a function of time after they are mixed with different experimental extracellular environments. The device consists of a multilayer of the SU-8 microchannel which is divided...
Article
Full-text available
This note describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a novel microelectromechanical systems Coulter counter. The Coulter counter will be used to detect and monitor impedance changes of cells as a function of time in response to different experimental extracellular environments. The device consists of SU-8 (negative photoresist) microchannels...
Article
Stallion spermatozoa exhibit osmotic damage during the cryopreservation process. Recent studies have shown that the addition of cholesterol to spermatozoal membranes increases the cryosurvival of bull, ram and stallion spermatozoa, but the exact mechanism by which added cholesterol improves cryosurvival is not understood. The objectives of this stu...
Chapter
It is now routine to offer men the opportunity to bank sperm prior to medical treatments where there is a high risk of testicular damage. Some men also elect to bank sperm prior to vasectomy or before embarking on a high-risk activity, such as joining the armed services. This book examines the processes involved in banking sperm from sample product...
Article
Successful organ cryopreservation will significantly benefit human health and biomedical research. One of the major challenges to this accomplishment is the need for optimization of cryoprotectant agent (CPA) perfusion procedures that involve highly complicated mass transfer processes in organs. The diffusivity of CPA is of critical importance for...
Conference Paper
Water-cryoprotectant mutual diffusivity (D̄) in biological tissues at subzero temperatures is of critical importance for optimizing tissue or organ cryopreservation procedures. Currently, there exist no attempts to measure D̄ at subzero temperatures. We pioneered a thermal analytic method to measure this mass transfer parameter in biological tissue...
Article
Full-text available
Osmotic stress is an important factor that can result in cell damage during cryopreservation. Before ejaculation or collection for cryopreservation, murine spermatozoa are stored in epididymal fluid, a physiologically hyperosmotic environment (approximately 415 mmol/kg). The objectives of this study were to determine the osmotic tolerance limits of...
Article
Difficulties associated with the cryopreservation of boar sperm include their sensitivities to osmotic stresses and chilling sensitivity. We investigated the effects of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) on boar sperm motility and membrane integrity following exposure to various osmolalities. Samples were collected using the gloved hand method f...
Article
Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines including the C57BL/6 genetic background are central to projects such as the Knock-Out Mouse Project, North American Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program, and European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program, which seek to create thousands of mutant mouse strains using ES cells for the production of human disease model...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the design and fabrication of MEMS based Coulter counter for monitoring cellular volumetric changes after an exposure to various media. The design consists of a thick SU8 channel which is divided into mixing, focusing, and measuring regions. The mixing region is a serpentine shaped channel, enabling complete mixing of a sample a...
Conference Paper
Cryopreservation is an effective way to store biological materials for an extended period of time. The process of freezing biological materials is rather traumatic, however, due to the water phase change that takes place. Successful cooling procedures have been developed for a limited number of cell types primarily through a large amount of experim...
Article
Full-text available
Osmotic stress is an important factor that can result in cell damage during cryopreservation. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) isosmotic sperm cell volume; (2) osmotically inactive volume; (3) osmotic tolerance limits of rat sperm; and (4) the effects of addition and removal of glycerol (Gly), ethylene glycol (EG), propylene glyc...
Article
Electronic particle counters have gained widespread acceptance as a means to measure osmotic properties of cell membranes. Because most current instruments do not allow for the collection of true volume as a function of time data, investigators use older models such as the MultiSizer II sampling stand. A significant drawback to this and other older...
Article
Solute-solvent transmembrane flux models are used throughout biological sciences with applications in plant biology, cryobiology (transplantation and transfusion medicine), as well as circulatory and kidney physiology. Using a standard two parameter differential equation model of solute and solvent transmembrane flux described by Jacobs [The simult...