James Algina

James Algina
University of Florida | UF · School of Human Development and Organizational Studies

EdD

About

211
Publications
50,595
Reads
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13,304
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1978 - June 2013
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor Emeritus

Publications

Publications (211)
Article
Researchers have shown that children's social-emotional growth is inextricably connected to academic learning. We developed the Social-Emotional Learning Foundations (SELF) intervention, a Grade K-1 curriculum merging social-emotional learning (SEL) and literacy instruction, to promote language supported self-regulation, specifically for primary gr...
Article
Decomposing variables into between and within components are often required in multilevel analysis. This method of decomposition should not ignore possible unreliability of an observed group mean (i.e., arithmetic mean) that is due to small cluster sizes and can lead to substantially biased estimates. Adjustment procedures that allow unbiased estim...
Article
Professional development (PD) focused on social, emotional, and behavioral teaching practices has been identified as a critical need for preschool teachers. The Pyramid Model for Promoting Social Emotional Competence is a multi-tiered framework of evidence-informed teaching practices. Previous studies have shown that PD, which includes workshops, i...
Article
The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the role of personal relevance in conceptual change. First, we used an experimental design to investigate the role of augmented activation—which directly implicated teachers’ personal prior beliefs about mathematics learning and instruction—and refutational text manipulations on short and long-te...
Preprint
In multilevel modeling decomposing variables into between and within components is often required in the analysis. This decomposition should not ignore the possible unreliability of an observed group mean (i.e. arithmetic mean) that is due to small cluster sizes and can lead to substantially biased estimates. Adjustment procedures that allow unbias...
Article
A growing body of research exists on the effectiveness of classroom-based intervention programs to prevent and ameliorate social, emotional, and learning difficulties demonstrated by young children at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Yet, little research has examined the influence of these targeted intervention programs on the tea...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated if training and practice-based coaching in an evidence-based program was associated with higher observed treatment integrity (adherence and competence) and if these treatment integrity components were associated with teacher report of child behavioral outcomes in the BEST in CLASS efficacy trial. Participants were 462 childr...
Article
In this study, we evaluated the estimation of three important parameters for data collected in a multisite cluster-randomized trial (MS-CRT): the treatment effect, and the treatment by covariate interactions at Levels 1 and 2. The Level 1 and Level 2 interaction parameters are the coefficients for the products of the treatment indicator, with the c...
Book
Full-text available
This book is a printed and enhanced version of an interactive platform that is available online without cost; and all proceeds from this printed version will go to charity. Compared to the interactive platform, the printed version has learning objectives and exercise questions in each chapter; it also has additional notes and explanations. We aim...
Article
Full-text available
The prevention science approach to emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) focuses on early intervention targeting risk and resilience factors (e.g., early problem behaviors, teacher-child interactions, classroom climate). The current study investigates the effectiveness of BEST in CLASS, a classroom-based indicated preventive intervention targeting y...
Article
We examined individual differences and predictions of children’s patterns in behavioral, emotional and attentional efforts toward challenging puzzle tasks at 24 and 35 months using data from a large longitudinal rural representative sample. Using latent transition analysis, we found four distinct task-oriented patterns in problem-solving tasks with...
Article
Enhancing all students’ academic performance continues to be a national priority, and although achievement gains have been made overtime, shortfalls in mathematics learning for students with disabilities (SWD) remain. Research reveals that a substantial portion of the variability in students’ mathematics achievement gains is due to the teacher. To...
Article
We conducted a randomized controlled potential efficacy trial to examine effects of two variants of the Tools for Teachers (TfT) professional development (PD) intervention on preschool teachers’ implementation of embedded instruction practices and children’s developmental and learning outcomes. Thirty-six preschool teachers recruited from three sch...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate unidimensional models that can handle semiordered data within scale items (i.e., items with multiple ordered response categories, and one additional nominal response category). We apply the models to scale data with not applicable (NA) responses to compare the model performance to conditions in w...
Article
We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor in...
Article
Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic problem...
Article
Teachers sometimes struggle to deliver evidence-based programs designed to prevent and ameliorate chronic problem behaviors of young children with integrity. Identifying factors associated with variations in the quantity and quality of delivery is thus an important goal for the field. This study investigated factors associated with teacher treatmen...
Article
Purpose: To explore the use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) based profiles of children's functional abilities in relation to their social competence. Subgroups based on shared profiles of functional ability were investigated as an alternative or complement to subgroups defined...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the classification accuracy of a second grade oral reading fluency curriculum-based measure (R-CBM) in predicting third grade state test performance. It also compared the long-term classification accuracy of local and publisher-recommended R-CBM cut scores. Participants were 266 students who were divided into a calibration samp...
Article
Full-text available
Self-determination theory and research suggest that students are more motivated and have higher achievement when teachers support their psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, teachers might have difficulty supporting their students’ psychological needs if their own psychological needs are not met, which might affect...
Article
Two professional development (PD) models for teachers were compared on teacher and student outcomes. Special education teachers participated in Literacy Learning Cohorts (LLC), a PD innovation designed to improve content and pedagogical knowledge for providing reading instruction to upper elementary students with learning disabilities. The LLC, bas...
Article
The Learning Target Rating Scale (LTRS) is a measure designed to evaluate the quality of teacher-developed learning targets for embedded instruction for early learning. In the present study, we examined the measurement dependability of LTRS scores by conducting a generalizability study (G-study). We used a partially nested, three-facet model to est...
Article
Maladaptive adolescent behavior patterns often create escalating conflict with adults and peers, leading to poor long-term social trajectories. To address this, school-based behavior management often consists of contingent reinforcement for appropriate behavior, behavior reduction procedures, and placement in self-contained or alternative settings....
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss advances in research designs and methods useful for generating plausible causal evidence in early childhood special education. In addition, we describe contemporary perspectives about measurement and present example applications in early childhood special education. We begin the chapter by reviewing briefly the strengths...
Article
We conducted a potential efficacy trial examining the effects of classroom-wide implementation of the Pyramid Model for Promoting Young Children’s Social-Emotional Competence on teachers’ implementation of Pyramid Model practices and children’s social-emotional skills and challenging behavior. Participants were 40 preschool teachers and 494 childre...
Poster
Summary of teacher and child outcomes from the BEST in CLASS efficacy trial.
Article
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate constraining the nominal response model inMplus software to calibrate data under the partial credit model (PCM) and generalized partial credit model (GPCM). Currently, many researchers are uncertain if the PCM and GPCM can be estimated within Mplus. Through model constraint commands in Mplus, we demonst...
Chapter
The principal developments in classical test theory are presented, including the classical true score model, the observed score random variable, the true score, the error score random variable, the reliability coefficient, the standard error of measurement, the effect of test length on statistical properties of test scores, single-administration co...
Article
We investigated methods of including covariates in two-level models for cluster ran-domized trials to increase power to detect the treatment effect. We compared mul-tilevel models that included either an observed cluster mean or a latent cluster mean as a covariate, as well as the effect of including Level 1 deviation scores in the model. A Monte C...
Article
The present study combined a functional abilities approach to characterizing childhood disability with person-oriented analytic techniques to identify and describe functional profiles of young children with disabilities. Nationally representative data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study was used, which included nearly 3,000 prescho...
Article
This Monte Carlo simulation study investigated the impact of nonnormality on estimating and testing mediated effects with the parallel process latent growth model and 3 popular methods for testing the mediated effect (i.e., Sobel’s test, the asymmetric confidence limits, and the bias-corrected bootstrap). It was found that nonnormality had little e...
Article
Worldviews provide answers to questions such as who am I, why am I here, and how should I behave. We examined whether being religious corresponds with having a stronger worldview and whether the worldview accounts for the commonly observed relationship between religiousness and substance use. Adolescents (N = 1,253) completed measures of religiousn...
Chapter
This article has no abstract.
Article
Article The number of young children in early childhood settings exhibiting problem behavior that interferes with social/ emotional development continues to rise (Brauner & Stephens, 2006; Carter et al., 2010; L. A. McCabe & Frede, 2007). Reported prevalence rates suggest that as many as 14% to 30% of preschool children demonstrate significant prob...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior–Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used...
Article
In longitudinal data collection, it is common that each wave of collection spans several months. However, researchers using latent growth models commonly ignore variability in data collection occasions within a wave. In this study, we investigated the consequences of ignoring within-wave variability in measurement occasions using a Monte Carlo simu...
Article
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is widely used for analyzing multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data. But there is no consensus about whether multiplicative or additive trait-method effect of its parameterization, most appropriately represents the underlying structure ofMTMM data. Given the popularity of two additive CFA models, the CT-CM model and t...
Article
One hundred personal injury litigants and disability claimants referred for a forensic neuropsychological evaluation were administered both portions of the Color Trails Test (CTT) as part of a more comprehensive battery of standardized tests. Subjects who failed two or more free-standing tests of cognitive performance validity formed the Failed Per...
Article
Full-text available
A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate the effects of a supplemental mathematics intervention that emphasized fluency building for computations and procedures. All fourth- and fifth-grade English-speaking students from a single school district who were participating in general education mathematics instruction and had a 2009 year-end ac...
Article
The 15-item Henry-Heilbronner Index (HHI) was published in 2006 as an MMPI-2 embedded measure of psychological response validity. When the MMPI-2 was revised in 2008 only 11 of the 15 original HHI items were retained on the MMPI-2-RF, prohibiting use of the HHI as an embedded validity indicator on the MMPI-2-RF. Using the original HHI sample an 11-...
Article
Full-text available
Variants of Levene’s and O’Brien’s procedures not investigated by Keselman, Wilcox & Algina (2008) were examined. Simulations indicate that a new O’Brien variant provides very good Type I error control and is simpler for applied researchers to compute than the method recommended by Keselman, et al.
Article
Variants of Levene's and O'Brien's procedures not investigated by Keselman, Wilcox & Algina (2008) were examined. Simulations indicate that a new O'Brien variant provides very good Type I error control and is simpler for applied researchers to compute than the method recommended by Keselman, et al.
Article
Deficits in executive function (self-regulatory mechanisms) have been linked with many childhood disorders including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder, and conduct disorder. Executive functioning is typically assessed by individually administering performance-based measures in a clinical setting. However, per...
Article
Actual Type I error rates (τ) for James's second-order test and Wilcox's Hm test on means were estimated for various conditions in which variances were either homoscedastic or heteroscedastic and distributions were either normal or non-normal. Actual Type I error rates for both James's second-order and Wilcox's Hm tests were affected by non-normali...
Article
A robust Root Mean Square Standardized Effect Size (RMSSE R )was developed to address the unsatisfactory performance of the Root Mean Square Standardized Effect Size. The coverage performances of the confidence intervals (CI) for RMSSE R were investigated. The coverage probabilities of the non-central F distribution-based CI for RMSSE R were adequa...
Article
A child's acquisition of adaptive behavior and skills may constitute his or her most important goal during infancy and early childhood. In addition, adaptive behavior data often are required when making decisions under Part C of the 2004 Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act. This study reports the results of a factor analysis of...
Article
The increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient (Delta R(2)) associated with a variable in a regression equation is a commonly used measure of importance in regression analysis. Algina, Keselman, and Penfield found that intervals based on asymptotic principles were typically very inaccurate, even though the sample size was quite large...
Article
Looney & Stanley's (1989) recommendations regarding analysis strategies for repeated measures designs containing between-subjects grouping variables and within-subjects repeated measures variables were re-examined and compared to recent analysis strategies. That is, corrected degrees of freedom univariate tests, multivariate tests, mixed model test...
Article
Full-text available
Parental involvement has been recognized as an important factor for student achievement in traditional school settings. The lack of research regarding the effect of parental involvement on student achievement in virtual schooling is, in part, due to the absence of a valid and reliable instrument to measure this construct. This paper provides an ove...
Article
Cross-classified random effects modelling (CCREM) is a special case of multi-level modelling where the units of one level are nested within two cross-classified factors. Typically, CCREM analyses omit the random interaction effect of the cross-classified factors. We investigate the impact of the omission of the interaction effect on parameter estim...
Conference Paper
Several personal development theorists posit that developing social support and discovering purpose in life are necessary steps in the process of positive human development (i.e., Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs), particularly for young adults (i.e., Chickering's Seven Vectors of Development, Parks' Faith Development Theory) . These theories also sugge...
Article
Full-text available
Standard least squares analysis of variance methods suffer from poor power under arbitrarily small departures from normality and fail to control the probability of a Type I error when standard assumptions are violated. This article describes a framework for robust estimation and testing that uses trimmed means with an approximate degrees of freedom...
Article
The AAIDD has promulgated various models of adaptive behavior, including its 1992 model stressing 10 adaptive skills and its 2002 model that highlighted three conceptual domains. In previous studies on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS-II), researchers found support for a model including both 10 adaptive skills and three conceptual d...
Article
The coverage performance of the confidence intervals (CIs) for the Root Mean Square Standardized Effect Size (RMSSE) was investigated in a balanced, one-way, fixed-effects, between-subjects ANOVA design. The noncentral F distribution-based and the percentile bootstrap CI construction methods were compared. The results indicated that the coverage pr...
Article
The squared multiple semipartial correlation coefficient is the increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient that occurs when two or more predictors are added to a multiple regression model. Coverage probability was investigated for two variations of each of three methods for setting confidence intervals for the population squared multi...
Article
We examined 633 procedures that can be used to compare the variability of scores across independent groups. The procedures, except for one, were modifications of the procedures suggested by Levene (1960) and O'Brien (1981). We modified their procedures by substituting robust measures of the typical score and variability, rather than relying on clas...
Article
Applications of distribution theory for the squared multiple correlation coefficient and the squared cross-validation coefficient are reviewed, and computer programs for these applications are made available. The applications include confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, and sample size selection.
Article
Full-text available
Gignac (2005) and Palmer, Gignac, Manocha, and Stough (2005) recently raised important issues concerning the construct validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). This study sought to further examine the constructs measured by the MSCEIT by replicating and extending their re...
Article
A squared semipartial correlation coefficient (Delta R-2) is the increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient that occurs when a predictor is added to a multiple regression model. Prior research has shown that coverage probability for a confidence interval constructed by using a modified percentile bootstrap method with Delta R-2 was ge...
Article
We examined nine adaptive methods of trimming, that is, methods that empirically determine when data should be trimmed and the amount to be trimmed from the tails of the empirical distribution. Over the 240 empirical values collected for each method investigated, in which we varied the total percentage of data trimmed, sample size, degree of varian...
Article
Full-text available
To identify factors that predict physicians' intent to comply with the American Medical Association's (AMA's) ethical guidelines on gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. A survey was designed and mailed in June 2004 to a random sample of 850 physicians in Florida, USA, excluding physicians with inactive licences, incomplete addresses, addresses i...
Article
Three approximate degrees of freedom quasi-F tests of treatment effectiveness were developed for use in research designs when one treatment is individually delivered and the other is delivered to individuals nested in groups of unequal size. Imbalance in the data was studied from the prospective of subject attrition. The results indicated the test...
Article
The Type I error rate of the Kenward-Roger (KR) test, implemented by PROC MIXED in SAS, was assessed through a simulation study for a one between- and one within-subjects factor split-plot design with ignorable missing values and covariance heterogeneity. The KR test controlled the Type I error well under all of the simulation factors, with all est...
Article
The increase in the squared multiple correlation coefficient (Delta R-2) associated with a variable in a regression equation is a commonly used measure of importance in regression analysis. The coverage probability that an asymptotic and percentile bootstrap confidence interval includes Delta rho(2) was investigated. As expected, coverage probabili...
Article
One approach to measuring unsigned differential test functioning is to estimate the variance of the differential item functioning (DIF) effect across the items of the test. This article proposes two estimators of the DIF effect variance for tests containing dichotomous and polytomous items. The proposed estimators are direct extensions of the nonit...
Article
Kelley compared three methods for setting a confidence interval (CI) around Cohen's standardized mean difference statistic: the noncentral-t-based, percentile (PERC) bootstrap, and biased-corrected and accelerated (BCA) bootstrap methods under three conditions of normormality, eight cases of sample size, and six cases of population effect size (ES)...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored predictors of treatment response and attrition in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Participants were 99 families of 3- to 6-year-old children with disruptive behavior disorders. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify those pretreatment child, family, and accessibility factors that were predictive of success or...
Article
Liu and Agresti (1996) proposed a Mantel and Haenszel-type (1959) estimator of a common odds ratio for several 2 × J tables, where the J columns are ordinal levels of a response variable. This article applies the Liu-Agresti estimator to the case of assessing differential item functioning (DIF) in items having an ordinal response variable. A simula...
Article
Full-text available
A modification to testing pairwise comparisons that may provide better control of Type I errors in the presence of non-normality is to use a preliminary test for symmetry which determines whether data should be trimmed symmetrically or asymmetrically. Several pairwise MCPs were investigated, employing a test of symmetry with a number of heterosceda...
Article
Confidence intervals must be robust in having nominal and actual probability coverage in close agreement. This article examined two ways of computing an effect size in a two-group problem: (a) the classic approach which divides the mean difference by a single standard deviation and (b) a variant of a method which replaces least squares values with...
Article
The authors assess the suitability of repeated-measures regression (RMR) to analyze multilevel data in four popular multilevel research designs by comparing results of RMR analyses to results of analyses using techniques known to produce correct results in these designs. The findings indicate that RMR may be suitable for only a small number of situ...
Article
Full-text available
The probability coverage of intervals involving robust estimates of effect size based on seven procedures was compared for asymmetrically trimming data in an independent two-groups design, and a method that symmetrically trims the data. Four conditions were varied: (a) percentage of trimming, (b) type of nonnormal population distribution, (c) popul...
Article
The authors argue that a robust version of Cohen's effect size constructed by replacing population means with 20% trimmed means and the population standard deviation with the square root of a 20% Winsorized variance is a better measure of population separation than is Cohen's effect size. The authors investigated coverage probability for confidence...
Chapter
The Aspin–Welch test can be used to test the hypothesis that two means, from independent samples, are equal without making the assumption of equal variances. The article presents the formulas for the test statistic and for two critical values, cites the literature for another critical value, identifies problems in the test, cites literature for sol...
Article
Full-text available
Probability coverage for eight different confidence intervals (CIs) of measures of effect size (ES) in a two-level repeated measures design was investigated. The CIs and measures of ES differed with regard to whether they used least squares or robust estimates of central tendency and variability, whether the end critical points of the interval were...
Article
Missing data are a common problem in educational research. A promising technique, that can be implemented in SAS PROC MIXED and is therefore widely available, is to use maximum likelihood to estimate model parameters and base hypothesis tests on these estimates. However, it is not clear which test statistic in PROC MIXED performs better with missin...
Article
SAS's PROC MIXED can be problematic when analyzing data from randomized longitudinal two-group designs when observations are missing over time. Overall (1996, 1999) and colleagues found a number of procedures that are effective in controlling the number of false positives (Type I errors) and are yet sensitive (powerful) to detect treatment effects....
Article
School effectiveness research has fueled debate on the importance of a press for academic excellence versus communal values. Research on parenting styles offers a theoretical framework that may resolve the debate. We hypothesized that dimensions of parenting styles—demandingness (academic press) and responsiveness (communal values)—predict students...