James Ackerman

James Ackerman
University of Puerto Rico at Rio Piedras | UPR-RP · Department of Biology

Ph.D.

About

288
Publications
74,105
Reads
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6,930
Citations
Citations since 2016
50 Research Items
2153 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Additional affiliations
June 2010 - August 2010
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
Position
  • USDA Faculty and Student Training Fellow
Description
  • Received training on species distribution modeling and collected distribution and reproductive data for non-native orchids of the Hawaiian Islands
June 2002 - July 2003
University of Florida
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Mostly worked on the Orchidaceae treatment for the flora of the Greater Antilles
June 1998 - July 1998
Smithsonian Institution
Position
  • Mellon Senior Fellow
Description
  • Worked on the Orchid Flora of the Greater Antilles
Education
September 1976 - June 1981
Florida State University
Field of study
  • Biology
September 1968 - June 1976
Humboldt State University
Field of study
  • Biology

Publications

Publications (288)
Article
Full-text available
Aim Understanding the factors driving the diversity of alien and native species on islands is crucial for predicting the spread of alien species and for proposing management practices to protect the unique native biodiversity that often occurs in insular ecosystems. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether native and alien plant spe...
Article
Full-text available
Apis species are a major component of pollinator faunas in their native and introduced habitats. A widespread concern is that non-native Apis mellifera may have negative effects on native pollinators and on plant reproduction. This is based on the assumptions that natural communities are at capacity, resource competition structures communities, nat...
Article
Population projection matrices are a common means for predicting short-and long-term population persistence for rare, threatened and endangered species. Data from such species can suffer from small sample sizes and consequently miss rare demographic events resulting in incomplete or biologically unrealistic life cycle trajec-tories. Matrices with m...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of Eurystyles (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae, Cranichideae, Spiranthinae) is proposed, E. luisortizii Ackerman sp. nov., which is most similar to E. ananassocomos (Rchb.f.) Schltr. from which it differs by a suite of floral traits. This species represents the first confirmed record of the genus for the island of Puerto Rico, bringing the...
Article
A new species of Melocactus is described from Puerto Rico. This miniature species, with a stem no more than 70 mm in diameter, is of uncertain affiliation but is unlikely to be a close relative of M. intortus, the only other Melocactus known from Puerto Rico, due to the lack of a pink-coloured stigma, smaller stem and distinct seed structure. Inste...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The world is changing and is taking orchids with it. Habitat destruction and collecting pressures, the greatest agents of change for orchids, have eliminated or drastically reduced the size and number of orchid populations. And climate change further threatens populations, albeit over longer time frames. Sustainability of orchid populations is at i...
Article
Natural pollination of species belonging to the pantropical orchid genus Vanilla remains poorly understood. Based on sporadic records, euglossine bees have been observed visiting flowers of Neotropical Vanilla species. Our research aimed at better understanding the pollinator attraction mechanism of the Neotropical species Vanilla pompona, a crop w...
Article
Full-text available
Establishment of new populations is contingent on overcoming abiotic and biotic barriers. While this applies to all species, these hurdles are at the forefront of invasion biology where prediction, prevention, eradication, and control strategies depend on an understanding of these processes. Terrestrial Arundina graminifolia and epiphytic Dendrobiu...
Article
Full-text available
Eulophia graminea Lindley (Orchidaceae), a native orchid of tropical and subtropical Asia, was first reported in the Western Hemisphere from populations in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. where it spread rapidly through the southern part of the state. Here we report the first record of this species for Puerto Rico and also sightings in the Bahamas and Cuba,...
Article
Full-text available
Eulophia graminea Lindley (Orchidaceae), a native orchid of tropical and subtropical Asia, was first reported in the Western Hemisphere from populations in Miami, Florida, U.S.A. where it spread rapidly through the southern part of the state. Here we report the first record of this species for Puerto Rico and sightings in the Bahamas and Cuba, refl...
Preprint
Natural pollination of species belonging to the pantropical orchid genus Vanilla remains poorly understood. Based on sporadic records, euglossine bees have been observed visiting flowers of Neotropical Vanilla species. Our research aimed at better understanding the pollinator attraction mechanism of the Neotropical species Vanilla pompona , a crop...
Poster
Full-text available
Adult orchids in the Susúa State Forest show a trend of growing towards the East and under 0.75 m above ground. The orchid occupies 14 out of the 27 identified tree species. Oplonia spinosa and Coccoloba microstachya have a significant positive and negative effect on the presence of the orchid, respectively. More data is being collected on physical...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the historical factors associated with the invasion success of alien species in a region may help us to identify sources, vectors, and pathways that are more likely to originate new invaders. Here, we gather data for traits related to the history of introduction (e.g., continent of origin, reason for introduction, and date of introduc...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the historical factors associated with the invasion success of alien species in a region may help us to identify sources, vectors, and pathways that are more likely to originate new invaders. Here, we gather data for traits related to the history of introduction (e.g., continent of origin, reason for introduction , and date of introdu...
Article
Govenia utriculata (Sw.) Lindl. has been pervasively confused in herbaria and the literature, despite showing both vegetative and florally distinctive attributes. Here we document for the first time its presence in Mexico, provide a description, a detailed drawing and color photographs from live flowering plants, and compare it with its congeners....
Article
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This is a brief obituary for one of the most influential scientists in Orchidology and Neotropical Botany published in Orchid Research Newsletter #76 published out of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Article
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Calaway H. Dodson has had a significant impact on the development of orchid biology and Neotropical botany. His academic history and what he has accomplished both in science and the academic lineage that he fostered is summarized
Article
Full-text available
Premise of research. Small populations are intrinsically more vulnerable to population decline and extinction. Such populations may be most susceptible when distributed on small islands, which suffer disproportionately more from human influences, both directly and indirectly. Nevertheless, small native populations that occur on multiple islands may...
Cover Page
Full-text available
This list is the basis for a paper that we have submitted, "Beyond the various contrivances by which orchids are pollinated: global patterns in orchid pollination biology." Abstract: The Orchidaceae shows remarkable diversity in pollination strategies but how these strategies vary globally is not entirely clear. To identify regions and taxa that a...
Data
See the Preface that I had uploaded, which gives some background as to why I have been working on this list.
Data
I have been working on a talk for the 23rd World Orchid Conference in Taiwan and have compiled a list of invasive and naturalized orchid species. I expect that this will be a continually expanding list of species. I will link the publication in the Proceedings to this table.
Article
Full-text available
The pantropical genus Thespesia and its allied genera Azanza, Cephalohibiscus and Lebronnecia are revised. We recognize 14 species in Thespesia, two in Azanza and one each in Cephalohibiscus and Lebronnecia. A new combination, Azanza thespesioides var. flaviflora, is made. Lectotypes are designated for: Thespesia banalo, T. danis, T. danisvar.grand...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The orchid family is old, but brims with vitality and is the most diverse of all plant families. To what do we attribute this evolutionary success? While adaptive radiation related to pollinator services has been a traditional favorite explanation, other phenomena have been associated with diversification, particularly epiphytism. Orchids usually o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Establishment of new populations is contingent on overcoming abiotic and biotic barriers. While this applies to all species, these hurdles are at the forefront of invasion biology where prediction, prevention, eradication, and control strategies depend on an understanding and exploitation of barriers to establishment and spread. Arundina graminifol...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization decreases the abundance of native species, which may enable exotics to experience enemy release in urban areas, enhancing their invasive capacity. The invasive autogamous orchid, Spathoglottis plicata, acquires some biotic resistance in Puerto Rico from a native orchid weevil specialist, Stethobaris polita. The distribution of S. polit...
Poster
Full-text available
Pollinator-plant interactions provide a fundamental ecosystem service that helps maintain and generate biodiversity at local and global scales. These interactions have been studied using network analysis, a tool for revealing the ecological structure and functions of the interactions between trophic levels. Because pollination networks are suscepti...
Article
Full-text available
Historical land use can have long term effects and vegetation recovery of original components may vary. The tropical myco-heterotrophic orchid, Wullschlaegelia calcarata, is known to be sensitive to past disturbance, being most abundant in minimally disturbed forests of Puerto Rico in the West Indies. But spatial patterns of abundance do not necess...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in plant reproductive success is affected by ecological conditions including the proximity of potential mates. We address the hypothesis that spatial distribution of sexes affects female reproductive success (RS) in the dioecious cycad, Zamia portoricensis. Are the frequencies of males, operational sex ratios, and distances to the nearest...
Data
Raw data plot El Tamarindo plot ET1
Data
Raw data plot El Tamarindo plot ET2
Data
Zamia portoricensis reproductive success data from circular plots The first sheet carries the raw data; the second has the data to show the relationship between reproductive success and sex ratio; the third sheet has the data for reproductive success by site; and the last shows the data used for the Mantel test in the assessment for spatial autocor...
Data
Distribution of Zamia portoricensis in 25 ×20 m plots (A) El Tamarindo plot ET1. (B) El Tamarindo plot ET2. (C) Susúa State Forest plot SF1. (D) Susúa State Forest plot SF2. FR, female reproductive plants; MR, male reproductive plants; NR, non-reproductive plants; SJ, seedlings and juveniles.
Data
Raw data plot Susúa State Forest plot SF1
Data
Size distribution of males and females of Zamia portoricensis at El Tamarindo and Susúa State Forest sites Size was measured as the number of leaflets in the longest leaf. ET, El Tamarindo population plots; SF, Susúa State Forest plots; SE, standard error.
Data
Raw data plot Susúa State Forest plot SF 2
Article
Full-text available
Kreft et al. (2008) presented a global analysis of factors relating to differences in species numbers among 488 island and 970 mainland floras. They tested the relationship between island characteristics (area, isolation, topography, climate and geology) and species richness using traditional and spatial models. They found that area was the stronge...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological innovations associated with more efficient seed dispersal have often been considered as drivers for the diversification of angiosperm lineages; however, studies testing this relationship are relatively few and have led to differing results. In this study, we explore the evolution of the fruit and its role in the diversification of eum...
Article
Full-text available
Résumé.-Compte-tenu de la taille de la famille, les orchidées sont sous-représentées dans la liste globale des espèces invasives, mais leur nombre augmente rapidement. Les orchidées ont surmonté des barrières subs-tantielles à leur établissement et leur propagation dans de nouvelles régions. Des conditions défavorables, la pré-sence de pollinisateu...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions can have negative consequences for resident biota, particularly when disease-causing organisms are involved. Austropuccinia psidii , or guava rust, has rapidly spread through the tropics affecting both native and non-native Myrtaceae. In Puerto Rico, the rust has become common on Syzygium jambos , an invasive tree native to Sou...
Article
Full-text available
The original version of the article unfortunately contained an error in Figure 1. The arrow pointing from the native weevil (Stethobaris polita) to the invasive ant (Solenopsis invicta) should be in reverse. Invasive ants attack native weevils, preventing them from feeding on flowers and ovipositing in fruits (see corrected Fig. 1). The caption of...
Article
Full-text available
Non-native species often acquire novel interspecific interactions, which are central to several hypotheses of invasion success, including biotic resistance and invasional meltdown. However, the outcome of these interactions is not often linked with the demographic evidence based on the full life cycle of the species. The Philippine Ground Orchid (S...
Article
Full-text available
Charles Elton proposed that high species diversity and low levels of disturbance provide a measure of biotic resistance against invasions by alien species. While there is some evidence for this hypothesis, there are numerous other factors associated with invasive species richness, and the strength of those relationships is often scale-dependent. Am...
Article
Full-text available
Thespesia consists of 16 species of trees and shrubs from Southeast Asia-Oceania, Africa and America, the most well known being T. populnea, a small tree of tropical coastal areas around the world. Phylogenetic relationships in the genus and among its allies in tribe Gossypieae were inferred using three plastid and two nuclear regions to ascertain...
Poster
Full-text available
Non-native species often acquire novel interspecific interactions, which are central to several hypotheses of invasion success, such as biotic resistance and invasional meltdown. However, the outcome of these interactions is not often linked with the demographic evidence based on the full life cycle of the species. The Philippine Ground Orchid (Spa...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Evaluation of population projection matrices (PPMs) that are focused on asymptotically based properties of populations is a commonly used approach to evaluate projected dynamics of managed populations. Recently, a set of tools for evaluating the properties of transient dynamics has been expanded to evaluate PPMs and to conside...
Article
Full-text available
Suitable habitat for a species is often modeled by linking its distribution patterns with landscape characteristics. However, modeling the relationship between fitness and landscape characteristics is less common. In this study we take a novel approach towards Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) by investigating factors important not only for speci...
Article
Full-text available
Invasiveness of non-native species often depends on acquired interactions with either native or naturalized species. A natural colonizer, the autogamous, invasive orchid Spathoglottis plicata has acquired at least three interspecific interactions in Puerto Rico: a mycorrhizal fungus essential for seed germination and early development; a native, or...
Poster
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods The relationship between viruses and plants is complex. Yet understanding this interaction in wild plants has been a challenge, which now can be approached with various innovative techniques. The occurrence of plant viruses is affected by both environmental and anthropomorphic factors, such as climatic variables and the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods Arundina graminifolia, the bamboo orchid, is native to Asia-Pacific, but has been introduced as an outdoor ornamental plant in many parts of the tropics. In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized populations were reported around 1940 where it was widely cultivated; in Puerto Rico, the same was true in 1982. Because of the d...
Article
Full-text available
The orchid mystique is alive and well. The bizarre flowers, weird pollination mechanisms, and rarity of many species have captured the attention of enthusiasts and academics for nearly two centuries. Population declines of marquee species have been obvious due to over-collecting and habitat degradation (e.g., Miranda 1990, Cribb 1998, Soto Arenas e...
Data
Full-text available
Book
The West Indies is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots and much of its species richness resides in the Greater Antilles. This biogeographic unit extends from Cuba in the west to Anegada of the British Virgin Islands in the east. It excludes the Bahamian archipelago, the Lesser Antilles, and the continental islands adjacent to Mexico, Central a...
Article
Full-text available
The El Verde Field Station in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico has been the subject of intensive ecological research for more than five decades, focusing on ecosystem processes, food webs, and, most recently, forest dynamics, all of which require correct identification and naming of plant species. Here, we present an up-to-date list of the vas...
Article
Full-text available
Target 2 of the 2020 Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) calls for a comprehensive list of the world's threatened plant species. The lack of such a list is one of the greatest impediments to protecting the full complement of the world's plant species, and work to achieve this has been slow. An efficient system for identifying those specie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods In the mid 1960s Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis (Honduran pine) was introduced across Puerto Rico to reforest abandoned agricultural lands and facilitate a forest products industry. The latter goal never materialized, leaving most pine plantations abandoned and unmanaged. Currently, the pine populations show heterogene...
Article
Full-text available
Green iguanas (Iguana iguana L.) have been introduced to many locations outside their native range due to both the pet trade and illegal in- troductions. This has led to the establishment of populations and subsequent spread outside the native range, with negative impacts documented in some places. The Pacific region is no exception, where green ig...
Article
Full-text available
is no source seed (winds blow in from the Pacific and not over housing where orchids may be cultivated). 1 IT IS DIFFICULT TO IMAGINE THE Hawaiian landscape before Polynesians arrived. Much of it was forested, that we know, but it would have been a landscape without breadfruit, coconuts, taro, ti plants, frangipani, bananas, pineapples, sugar cane,...
Article
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From the Chair Dear Colleagues, Greetings in the new Quadrennium. I am hoping that this will be a productive four years for orchid conservation. Very soon, we will be releasing details of the Fifth Orchid Conservation Congress to be held in December on La Reunion – a fascinating island with many orchid species. In the meantime, we have just succeed...
Article
Full-text available
The remarkable diversity of the Orchidaceae has been attributed to specialized plant-pollinator relationships. Limited gene flow among populations would enhance the probability of adaptation to local conditions, including the availability of different pollinator pools. Orchid populations are often viewed as small and hyperdispersed which is consist...
Conference Paper
Viruses that affect crops have been intensively studied, but its unknown how these viruses affect non-cultivated plants. To develop the best strategies for crop protection, the diversity of viruses in non-cultivated plants needs to be understood. This work focuses on the occurrence of potyvirus in Momordica (Cucurbitaceae), an wild naturalized vine...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term or lifetime specificity in plantpollinator relationships is likely a consequence of natural selection to not only enhance the probability of cross-pollination but also to improve pollinator efficiency. Dependency on one or few pollinators involves risk whereas multiple species may reduce the probability of extinction via unreliable pollin...