Jairo Patiño

Jairo Patiño
Spanish National Research Council | CSIC

PhD

About

133
Publications
47,229
Reads
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Introduction
My research program lies at the confluence of biogeography, evolution, conservation biology and systematics. I am particularly intrigued by ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that shape diversity at different spatial and temporal scales. Much of my research is devoted to what processes drive genetic differentiation and ultimately speciation on islands. The management and conservation of island ecosystems following human-mediated disturbances complete my research agenda.
Additional affiliations
September 2018 - August 2023
Universidad de La Laguna
Position
  • Researcher
September 2018 - August 2023
Universidad de La Laguna
Position
  • Researcher
September 2017 - August 2019
Spanish National Research Council
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Full-text available
Although the increase in species richness with increasing area is considered one of the few laws in ecology, the role of environmental and taxon-specific features in shaping species–area relationships (SARs) remains controversial. Using 421 land-plant floras covering continents, continental islands and oceanic islands, we investigate whether variat...
Article
Full-text available
The perceived low levels of genetic diversity, poor interspecific competitive and defensive ability, and loss of dispersal capacities of insular lineages have driven the view that oceanic islands are evolutionary dead ends. Focusing on the Atlantic bryophyte flora distributed across the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, the Canary Islands, weste...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued...
Article
Bryophytes include about 20,000 species characterized by their poikilohydric condition, high long-distance dispersal capacities, and cold tolerance. Despite these specific life-history traits, large-scale biogeographic patterns in bryophytes are consistent with those observed in other groups, wherein they have been interpreted in terms of historica...
Article
Full-text available
Campylopus introflexus es una especie de musgo acrocárpico nativa del hemisferio sur, pero que ha sido introducida en numerosas zonas del hemisferio norte donde actúa como invasora. En este artículo se analiza la presencia de esta especie en Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España) así como el marco temporal de su historia de invasión.
Presentation
Cloud forests, ecosystems experiencing from persistent to frequent low-level cloud cover, exhibit extremely high levels of biodiversity with large percentages of endemism. On islands, cloud forests are often relatively small isolated patches, which make them sensitive to climate change. To improve our understanding of cloud forest response to globa...
Article
Unisexual bryophytes provide excellent models to study the mechanisms that regulate the frequency of sexual vs. asexual reproduction in plants, and their ecological and evolutionary implications. Here, we determined sex expression, phenotypic sex ratio, and individual shoot traits in 242 populations of the cosmopolitan moss Pseudoscleropodium purum...
Article
Full-text available
We set out to document the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in Admiralty Bay and thereby enable the identification of patterns in local diversity and their possible drivers. Combining data extracted from different sources and recent collections, we documented the presence of 63 species. Similarity analyses of moss species diversity in relat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Epiphytic communities live in a unique, three-dimensional micro-habitat space that offers an original framework to disentangle the contribution of environmental filters, biotic interactions and dispersal limitation to community structure at small spatial scales. We took advantage of a tropical canopy crane facility to record and model spatio-tempor...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial variation in climatic conditions along elevation gradients provides an important backdrop by which communities assemble and diversify. Lowland habitats tend to be connected through time, whereas highlands can be continuously or periodically isolated, conditions that have been hypothesized to promote high levels of species endemism. This ten...
Article
Full-text available
Research in Macaronesia has led to substantial advances in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. We review the scientific developments achieved in this region, and outline promising research avenues enhancing conservation. Some of these discoveries indicate that the Macaronesian flora and fauna is composed of rather young lineages, not Terti...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity accumulates hierarchically by means of ecological and evolutionary processes and feedbacks. Within ecological communities drift, dispersal, speciation, and selection operate simultaneously to shape patterns of biodiversity. Reconciling the relative importance of these is hindered by current models and inference methods, which tend to f...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic turnover has emerged as a powerful tool to identify the mechanisms by which biological communities assemble. When significantly structured along environmental gradients, phylogenetic turnover evidences phylogenetic niche conservatism, a critical principle explaining patterns of species distributions at different spatio-temporal scales....
Article
In the present review, we provide an updated account on the level of knowledge in island bryophyte biogeography. In the framework of the 50 most fundamental questions for present and future island biology research highlighted by Patiño et al. (2017), we summarize current knowledge in bryophyte island biogeography and outline main research avenues f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Spatial variation in climatic conditions along elevation gradients provides an important backdrop by which communities assemble and diversify. Lowland habitats tend to be connected through time, whereas highlands can be continuously or periodically isolated, conditions that have been hypothesized to promote high levels of species endemism. This ten...
Article
Montane cloud forests are areas of high endemism, and are one of the more vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Thus, understanding how they both contribute to the generation of biodiversity, and will respond to ongoing climate change, are important and related challenges. The widely accepted model for montane cloud forest dynamics i...
Article
Full-text available
A significant number of bryophyte species are thought to have transcontinental geographic ranges, often with multiple disjunct distribution areas. One of these cases is Epipterygium tozeri (Mniaceae), with a Holarctic distribution and disjunct ranges in western North America, the Mediterranean, Japan and central Asia. Collections from different geo...
Article
Full-text available
The dispersal routes of taxa with transoceanic disjunctions remain poorly understood, with the potential roles of Antarctica not yet demonstrated. Mosses are suitable organisms to test direct intra‐Antarctic dispersal, as major component of the extant Antarctic flora, with the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum as ideal target species. We analyzed t...
Article
The 'Rand flora' is a biogeographical disjunction which refers to plant lineages occurring at the margins of the African continent and neighbouring oceanic archipelagos. Here, we tested whether the phylogeographical pattern of Exormotheca pustulosa Mitt. was the result of vicariance induced by past climatic changes or the outcome of a series of rec...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Dracaena in Macaronesia comprises two threatened species of arborescent monocots that are often associated with one of the most intriguing biogeographic disjunctions: the Rand Flora pattern. Molecular information is, however, largely missing for the Macaronesian Dracaena taxa ("MDT", hereafter), and the biogeographic or population genetic...
Article
Full-text available
Geographic isolation substantially contributes to species endemism on oceanic islands when speciation involves the colonisation of a new island. However, less is understood about the drivers of speciation within islands. What is lacking is a general understanding of the geographic scale of gene flow limitation within islands, and thus the spatial s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biodiversity accumulates hierarchically by means of ecological and evolutionary processes and feedbacks. Reconciling the relative importance of these processes is hindered by current theory, which tends to focus on a single spatial, temporal or taxonomic scale. We introduce a mechanistic model of community assembly, rooted in classic island biogeog...
Article
The study of biodiversity started as a single unified field that spanned both ecology and evolution and both macro and micro phenomena. But over the 20th century, major trends drove ecology and evolution apart and pushed an emphasis towards the micro perspective in both disciplines. Macroecology and macroevolution re‐emerged as self‐consciously dis...
Article
Understanding the drivers of speciation within islands is key to explain the high levels of invertebrate diversification and endemism often observed within islands. Here, we propose an insular topoclimate model for Quaternary diversification (ITQD), and test the general prediction that, within a radially eroded conical island, glacial climate condi...
Book
Full-text available
This Red List is a summary of the conservation status of the European species of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, collectively known as bryophytes, evaluated according to IUCN’s Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Level. It provides the first comprehensive, region-wide assessment of bryophytes and it identifies those s...
Book
Full-text available
The European Red List is a review of the status of European species according to IUCN regional Red Listing guidelines. It identifies those species that are threatened with extinction at the regional level – in order that appropriate conservation action can be taken to improve their status. This publication is a summary of the conservation status of...
Article
Bryophytes are typically seen as extremely efficient dispersers. Experimental evidence suggests that efficient short‐distance dispersal coupled with random long‐distance dispersal (LDD) leads to an inverse isolation effect. Under the latter, a higher genetic diversity of colonizing propagules is expected with increasing isolation, counteracting dif...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Understanding speciation as a process on islands, particularly speciation within individual islands, is key to explain the high levels of invertebratespeciation that characterise many oceanic islands and archipelagos. Radiations of invertebrategenera, whether presumed to be adaptive or non-adaptive, have been the subject of a rich history of molecu...
Article
Full-text available
Climatic fluctuations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exerted a profound influence on biodiversity patterns, but their impact on bryophytes, the second most diverse group of land plants, has been poorly documented. Approximate Bayesian computations based on coalescent simulations showed that the post‐glacial assembly of European bryophytes in...
Article
Full-text available
Subtropical islands are often viewed as refuges where Quaternary climatic shifts driving global episodes of extinction were buffered. Island biodiversity, however, may have been impacted by climatic fluctuations at local scales, particularly in spatially heterogeneous island systems. In this study, we generated a conceptual framework for predicting...
Article
Full-text available
Biogeography, systematics and taxonomy are complementary scientific disciplines. To understand a species’ origin, migration routes, distribution and evolutionary history, it is first necessary to establish its taxonomic boundaries. Here, we use an integrative approach that takes advantage of complementary disciplines to resolve an intriguing scient...
Data
Specimens included in the molecular analyses and GenBank accession numbers. New accessions from this study are in italics. Numbers between brackets after taxon ID correspond to the specimens included in molecular analyses as used in Figs 1 and 7. Samples originally identified as Orthotrichum kellmanii appear under this name in the table. (PDF)
Data
Selection of samples used for morphological analyses. DNA ID numbers correspond to the specimens included in molecular analyses as used in Fig 1 and S2 Appendix. (PDF)
Data
Results of the principal component analysis (PCA) representing the first three components. The percentage of variance explained by each component is given in brackets. Arrows represent the variables included in the analyses. cos2 represents the squared loadings for variables. ! = samples originally identified as Orthotrichum kellmanii. (TIF)
Data
Molecular dating using a distinct nuclear and plastid nucleotide substitution rate. Maximum clade credibility tree from the relaxed molecular-clock analysis of the four loci in BEAST from analysis II with a distinct rate for the plastid (5.0E-4 (2–8E-4) subst./site/ma) and nuclear partitions (4.13E-3 (1.72–8.34E-3) subst./site/ma). Black and grey c...
Data
Biogeographical analyses. Ancestral area reconstructions. Chronogram of the phylogenetic relationships among the four loci from analysis I, and ancestral area estimations for the Orthotrichum shevockii group and the evaluated ingroup estimated from analyses run using 100 BEAST trees randomly sampled from the posterior probability distribution. Pie...
Data
Marginal likelihood (MLE) and Bayes factor (BF) values for alternative clocks and models tested in BEAST. The best model is marked in bold. (PDF)
Data
Pairwise nucleotide differences among the ingroup sequences of the Orthotrichum shevockii group. (PDF)
Data
Quantitative morphological data. (XLSX)
Poster
Full-text available
Understanding the drivers and dynamics of speciation within oceanic islands is fundamental to achieve a process-based understanding of the assembly and structure of island communities. While there has been much interest in the non-neutral drivers of divergent evolution within islands, such as natural selection, there has been less focus on neutral...
Article
Full-text available
Dispersal is a fundamental biological process that can be divided into three phases: release, transportation, and deposition. Determining the mechanisms of diaspore release is of prime importance to understand under which climatic conditions and at which frequency diaspores are released and transported. In mosses, wherein spore dispersal takes plac...
Article
Full-text available
Islands harbour evolutionary and ecologically unique biota, which are currently disproportionately threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic factors, including habitat loss, invasive species and climate change. Native forests on oceanic islands are important refugia for endemic species, many of which are rare and highly threatened. Long-term monit...
Article
Aim Trees represent striking examples of habitat islands, with various degrees of spatial isolation and evolving properties during their life cycle. Here, we investigate whether changes in habitat conditions, dispersal limitations or competition cause variation in patterns of epiphytic species richness and turnover. Location Madeira island. Taxon...
Article
Anagenesis and cladogenesis are fundamental evolutionary concepts, but are increasingly being adopted as speciation models in the field of island biogeography. Here, we review the origin of the terms 'anagenetic' and 'cladogenetic' speciation, critique their utility, and finally suggest alternative terminology that better describes the geographical...
Article
Morphometrics, the assignment of quantities to biological shapes, is a powerful tool to address taxonomic, evolutionary, functional and developmental questions. We propose a novel method for shape quantification of complex modular architecture in thalloid plants, whose extremely reduced morphologies, combined with the lack of a formal framework for...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we provide new bryophyte reports for Macaronesia as a whole, for single archipelagos, and for single islands. New to Macaronesia are Aneura pseudopinguis, Didymodon brachyphyllus, Diplophyllum obtusifolium, Distichium capillaceum, and Schizymenium pontevedrense. First archipelago reports concern Brachythecium albicans (Canary Islands)...
Article
Full-text available
Bryophytes, with their reduced morphologies and challenging taxonomy, appear as ideal candidates for the application of the fast-developing tools of molecular species delimitation. Here, we apply species delimitation techniques to the moss genus Rhynchostegiella, which has long served as a convenient repository for small pleurocarpous species. Spec...
Article
Full-text available
Aim How non-dispersive taxa colonize islands is generalized as being by wind, or rafting, with the implicit assumption that such events involve one (wind) or a few (rafting) individuals. However, because of the evolutionary time-scale for colonization events, the fit of individual species to a conceptual model of wind or rafting is difficult to ass...
Article
Sexual condition has been employed as a key character within the moss family Thuidiaceae to discriminate the dioicous genera Aequatoriella and Thuidiopsis from the monoicous Pelekium. Here, we implemented phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast trnL-F region and two unicopy nuclear regions to test the monophyly of Pelekium, and hence, the taxonomi...
Article
Why some species exhibit larger geographical ranges than others, and to what extent does variation in range size affect diversification rates, remains a fundamental, but largely unanswered question in ecology and evolution. Here, we implement phylogenetic comparative analyses and ancestral area estimations in Radula, a liverwort genus of Cretaceous...
Article
The impact of Pleistocene climate changes substantially varied between tropical regions, resulting in striking differences in angiosperm species richness caused by post-glacial recolonization delays. Tropical bryophytes, which have been perceived as extremely good dispersers due to biased rates of monoecy and hence spore production, differ striking...
Article
Full-text available
Paleontological evidence and current patterns of angiosperm species richness suggest that European biota experienced more severe bottlenecks than North American ones during the last glacial maximum. How well this pattern fits other plant species is less clear. Bryophytes offer a unique opportunity to contrast the impact of the last glacial maximum...
Article
As opposed to angiosperms, moss species richness is similar among tropical regions of the world, in line with the hypothesis that tropical bryophytes are extremely good dispersers. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the pantropical moss genus Pelekium to test the hypothesis that high migration rates erase any difference in species richness amo...
Article
Full-text available
Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of...