Jair E Garcia

Jair E Garcia
Monash University (Australia) · Clayton School of Information Technology

PhD

About

79
Publications
34,138
Reads
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1,104
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - present
RMIT University
Position
  • Research Officer

Publications

Publications (79)
Preprint
The hummingbird hawkmoth ( Macroglossum stellatarum) is a diurnal, visually oriented insect that has become an important animal model for comparative studies. Hawkmoths use colour information to find and identify profitable flowers, and they are major pollinators in various regions of the world. Recent research on other flower visiting animals incl...
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As in mammals, honey bee motivation for wanting rewards is modulated by dopamine.
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A frequent question as technology improves and becomes increasingly complex, is how we enable technological solutions and models inspired by biological systems. Creating technology based on humans is challenging and costly as human brains and cognition are complex. The honeybee has emerged as a valuable comparative model which exhibits some cogniti...
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The field of bioaesthetics seeks to understand how modern humans may have first developed art appreciation and is informed by considering a broad range of fields including painting, sculpture, music and the built environment. In recent times there has been a diverse range of art and communication media representing bees, and such work is often link...
Article
The degree to which miniature-brained insects make individual adjustments in response to changing conditions remains unclear. Honey bees, Apis mellifera, are an important insect model and have been shown to make individual speed–accuracy trade-offs, but it is currently not known whether they can adjust speed–accuracy strategies to solve tasks in dy...
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Neonicotinoid pesticide use has increased around the world despite accumulating evidence of their potential detrimental sub-lethal effects on the behaviour and physiology of bees, and its contribution to the global decline in bee health. Whilst flower colour is considered as one of the most important signals for foraging honey bees, the effects of...
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Angiosperms have evolved to attract and/or deter specific pollinators. Flowers provide signals and cues such as scent, colour, size, pattern, and shape, which allow certain pollinators to more easily find and visit the same type of flower. Over evolutionary time, bees and angiosperms have co-evolved resulting in flowers being more attractive to bee...
Article
Some animals, including certain fish, beetles, spiders and Lepidoptera chrysalises, have such shiny or glossy surfaces that they appear almost mirror‐like. A compelling but unsubstantiated hypothesis is that a highly specular or mirror‐like appearance enhances survival by reflecting the surrounding environment and reducing detectability. We tested...
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Colour signalling by flowers appears to be the main plant-pollinator communication system observed across many diverse species and locations worldwide. Bees are considered one of the most important insect pollinators; however, native non-eusocial bees are often understudied compared to managed eusocial species, such as honeybees and bumblebees. Her...
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Plant‐pollinator interactions provide a natural experiment in signal evolution. Flowers are known to have evolved colour signals that maximise their ease of detection by the visual systems of important pollinators like bees. Whilst most angiosperms are bee pollinated, our understanding on how the second largest group of pollinating insects, flies,...
Article
This article comments on: Klaus Lunau, Daniela Scaccabarozzi, Larissa Willing and Kingsley Dixon, A bee’s eye view of remarkable floral colour patterns in the Southwest Australian biodiversity hotspot revealed by false colour photography’, Annals of Botany, Volume 128, Issue 7, 2 December 2021, Pages 821–824 https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcab088
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The work of the Nobel Laureate Karl von Frisch , the founder of this journal, was seminal in many ways. He established the honeybee as a key animal model for experimental behavioural studies on sensory perception, learning and memory, and first correctly interpreted its famous dance communication. Here, we report on a previously unknown letter by t...
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A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00359-021-01497-z.
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The ability of visual generalists to see and perceive displayed colour signals is essential to understanding decision making in natural environments. Whilst modelling approaches have typically considered relatively simple physiological explanations of how colour may be processed, data on key bee species reveals that colour is a complex multistage p...
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Over one third of crops are animal pollinated, with insects being the largest group. In some crops, including strawberries, fruit yield, weight, quality, aesthetics and shelf life increase with insect pollination. Many crops are protected from extreme weather in polytunnels, but the impacts of polytunnels on insects are poorly understood. Polytunne...
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There is increasing interest in developing urban design principles that incorporate good ecological management. Research on understanding the distribution and role of beneficial pollinating insects, in particular, is changing our view of the ecological value of cities. With the rapid expansion of the built environment comes a need to understand how...
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The feeling of grogginess and lack of alertness one may experience upon, and post-awakening is a physiological phenomenon termed 'sleep inertia' [1-3]. Compared to wholly awake participants, individuals experiencing sleep inertia show decrements in performance which can be reflected in significantly poorer accuracy, memory, complex decision making,...
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Caladenia fulva G.W. Carr (Tawny Spider-orchid) is a terrestrial Australian endangered orchid confined to contiguous reserves in open woodland in Victoria, Australia. Natural recruitment is poor and no confirmed pollinator has been observed in the last 30 years. Polymorphic variation in flower color complicates plans for artificial pollination, see...
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A new study finds that human collecting may have driven the evolution of background-matching camouflage in an alpine medicinal plant.
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Blue is a favored color of many humans. While blue skies and oceans are a common visual experience, this color is less frequently observed in flowers. We first review how blue has been important in human culture, and thus how our perception of blue has likely influenced the way of scientifically evaluating signals produced in nature, including appr...
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Time is a fundamental dimension of all biological events and it is often assumed that animals have the capacity to track the duration of experienced events (known as interval timing). Animals can potentially use temporal information as a cue during foraging, communication, predator avoidance, or navigation. Interval timing has been traditionally in...
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Studying flower color evolution can be challenging as it may require several different areas of expertise, ranging from botany and ecology through to understanding color sensing of insects and thus how they perceive flower signals. Whilst studies often view plant-pollinator interactions from the plant's perspective, there is growing evidence from p...
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Sleep inertia is a measurable decline in cognition some people experience upon and following awakening. However, a systematic review of the current up to date evidence of audio as a countermeasure has yet to be reported. Thus, to amend this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted this systematic review beginning with searches in three primary datab...
Article
Honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus) are known for their capacity to learn arbitrary relations between colours, odours, and even numbers. However, it is not known whether bees can use temporal signals as cueing stimuli in a similar way during symbolic delayed matching-to-sample tasks. Honey bees potentially process temporal signals during foraging...
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Plant organs including flowers and leaves typically have a variety of different micro-structures present on the epidermal surface. These structures can produce measurable optical effects with viewing angle including shifts in peak reflectance and intensity; however, these different structures can also modulate hydrophobic properties of the surfaces...
Preprint
Full-text available
Colour is an important signal that flowering plants use to attract insect pollinators like bees. Previous research in Germany has shown that nectar volume is higher for flower colours that are innately preferred by European bees, suggesting an important link between colour signals, bee preferences and floral rewards. In Australia, flower colour sig...
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The communication of research in an electronic age presents numerous opportunities to engage with the general public and/or industry that might directly benefit from new findings. The use of social media outlets typically has a narrative of better enabling connection between people, independent of distance or socioeconomic factors. Recent USA-based...
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Sleep inertia is a decline in cognition one may experience upon and following awakening. A recent study revealed that an alarm sound perceived as melodic by participants displayed a significant relationship to reports of reductions in perceived sleep inertia. This current research builds on these findings by testing the effect melody and rhythm exh...
Article
Many animals need to process numerical and quantity information in order to survive. Spontaneous quantity discrimination allows differentiation between two or more quantities without reinforcement or prior training on any numerical task. It is useful for assessing food resources, aggressive interactions, predator avoidance and prey choice. Honeybee...
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Sleep inertia is the potentially harmful decline in cognition that occurs upon and following awakening. Sound has been shown to counteract the negative symptoms of sleep inertia, with a recent study revealing that an alarm perceived as melodic by participants displayed a significant relationship to reports of reductions in perceived sleep inertia....
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Sleep inertia is a potentially dangerous reduction in human alertness and occurs 0–4 hours after waking. The type of sound people set as their alarm for waking has been shown to reduce the effects of sleep inertia, however, the elemental musical factors that underpin these waking sounds and their relationships remain unclear. The goal of this resea...
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Although bees are separated from humans by about 600 million years with a common ancestor that had only a rudimentary nervous system, they still share over 60% of our Genome. Any commonly observed learning principles between bees and humans may be consequently either basal, or may have evolved in parallel due to their efficiency. While the universa...
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In recent years honeybees have demonstrated intriguing numerical capacities, leading to the recent discovery of their ability to perform simple arithmetic by learning to add or subtract ‘one’ using symbolic representations of operators. When training an insect with a miniature brain containing less than one million neurons to understand a conceptua...
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Animals including humans, fish and honeybees have demonstrated a quantity discrimination threshold at four objects, often known as subitizing elements. Discrimination between numerosities at or above the subitizing range is considered a complex capacity. In the current study, we trained and tested two groups of bees on their ability to differentiat...
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There is currently enormous interest in how morphological and physiological responses of herbaceous plants may be affected by changing elevational gradient. Mountain regions provide an excellent opportunity to understand how closely related species may adapt to the conditions that rapidly change with elevation. We investigated the morphological and...
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The assignment of a symbolic representation to a specific numerosity is a fundamental requirement for humans solving complex mathematical calculations used in diverse applications such as algebra, accounting, physics and everyday commerce. Here we show that honeybees are able to learn to match a sign to a numerosity, or a numerosity to a sign, and...
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Innate colour preferences promote the capacity of pollinators to find flowers, although currently there is a paucity of data on how preferences apply to real flowers. The Australian sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria Sm.) has innate preferences for colours, including UV-absorbing white. Sugarbag bees are pollinators of the terrestrial orchid Cala...
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Abstract Background and Aims Pollinator-mediated interactions between plant species may affect the composition of angiosperm communities. Floral colour signals should play a role in these interactions, but the role will arise from the visual perceptions and behavioural responses of multiple pollinators. Recent advances in the visual sciences can be...
Preprint
Sleep inertia is a potentially dangerous reduction in human alertness and occurs 0-4 hours after waking. The type of sound people set as their alarm for waking has been shown to reduce the effects of sleep inertia, however, the elemental musical factors that underpin these waking sounds and their relationship remain unclear. The goal of this resear...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in flies as potentially important pollinators. Flies are known to have a complex visual system, including four spectral classes of photoreceptors that contribute to the perception of colour. Our current understanding of how colour signals are perceived by flies is based on data for the blowfly Lucilia sp., which after b...
Article
Colour variation across climatic gradients is a common ecogeographical pattern; yet there is long-standing contention over underlying causes, particularly selection for thermal benefits. We tested the evolutionary association between climate gradients and reflectance of near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which influence heat gain but are not visible...
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Many animals understand numbers at a basic level for use in essential tasks such as foraging, shoaling, and resource management. However, complex arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction, using symbols and/or labeling have only been demonstrated in a limited number of nonhuman vertebrates. We show that honeybees, with a miniature bra...
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To monitor and quantify the changes in pollinator communities over time, it is important to have robust survey techniques of insect populations. Pan traps allow for the assessment of the relative insect abundance in an environment and have been promoted by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) as an efficient data collection methodology. It...
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Orchids are a classic angiosperm model for understanding biotic pollination. We studied orchid species within two species‐rich herbaceous communities that are known to have either hymenopteran or dipteran insects as the dominant pollinators, in order to understand how flower colour relates to pollinator visual systems. We analysed features of the f...
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Plant-pollinator interactions have a fundamental influence on flower evolution. Flower colour signals are frequently tuned to the visual capabilities of important pollinators such as either bees or birds, but far less is known about whether flower shape influences the choices of pollinators. We tested European honeybee (Apis mellifera) preferences...
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Angle dependent colours, such as iridescence, are produced by structures present on flower petals changing their visual appearance. These colours have been proposed to act as signals for plant-insect communication. However, there is a paucity of behavioural data to allow for interpretations of how to classify these colours either as a signal or a c...
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Color discrimination thresholds proposed by receptor-noise type models are frequently used in animal vision studies to predict a precise limit on the capacity of an animal to discriminate between stimuli. Honeybees and bumblebees are 2 closely related hymenopteran species for which precise data on photoreceptor sensitivities and receptor noise exis...
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Honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758) potentially rely on a variety of visual cues when searching for flowers in the environment. Both chromatic and achromatic (brightness) components of flower signals have typically been considered simultaneously to understand how flower colours have evolved. However, it is unclear whether honey bees actually...
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Climate change has the potential to enhance or disrupt biological systems, but currently, little is known about how organism plasticity may facilitate adaptation to localised climate variation. The bee-flower relationship is an exemplar signal-receiver system that may provide important insights into the complexity of ecological interactions in situ...
Data
Supporting_File_S1_RAW_DATA. Raw data of Flower temperature measurement is in .csv format. Details of each file provided in README file. (ZIP)
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Full-text available
Some vertebrates demonstrate complex numerosity concepts-including addition, sequential ordering of numbers, or even the concept of zero-but whether an insect can develop an understanding for such concepts remains unknown. We trained individual honey bees to the numerical concepts of "greater than" or "less than" using stimuli containing one to six...
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Thermal imaging has been a mainstay of military applications and diagnostic engineering. However, there is currently no formalised procedure for the use of thermal imaging capable of standing up to judicial scrutiny. Using a scientifically sound characterisation method, we describe the cooling function of three common shoe types at an ambient room...
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Most of our current understanding on colour discrimination by animal observers is built on models. These typically set strict limits on the capacity of an animal to discriminate between colour stimuli imposed by physiological characteristics of the visual system and different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms of colour processing by the b...
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This article explores the use of mobile eye tracking to provide insights on the dynamics of haptic (touch/sense) and visual experience. We created a digital cultural walking trail (TRACES), designing an app to explore user experiences of their environment, and as a way to reveal the multilayered interactions between places and technology. Using mob...
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How different visual systems process images and make perceptual errors can inform us about cognitive and visual processes. One of the strongest geometric errors in perception is a misperception of size depending on the size of surrounding objects, known as the Ebbinghaus or Titchener illusion. The ability to perceive the Ebbinghaus illusion appears...
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The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabiliti...
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How can a pollinator, like the honey bee, perceive the same colors on visited flowers, despite continuous and rapid changes in ambient illumination and background color? A hundred years ago, von Kries proposed an elegant solution to this problem, color constancy, which is currently incorporated in many imaging and technological applications. Howeve...