Jaime Silva

Jaime Silva
University of Desarrollo | UDD · School of Psychology

PhD

About

97
Publications
108,911
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,753
Citations
Citations since 2017
23 Research Items
997 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
Introduction
Jaime Silva currently works at the School of Psychology, University of Desarrollo. Jaime does research in Abnormal Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Emotion.
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - present
University of Desarrollo
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 2007 - April 2015
Universidad de La Frontera
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
The two-polarities model of personality argues that experience is organized around two axes: interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. Differential emphasis on one of these poles defines adaptive and pathological experiences, generating anaclitic or introjective tendencies. The anaclitic pattern, on one hand, has been conceptually related with...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that the eating patterns that restrain chronic dieters (restrained eaters) can be disinhibited by anxiety, which in turn has been associated with relative right frontal brain activity in independent electroencephalographic (EEG) studies. Combining these two lines of evidence, the authors tested the hypothesis that chronic restraine...
Article
Full-text available
Modulation of frontal lobes activity is believed to be an important pathway trough which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response impacts cognitive and emotional functioning. Here, we investigate the effects of stress on metacognition, which is the ability to monitor and control one's own cognition. As the frontal lobes have be...
Article
Full-text available
Overweight and obesity are medical conditions that require a multidisciplinary analysis of their causes and treatment. In Chile a sustained increase in the presence of obesity and excess weight has been observed in children. However, the amount and the dynamics of the aforementioned problematic eating behaviours in Chilean children are unknown. The...
Article
Eating disorders (ED) are a heterogeneous group of problems related to restraint and/or overeating. It is proposed that individual differences in affective reactivity and moods (affective style) might be related to these behaviours. Variations in affective style are expressed by differing levels of sensitivity to the motivation systems of approach...
Article
Full-text available
The pandemic outbreak in March 2020 and its associated sanitary regulations and restrictions triggered an abrupt and significant change for society in general and for families’ organization in particular. In Chile, the Santiago Metropolitan District was under a strict lockdown that involved the closure of the entire educational system. From a syste...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: COVID-19 sanitary measures (social distancing, school closures) have deeply impacted social life, support networks, and their protective role in mental health. The present study aims to understand how attachment styles influence the way individuals experience social support. Particularly, investigating its moderating role in the relatio...
Chapter
En este capítulo analiza la evidencia que demuestra el sesgo “social” de la organización funcional del cerebro. En este marco, se describen cómo los factores de desarrollo cerebral constituyen el andamiaje sobre los cuales se va delineando la experiencia humana y su permeabilidad al entorno interpersonal. Asimismo, la organización anatómica y funci...
Book
Full-text available
El objetivo de este libro es analizar desde distintas ópticas cómo los vínculos afectivos y la parentalidad se constituyen en el eje organizador del desarrollo humano. Está estructurado temáticamente en dos partes y aborda los tópicos actuales y emergentes en el ámbito de la teoría del apego, enfatizando la investigación científica y las implicanci...
Article
Full-text available
Preliminary evidence suggests that people and scholars of African and/or Latin American and Caribbean origin are often under-represented in mainstream attachment scholarship. In this commentary, we highlight the difficulty of conducting attachment theory research outside of the United States, particularly in Latin American countries. We reflect on...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Context • Research in the contemplative field has focused on trainable capacities that foster self-regulation and integration. From a psychological perspective, mindfulness and personality research has largely grown with a categorical approach that explores the relationship between personality traits and mindfulness skills in clinical contexts. >...
Article
Full-text available
Selective attention depends on goal-directed and stimulus-driven modulatory factors, each relayed by different brain rhythms. Under certain circumstances, stress-related states can change the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-driven factors. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. In this study, we explore...
Article
The aims of this study were to identify profiles of women based on their levels of emotional, external and restraint eating, and to determine differences in these eating styles profiles based on nutritional status, sociodemographic characteristics, stress, social support, and satisfaction with the body image. Questionnaires were administered to 884...
Chapter
Traditionally, affective disorders have been associated with alterations in the functional dynamics and/or anatomy of the brain systems of stress and reward. The physiological segregation of the response to aversive and positive stimuli has been expressed in the differentiation of patients at different levels: physiological, behavioral, subjective,...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that acute stress produces negative effects on high level cognitive functions. However, these effects could be due to the physiological components of the stress response (among which cortisol secretion is prominent), to its psychological concomitants (the thoughts generated by the stressor) or to any combination of those. Our...
Article
Full-text available
Reaction to stressful events has an impact on several cognitive processes. High levels of stress can be detrimental to working memory, attention and decision-making. Here, we investigated whether individuals’ reactivity to stress is related to their introspective sensitivity (i.e., how well individuals monitor their own cognitive processes). To thi...
Article
We evaluated the factor structure, reliability, and discriminative capacity of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) questionnaire in four different samples: two general adult populations (N = 1,548, N = 964), one adolescent population (N = 1,044), and young people with depressive symptomatology (N = 307). Exploratory factor analyses (E...
Article
Full-text available
Mapuche represents the largest indigenous group in Chile amounting to nearly 10% of the total population. In a longitudinal cohort of 12,398 children, we analyzed the role of ethnicity in physical and psychosocial development of Mapuche and nonindigenous Chilean toddlers (age 2.5 years), taking into account sociodemographic and caregiver characteri...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research in psychiatric genetics has led to a move away from simple diathesis-stress models to more complex models of psychopathology incorporating a focus on gene–environment interactions and epigenetics. Our increased understanding of the way biology encodes the impact of life events on organisms has also generated more sophisticated theor...
Article
Full-text available
A broad line of research has conceptualized personality based on the interaction of two aspects: interpersonal relatedness and self-definition. This theoretical corpus understands these functions as two poles according to the patterns of interaction and relevance in personality. Additionally, the exacerbation of one of these poles generates a psych...
Preprint
Acute psychosocial stress is associated with physiological, subjective and cognitive changes. In particular, attention, which is considered one of the main processes driving cognition, has been related to different stress outcomes, such as anxiety, cortisol levels and autonomic responses, individually. Nonetheless, their specific contributions to a...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the potential role of gene–environment interactions (GxE) in explaining vulnerability to psychopathology in humans has witnessed a shift from a diathesis-stress perspective to differential susceptibility approaches. This paper critically reviews method-ological issues and trends in this body of research. Databases were screened for stud...
Article
Full-text available
Using a cross-sectional non-experimental design, the mediating role of (positive and negative) affects was assessed in the relation between optimism and well-being (subjective and psychological). A total of 421 people aged between 18 and 60 years with no diagnosed mental pathology participated in this study. Each participant responded to a set of q...
Article
Full-text available
The SF-12 is one of the most used questionnaires to evaluate the multidimensional health related quality of life, worldwide. However, the factor structure does not match the structure of the original instrument. Besides, most studies centered in the physical dimension paying less attention to mental health related quality of life. To evaluate the p...
Article
The Chilean government commissioned a quasi-experimental study with a pre-/postintervention design that had two general aims: (a) to assess infants' psychoaffective developmental levels (pre-intervention phase) and (b) to evaluate whether an intervention based on the promotion of socioemotional development modifies the infant's psychoaffective deve...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Durante el año 2012 se resolvieron los concursos FONDECYT regular 2013 y de Iniciación a la investigación 2012. En el concurso de Iniciación a la Investigación, se presentaron 550 proyectos, de los cuales fueron aprobaron 293. De estos, 7 corresponden a Psicología (de un total de 15 proyectos postulados), por un valor de 299.125 millones de...
Article
Full-text available
The early break in maternal bonding and social isolation are variables involved with social and emotional behaviors and also with increased anxiety, especially in stressful situations. However, there is no research to explain the morphological changes of the adrenal gland (GSR). Therefore, our objective was to experimentally study through alteratio...
Article
Full-text available
The early break in maternal bonding and social isolation are variables involved with social and emotional behaviors and also with increased anxiety, especially in stressful situations. However, there is no research to explain the morphological changes of the adrenal gland (GSR). Therefore, our objective was to experimentally study through alteratio...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Caring for a person with dementia is associated with well-documented increases in burden and distress and decreases in mental health and wellbeing. Studies assessing burden in caregivers of patients with dementia and its determinants are scarce in Latin America. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the extent and...
Article
Full-text available
La escala de bienestar psicológico surge a partir del modelo multidimensional propuesto por Ryff (1989). Pese a su amplia utilización, su estructura teórica inicial no ha sido confirmada completamente, debido a que se han encontrado otro tipo de soluciones factoriales distintas a las 6 dimensiones propuestas por la autora. Estas divergencias podría...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a self-administered low cost psychometric instrument with excellent levels of temporal reliability and validity. Aim: To adapt and validate the EDDS in Chile. Material and methods: The factorial structure, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Spanish-language versio...
Article
Full-text available
The scale of psychological well-being arises from the multidimensional model proposed by Ryff (1989). Despite its wide use, its initial theoretical structure has not been completely confirmed because other factorial solutions which are different from those 6 dimensions proposed by the author have been found. These differences may be related to the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a self-administered low cost psychometric instrument with excellent levels of temporal reliability and validity. Aim: To adapt and validate the EDDS in Chile. Material and Methods: The factorial structure, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Spanish-language version of...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), in the adult population from ages 18 to 65. In order to do this two studies were conducted. In the first one, we evaluated the internal consistency and construct validation of data from 330 people between 18 and 52 years of age; in t...
Article
Full-text available
Research into the psychological resources that benefit health and well-being have increased dramatically in recent years. The latest data from highly rigorous and controlled studies show some of the benefits that produce positive states and affects, as well as optimism and well-being, among other positive states in physical and psychological health...
Article
Full-text available
Research into the psychological resources that benefit health and well-being have increased dramatically in recent years. The latest data from highly rigorous and controlled studies show some of the benefits that produce positive states and affects, as well as optimism and well-being, among other positive states in physical and psychological health...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age and gender effects were quite similar across societie...
Article
Full-text available
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by an onset in early life. More than 65% of patients persist with manifestations of ADHD in adulthood. These symptoms may interfere in activities of daily-living, interpersonal relationships and professional and academic achievement. Nevertheless, the observation o...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), in the adult population from ages 18 to 65. In order to do this two studies were conducted. In the first one, we evaluated the internal consistency and construct validation of data from 330 people between 18 and 52 years of age; in t...
Article
Full-text available
Attention Defi cit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by an onset in early life. More than 65% of patients persist with manifestations of ADHD in adulthood. These symptoms may interfere in activities of daily-living, interpersonal relationships and professional and academic achievement. Nevertheless, the observation...
Article
Full-text available
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang, Ohman, & Vaitl, 1988) is a standardized set of photographs to induce emotions in the context of experimental investigations. The aim of this study was determine the psychometric behavior of the IAPS for the preparation of standards in the Chilean population and the subsequent validation of th...
Article
Full-text available
The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) (Lang, Ohman, & Vaitl, 1988) is a standardized set of photographs to induce emotions in the context of experimental investigations. The aim of this study was determine the psychometric behavior of the IAPS for the preparation of standards in the Chilean population and the subsequent validation of th...
Article
Full-text available
Restrained eaters show a paradoxical alimentary pattern: while usually restricts food consumption, under certain situation they overeat. This patter has been explained as a result of cognitive strategy to control stressful situation. The affective neuroscience perspective, developed by Silva, suggests that this observation occurs in affective vulne...
Article
Restrained eaters (RE) are a group of individuals who constantly restrict their eating. However, they usually alternate restriction with periods of overeating. To evaluate the possible association of CRF-BP and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms with chronic alimentary restriction. The Spanish version of the Revised Restraint Scale was applied to 132 women...
Article
Restrained eaters (RE) typically display a recurrent pattern of restraint/overeating. This fluctuating behavior has recently been connected to mood and the affective style in general. In this context, it is argued that RE may be sensitive to stress. Nevertheless, there is no substantial evidence demonstrating that RE present behavioral or psychophy...
Article
Full-text available
CRF-BP and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms among restrained eaters Background: Restrained eaters (RE) are a group of individuals who cons-tantly restrict their eating. However, they usually alternate restriction with periods of overeating. Aim: To evaluate the possible association of CRF-BP and SLC6A4 gene polymorphisms with chronic alimentary restrictio...
Article
Full-text available
Caregivers and teachers from 14 societies rated 9,389 1.5 to 5-year-olds on the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). General population samples were obtained in Asia, the Middle East, Eastern, Northern, Central, Western, and Southern Europe, and South America. The 2-level 6-syndrome C-TRF model derived on a mostly U.S....
Article
Full-text available
International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½–5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–oriented scales; a Stress Problems scale; a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method: Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5–5 (CBCL/1.5–5). Confirmatory...
Article
Full-text available
To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (CBCL/1.5-5). Confirmatory factor analyses wer...
Article
Full-text available
La escala de restricción revisada (ER) es un instrumento psicométrico para medir restricción alimentaria crónica. Objetivo: Obtener la fiabilidad y estructura factorial de la versión en español de la ER en una muestra de adolescentes. Materiales y método: 838 adolescentes (15,5 años) completaron el instrumento. Se realizó un análisis factorial expl...
Article
Full-text available
The revised restraint scale (RS) it is a psychometric instrument for measuring chronic alimentary restraint. Aim: To obtain reliability measures and factorial structure of a Spanish RS version in an adolescent sample. Materials and Methods: 838 adolescents female students (15.48 y.) completed the instrument. An exploratory (i.e. principals componen...
Article
Full-text available
The revised restraint scale (RS) it's a psychometric instrument for measuring chronic alimentary restraint. Aim: To obtain reliability measures and factorial structure of a Spanish RS version. Subjects and methods: 640 female undergraduate students completed the instrument. An exploratory factorial analysis (Le. principal components, with an obliqu...
Article
Full-text available
The neuroscientific approach to the emotion has been termed affective neuroscience. This multidisciplinary approach has emerged as an influential source of data and theory for the basic, clinical and applied sciences. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis over the scientific production in the affective neuroscience field. As...
Article
Full-text available
El Dr. Fernando Oyarzún es Maestro de la Psiquiatría Chilena y ha dedicado su carrera académica al desarrollo de un enfoque clínico-antropológico en psiquiatría. Desde su perspectiva elaboró una "idea médica de la persona', la que promueve la personalización del acto médico en psiquiatría y medicina. Método: En una entrevista personal este trabajo...
Article
Full-text available
The neuro-scientific study of moral actions and judgments is particularly relevant to medicine, especially when assessing behavior disorders secondary to brain diseases. In this paper, moral behavior is reviewed from an evolutionary and neuro-scientific perspective. We discuss the role of emotions in moral decisions, the role of brain development i...
Article
Full-text available
The neuro-scientific study of moral actions and judgments is particularly relevant to medicine, especially when assessing behavior disorders secondary to brain diseases. In this paper, moral behavior is reviewed from an evolutionary and neuroscientific perspective. We discuss the role of emotions in moral decisions, the role of brain development in...
Article
“Few subjects in neurology have been associated with as much and paradox as the behavioral afflictions of the prefrontal cortex” (Marsel Mesulam, 2002). The case of Phineas Gage, the first well-described patient with a prefrontal lesion, revealed that this sort of lesion could cause severe trouble in everyday life and a profound disturbance of pers...
Article
Some subjects may overeat when they experience anxiety even if they chronically restrict their food consumption. This contradictory behavior is a dysfunctional emotional regulation mechanism, which promotes the development of obesity and eating disorders. We review studies from a research program where alimentary restriction and overeating are conc...
Article
Full-text available
Some subjects may overeat when they experience anxiety even if they chronically restrict their food consumption. This contradictory behavior is a dysfunctional emotional regulation mechanism, which promotes the development of obesity and eating disorders. We review studies from a research program where alimentary restriction and overeating are conc...
Article
Full-text available
Los dietantes crónicos (DC) o comedores emocionales presentan un patrón de restricción-sobrealimentación característico. Usualmente, los estados emocionales negativos, especialmente la ansiedad, favorecen la aparición de estas conductas alternantes. En este artículo se revisa un programa de investigación emergente en neurociencia afectiva, bajo el...
Article
Restrained eaters (RE) or emotional eaters show a prototypical restriction-overeating pattern. Usually, negative emotional states, particularly anxiety, induce the emergence of these alternating behaviors. In this paper, it is reviewed an emergent affective-neuroscience-based research program, under which it is assumed that vulnerable affective sty...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in personal identity have been described as a major component in the expression of schizophrenia. Considering current evidence that relates the cortical structures of the medial line with the self, we hypothesize that there are differences in the frontomedial electrophysiological activation in schizophrenics when compared to normal subjects...
Article
Changes in personal identity have been described as a major component in the expression of schizophrenia. Considering current evidence that relates the cortical structures of the medial line with the self, we hypothesize that there are differences in the frontomedial electrophysiological activation in schizophrenics when compared to normal subjects...
Article
Bajo estrés la restricción alimenticia crónica usualmente alterna con episodios de sobrealimentación. Los dietantes crónicos (DC), son especialmente propensos a presentar ese patrón paradójico. Este artículo revisa la evidencia conductual, afectiva, metabólica y endocrina relacionada con tal condición. Los estudios de laboratorio y campo han revela...
Article
There is no consensus about the definition of self however it is traditionally associated to identity. Many researchers are searching the neural regions that process self related information. Some studies have observed an activation of midline structures during the processing of information related to self. Self perturbations are not a part of diag...
Article
Full-text available
There is no consensus about the definition of self however it is traditionally associated to identity. Many researchers are searching the neural regions that process self related information. Some studies have observed an activation of midline structures during the processing of information related to self. Self perturbations are not a part of diag...