Jaeyeon Choe

Jaeyeon Choe
Swansea University | SWAN · School of Business and Economics

PhD in Tourism and Cultural Anthropology

About

86
Publications
19,366
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213
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Jaeyeon Choe obtained her PhD in Tourism Management with a minor in Cultural Anthropology from The Pennsylvania State University. Her research areas revolve around wellness/spiritual tourism, pilgrimage, sustainable community development & the wellbeing of marginalised communities. She is currently leading a project, 'Tourism for SDGs: Wellness Tourism and Sustainable Development in Indonesia'. With a passion of knowledge co-production, she actively works with the ASEAN academic communities.

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
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Meditation has been shown to be a cost-effective means to help individuals reduce stress, alleviate anxiety and depression. Similarly, leisure has been found to reduce stress, improve mood and contribute to overall health and well-being. The similarities and differences in outcomes between meditation and leisure suggest that a comparative analysis...
Article
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While dominant discourses, media representations and corporate entities in China downplay the presence of Chinese mainland gambling in Macau, Beijing sanctions millions of its citizens to make the journey to Macau to gamble each year. This study explores Chinese gambling tourist’s movements, rituals and behaviours along post-structuralist lines, so...
Article
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The papers in this special issue, Geographies of Religion and Spirituality: Pilgrimage beyond the ‘Officially Sacred,’ are placed in the context of a comprehensive theoretical overview of the role that the sacred plays in shaping, conducting, controlling, and contesting pilgrimage. As scholarship examining the lived experiences of travelers has dem...
Article
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From books to movies, the media is now flush with spiritual and wellness tourist-related images, films, and fiction (which are primarily produced in the West) about Southeast Asia. Combined with the positive effects of spiritual practices, greater numbers of tourists are travelling to Southeast Asia for mindfulness, yoga, and other spiritual pursui...
Article
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While tourism scholars have sought to problematize the unevenly distributed impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, we know much less about how resilience is cultivated among tourism practitioners and communities whose lives and livelihoods are have been placed in limbo. Drawing on literature at the intersection of critical tourism studies and resilience...
Article
While changes in society continue to inform understandings of what leisure is and how it manifests itself, the emergence of Chinese outbound tourists, with specific motivations, travel styles and interests, are having powerful impacts on multiple host destinations. While university campuses have long been marked as visitor attractions in China, thi...
Chapter
A ‘one month stay’ abroad has become a sustained and growing micro-niche for South Koreans across generations and backgrounds, as disdain for social conventions based on Confucian values leads to greater demand for more individual choices, escape from social conventions, and work-life balance. This chapter explores the socio-demographic profile and...
Article
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Vietnam has achieved enormous economic growth after a series of reforms in the 1980’s, leading to foreign direct investment and the development of the tourism sector. A tourism industry emerged and has burgeoned with the increase of inbound international tourists. In this introductory paper, we critically discuss the three pillars of sustainable de...
Article
From visiting the ghats in Varanasi to walking the Camino de Santiago, travelling can be a deeply spiritual experience. See the full text here: https://theconversation.com/five-spiritual-tourism-destinations-and-how-to-experience-them-178372
Article
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When the linguistic innovation and phrase overtourism was used in an online news report to describe excessive tourism in Iceland in 2016, legacy and social media soon following with in-depth articles and visual representations of perceived excessive tourism in other locations around the world. Given the growing calls for action on overtourism, this...
Article
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In practice, the distinctions between tourism and migration are blurred. Tourism often drives various forms of mobility, and an international workforce is central to maintaining functioning tourism economies. This piece sketches out some critical themes and issues concerning intersections of tourism and migration, considering their relationships wi...
Article
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Purpose As tourism destinations grapple with declines in tourist arrivals due to COVID-19 measures, scholarly debate on overtourism remains active, with discussions on solutions that could be enacted to contain the excessive regrowth of tourism and the return of “overtourism”. As social science holds an important role and responsibility to inform t...
Article
"Why you might want to consider a pilgrimage for your next holiday or day trip" in Conversation UK: https://theconversation.com/why-you-might-want-to-consider-a-pilgrimage-for-your-next-holiday-or-day-trip-174208?fbclid=IwAR3cshoy7WqoXxQDYxES9KsWjSSof0A9BI4ysiT8tEH5vAqFjAPkVqq4fzo
Presentation
Tea Time Chat Series -15: Pilgrimage Tourism in Wales during the Pandemic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOxMhgZlPWY&t=1901s
Presentation
Tea Time Chat Series -14: Global consciousness and planetary well-being with Prof. Alan Lew: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZ5ljDtKMR4&t=207s
Technical Report
See the link for the full text: https://asiatravelreset.substack.com/p/asia-pacific-travel-and-tourism-report-aa6
Article
See the link for the full text: https://medium.com/tourism-geographic/these-are-novembers-most-important-travel-news-stories-in-the-asia-pacific-57d4d9c33906
Presentation
Tea Time Chat Series - 13: Study Abroad and the Quest for an Anti-Tourism Experience: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIt-SBTzrig&t=1752s
Presentation
Tea Time Chat Series - 12 with Dr. Anne Bailey: Pilgrimage during COVID-19 and Post Pandemic Time: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ik_l4OYvh3g&t=141s
Technical Report
Full-text available
See the link for the full text: https://bit.ly/3GHAdpK
Presentation
Tea Time Chat Series - 11: Wellness Domestic Tourism in Vietnam with Mr Hylton Lipkin at Alba: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=um-pHvzyRNs&t=1517s
Technical Report
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See the full text in the link: https://asiatravelreset.substack.com/p/asia-pacific-travel-and-tourism-report-a37?justPublished=true
Article
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While the quality of life (QoL) concept in tourism research has gained momentum, scholarly work has focused on host QoL and tourist-host relations, rather than exploring and analysing the perception, interpretation and understanding of QoL among different social groups in a given tourist destination. Macao is a densely populated tourism destination...
Presentation
Will pilgrimage be the most popular form of tourism in the post COVID-19 period? Prof. Heather WARFIELD, Ph.D. in the US has an answer! :) I had the privilege interviewing Prof. Warfield on her insights on the following questions: -How/why did you start studying Pilgrimage, and what do you primarily teach and research? -What has been the most...
Technical Report
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This month's hot topics range from China’s upcoming Golden Week to the Asia vs Europe travel disparity and a Thailand-South Korea travel bubble. See the full text here: https://asiatravelreset.substack.com/p/asia-pacific-travel-and-tourism-report-66b
Technical Report
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July Issue's featured destinations include Bhutan, Japan, Maldives, Niue, Philippines, Saipan, South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam. Hot topics range from Gastro-Diplomacy to Vaccine Mixing to Romantic Camping. See the full text here: https://asiatravelreset.substack.com/p/asia-pacific-travel-and-tourism-report?r=jepx8&utm_campaign=post&utm_medium...
Chapter
Buddhist heritage is a major tourism resource in Asia. The historical spread of Buddhism across the Asian subcontinent over two millenniums has created a kaleidoscopic mosaic of tangible and intangible heritage related to Buddha, Buddhist religious practices, and teachings. Some of these are iconic and monumental as they were patronised by ancient...
Presentation
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While most Asian borders remain locked, South Koreans are heading off on summer holidays to European destinations. They are also booking ahead for Lunar New Year 2022. So what are the reasons behind this unexpected renaissance in one of Asia’s largest outbound travel markets? This week, Gary Bowerman and Hannah Pearson welcome Jaeyeon Choe O' Rega...
Article
See the full text here: https://blog.geographydirections.com/2021/06/28/the-pandemics-silver-linings-for-post-covid-tourism-recovery-in-asia/?fbclid=IwAR32ZmWCxjzm6jA2G4_m3LdFXsvqtXEbYYXm57e-s7FWaZNjWGoGaRmkqUw
Technical Report
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The June Issue of the "Asia Pacific Travel & Tourism Report" -15 top stories of this month: 1) Is Phuket’s ‘Sandbox’ A Model to Follow? 2) EU-ASEAN Air Transport Agreement: Who Wins? 3) South Koreans Head to Europe For Summer 4) Cook Islands Seeks Tourism Recovery 5) Don’t Pack for Bali Just Yet! 6) Does South Korea Need 10 LCCs? 7) Multilateral R...
Presentation
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The Asia Pacific Centre for Hospitality Research (APCHR) of the School of Hospitality and Service Management (SHSM) will be hosting its 4th Research Seminar Series of the year this coming 11 June! The details of the event are as follows: Date : 11 June 2021 (Friday) Time : 2.30pm-3.30pm (MYT) Platform : Zoom Dr Jaeyeon Choe O' Regan, PhD will pres...
Technical Report
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In the May Issue, featured destinations include Brunei, Cambodia, China, Guam, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea and Vietnam. Hot topics range from vaccine, sports and rural tourism to IP rights in tourism, the “legal fiction” of overseas travel and a new airline targeting Millennials. See the full report here: https://asiatravelreset.subs...
Article
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In April, 2 travel bubbles took off, but 2 more were punctured. Other hot topics range from vaccine export bans, domestic airline innovations and a QR code travel currency to tourism target setting, business air travel and a VFR bubble. Countries featured in Issue 2 include Australia, Bali, China, Malaysia, Maldives, Russia, Sri Lanka, Thailand an...
Article
Full-text available
See the full text here: https://asiatravelreset.substack.com/p/asia-travel-reset-34-asia-pacific
Article
THE EFFECTS of COVID-19 vaccination programmes have led to a glimmer of hope that some of the things we used to enjoy may soon be part of our lives once again. High on many people’s priority lists will be foreign travel. In the UK, the official declaration of a “roadmap” to normality was quickly followed by a surge in online bookings for flights an...
Article
The effects of COVID-19 vaccination programmes have led to a glimmer of hope that some of the things we used to enjoy may soon be part of our lives once again. High on many people’s priority lists will be foreign travel. In the UK, the official declaration of a “roadmap” to normality was quickly followed by a surge in online bookings for flights a...
Poster
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Southeast Asia has seen rapid growth in tourism development. According to the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC), the tourism sector directly contributing 119.7 billion USD to the South East Asian economy in 2016, whilst Bangkok was the world’s most-visited city in 2018, hosting more than 22 million international tourists. As tourism becomes a...
Poster
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Despite the importance of tourism in the region, there is a dearth of research in South East Asia tourism, especially by ‘local’ scholars. More accurately, there is a lack of published work by local scholars in the mainstream and English language tourism literature. Tourism scholarship remains highly Anglo-Western-centric (Tucker & Hayes, 2019), wi...
Article
It is almost close to one calendar year since news of COVD-19 emerged, and since then words lockdown, pandemic and social distancing are household names. The word anthropause, in particular, has been used to describe the reduction in human mobility. When applied to the context of South Korea, we can see the country only welcomed 29,425 internationa...
Article
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Despite increasing scholarly attention on the environmental impacts of tourism, there has been little research on the environmental impacts of religious tourism and pilgrimage. As the oldest form of tourism, millions of people continue to travel to sacred places across the globe each year. In addition, despite the continuous growth of religious fes...
Article
Dr. Jaeyeon Choe identifies fast-growing niches of Korean travellers during the pandemic which can potentially constitute a very lucrative market for tourism businesses and local economies in Southeast Asia as lockdowns ease. See the link for the full article: https://www.traveldailynews.asia/targeting-south-korean-tourists-after-the-pandemic-know-...
Article
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Southeast Asian countries have been particularly cautious in opening their borders to international travelers amid the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and international tourism has collapsed as a result. The economic and social consequences have been severe. In Thailand, for example—where tourism contributed close to 18% of gross domestic...
Presentation
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgLnPXfO9gM&fbclid=IwAR02BgzvC-Mmg5qrpSYv_RQ7_SejytiWYb9WX4jYpdrOCKMSNGaLsMAu1BY
Presentation
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I had the privilege chatting with the editors of a new book, "Religious Tourism and the Environment" by Kiran Shinde and Daniel Olsen! This book has unique contributions as it opens up examples, case studies and discussions on the nexus between religious tourism and the environment. Massive thanks to the editors and contributors for the very nice c...
Presentation
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My new blog post on "Vietnam's Domestic Tourism," based on a recent webinar has been published in the "Tourism in Times of Pandemic" Series at the Anthropology of Tourism Interest Group of the American Anthropological Association Web Content. Please see the link: http://atig.americananthro.org/vietnams-domestic-tourism/
Article
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Utilizing 14 semi-structured interviews in a non-western context, this exploratory study examines how Filipino migrant workers’ leisure satisfaction and QoL are intertwined in Macao, China. The study reveals that Filipino migrant workers regard ‘family and friends,’ and a sense of community as central to their QoL. Regarding leisure, the Filipino m...
Presentation
https://meaningfuljourneyspodcast.podbean.com/e/pilgrimage-beyond-the-officially-sacred/
Presentation
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Reporting on a recent webinar, our new blog story, "SOUTHEAST ASIA TOURISM, COVID-19 AND SILVER LININGS" at the Anthropology of Tourism Interest Group of the American Anthropological Association, has been published. We explore a few of the ‘silver linings’ of the impact COVID-19 on tourism in Southeast Asia. See the following the link: http://atig....
Presentation
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Please watch our conversation via the below link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xTH6mEeTik&t=28s
Presentation
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I was invited as a panellist to the Tourism Recovery through Travel Bubbles webinar organised by the Asian Development Bank. The tourism sector is one of the hardest hit sectors by the COVID-19 pandemic. Millions of jobs in tourism and related industries have already been lost, threatening the livelihoods of countless households in the region. The...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has raised public awareness of the many dimensions of wellness. Following the World Health Organization, wellness may be understood as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Wellness may also be understood as an orientation toward optimising one’s health...
Article
COVID-19 has hit tourism-reliant destinations hard. The Indonesian island of Bali, for example, where 70% of the population depend on tourism, has seen extensive job and income losses since it closed its borders in April. The economic impact so far has been greater than that of the Bali bombings of 2002, with losses of around 9.7 trillion rupiah (a...
Presentation
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We had a very fruitful and dynamic conversation on positive future opportunities for Southeast Asia tourism, besides negative and devastating economic impacts of COVID-19. The conversation revolved around key questions: -Besides negative impacts on the economy, what would be the emerging opportunities for local tourism businesses in Southeast Asia...
Presentation
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We had a fruitful session on wellness and spiritual tourism in a post covid-19 world, addressing various key issues from very diverse perspectives. Whilst wellness has become ever more important for everyone during this time, it's interesting to think about wellness tourism in the COVID context. The conversation revolved around key questions: Wha...
Presentation
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Covid-19 has hit tourism-reliant destinations hard. Bali for example, has had few inbound international tourists since February 2020, leading to record job and income losses for those who work in the tourism and hospitality sector. The Indonesian Tourist Industry Association reported that there was a 93 percent decline of foreign tourist arrivals i...
Book
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Pilgrimage beyond the Officially Sacred: Understanding the Geographies of Religion and Spirituality in Sacred Travel examines the many ways in which pilgrimage engages with sacredness, delving beyond the officially recognized, and often religiously conceived, pilgrimage sites. As scholarship examining the lived experiences of pilgrims and tourists...
Article
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Food can be considered a substance that brings people together through its material and sensuous qualities, through affecting shared memories of people and place, and through traditions of hospitality. It is a human necessity with multiple levels of communal understanding, and conviviality. Currently, much of the UK faces the fragmentation of commu...
Conference Paper
Authors: Jaeyeon Choe (Bournemouth University, UK); Mahyuni Seputra (Udiknas University, Indonesia); Ni Made Eka Mahadewi (Bali Tourism Institute, Indonesia) Abstract: The United Nations emphasises poverty alleviation and sustainable communities as part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In Southeast Asia, tourism has been seen to allevi...
Article
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Article
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The nature of Chinese consumption has evolved rapidly since the post-80s middle class adopted new lifestyles and consumption choices after the opening up of the economy and society. This study explores the logics underpinning conspicuous consumption of wine in China by way of an exploratory factor analysis of 253 respondents at a wine festival. The...
Article
Couchsurfing (CS) was founded in 2003 as a non-profit for those interested in creating a common resource for world-wide hospitality exchange and low cost tourism. Built around a non-market communal sharing model, it became a for-profit in August 2011. Applying a discourse relational model approach, this study characterizes how competing discursive...
Article
Full-text available
The nature of Chinese consumption has evolved rapidly since the post-80s middle class adopted new lifestyles and consumption choices after the opening up of the economy and society. This study explores the logics underpinning conspicuous consumption of wine in China by way of an exploratory factor analysis of 253 respondents at a wine festival. The...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores festivalscape factors at an international wine and dine festival in Macau, a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China. The main goal of this study is to assess satisfaction with various festivalscape factors and identify the relations between the festivalscape construct and behavioral intention. The...
Conference Paper
The UK, like many western liberal democracies, currently faces the fragmentation of communities based on different political views, some of which relate directly to immigration and refugees. Migrant populations often experience their leisure worlds as fragmented as a consequence of displacement. This paper explores a series of multicultural lunches...
Chapter
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Through a combination of theoretical and case-study chapters, this volume focuses on religious routes and trails in terms of their spiritual, cultural and economic meanings, and considers the opportunities and challenges arising from their recent increase in popularity. The book is divided into three sections. Part I (chapters 1-5) deals with conce...
Book
Established in 2013 the Women’s Academic Network (WAN) at Bournemouth University is a non-corporate, collegial nexus of women academics and female postgraduate researchers drawn from across the four Faculties. The aim of WAN is to act as a support group, while promoting the profiles of women scholars and lobbying on a range of institutional barrier...
Article
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Wine festival research has primarily focused on tourism potential and economic impact in Western wine destinations, with few studies seeking to understand what motivates those to attend a festival in a "nontraditional" wine destination. An onsite survey study (N = 366) was conducted at the 2012 Dalian International Wine and Dine Festival, China. Fa...
Chapter
New decentralised collaborative platforms are said to be challenging and redesigning traditional business models and reinventing how the tourism business works. Collectively termed the ‘collaborative economy’, these platforms are increasingly intersecting with the established tourism industry and how a tourist interacts with host communities, desti...
Article
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Collectively termed the “Sharing Economy”, collaborative platforms are said to be challenging and redesigning traditional business models and ridding the tourism industry of monopolies and resource inefficiencies as they efficiently allocate assets and human resources. This paper explores the global “disruptive” brand Airbnb by utilizing the concep...
Research
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As its market and society open up, China has transformed itself from a closed agrarian socialist economy to an urban state and an economic force. This has released accumulated tourism demand, led to the development of a diversified industry, and the spread of university and vocational courses in this field. However, the industry faces challenges to...
Chapter
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This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the intrinsic details that have a crucial role to play within the religious tourism and pilgrimage management process. This 2nd edition lays a foundation for scholars, practitioners and students who do not study management, but who are concerned with the appearance and development of religious tourism and...
Chapter
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Article
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The current study employs the leisure motivation scale to examine motivations of non-Buddhists visiting Buddhist temples. Specifically, this investigation builds on tourism literature to explore the motivations of non-Buddhists visiting Buddhist temples in Los Angeles, California. Motivations to Buddhist temples are of particular interest given the...
Article
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This paper focuses on Buddhism in America, an neglected area of inquiry in anthropological study. There is a need for modern ethnographic studies to shed light on historical issues, paradigms for comparative inquiry, and thus, explore the impact of Buddhism on modern American society (Glazier, 1997). The enormous growth of Buddhism in the last quar...
Article
Although rugby union, a full-contact sport, is usually considered as a leisure activity in the domain of young people, the motivations and effects of rugby union played by middle-aged men are not clear. The purpose of this study is to examine the motivations and participation effects of middle-aged American men participating in rugby in the USA. Th...
Article
Religious activities religion can be a part of reducing tension, alleviating anxiety, and creating the hope that the performance will resolve them (Malefijt, 1968; Geertz, 1966; Glazier, 1997). Similarly, people often engage in recreation for reducing stress, improving moods, and enhancing mental and physical health. As such, religion and recreatio...
Article
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Increasing numbers of people are participating in reflexive forms of spiritual travel. Rites of passage and intensification are becoming voluntary, and so is religion. Arguably, individuals travel to achieve mental and social escape. Their quests to religious sites are self-motivated, not obligated. Because of their mobility, Americans constantly e...

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
Royal Geographical Society-IBG Conference, Newcastle University, UK "Geographies Beyond Recovery" August 30 - September 2, 2022 Session Title: Rural Tourism Geographies: Revitalisation through Tourism in Rural Communities after the Pandemic in Asia Pacific Session Convenors: Prof. Joseph Cheer (Wakayama University, Japan) and Dr. Jaeyeon Choe (Swansea University, UK) Sponsored by The Geographies of Leisure and Tourism Research Group After almost 2 years of pandemic related border closures, Asian destinations have started reopening to international tourists in the last quarter of 2021. This was later than most European border reopenings, due to a delay in vaccine supplies, and more stringent border controls. Despite more conservative approaches, including broad use of quarantine measures, Bloomberg’s Covid Resilience Index (2021) ranked 5 Southeast Asian nations in the bottom 6 spots. Rural areas in the Asia Pacific experienced greater inequity during the pandemic, with less vaccine access and minimal government support for the informal economy that often sustains the livelihoods of impoverished populations through natural resources and land based economic activities. While some authorities have developed strategies that target high-end ‘quality’ (often Western) tourists in the interests of a more rapid economic recovery, these tourists, and their demand for city locations and international resorts have often led to economic leakage and tourist bubbles. However, a silver lining for many rural areas during the pandemic was the emergence of creative and innovative tourism programmes focused on local heritage and culture. Increasing numbers of domestic tourists have been visiting rural areas (CNN, 2021) for their psychological and physical recovery, workcations, and cultural/spiritual exploration, while enjoying activities such as nature and pilgrimage walks, food tourism, and mindfulness retreats, among others. These trends helped invigorate rural communities’ livelihoods, and create liveliness, entrepreneurial confidence and cultural revitalisation. However, they are mostly initiated by individual/local entrepreneurs and small businesses (Adams et al, 2021), with a significant lack of funding and attention from governments and tourism authorities. In this session, we would like to explore examples demonstrating how rural community’s cultural revitalisation is or can be achieved and sustained by creative tourism programmes, and the collaborative efforts of governments, authorities, businesses and communities (Scheyvens & Cheer, 2021). We invite contributions from a variety of disciplines including anthropology, cultural/human geography, sociology, psychology, cultural studies, economics, history, development studies, critical tourism studies and hospitality/event management. Topics might include: - Pandemic politics and tourism - Rural development through tourism during the pandemic period - Proximity tourism in rural areas - Community and cultural revitalisation through tourism in rural areas - Poverty alleviation and tourism in rural areas - Tourism and the informal sector - Government Covid stimulus and the needs of communities and SMEs - Rural Entrepreneurship and cultural revitalisation - Green Economy and rural tourism - Just transitions for rural communities in Asia Pacific Please send your abstract (no more than 400 words) to us via email (jaeyeon@jaeyeonchoe.com and jmcheer@wakayama-u.ac.jp) by the 1st of March. Please let us know if you have any questions. Thank you! If you are interested in more information about the RGS-IBG conference, please see the link: Royal Geographical Society - Annual International Conference (rgs.org) Warmest Regards, Joseph Cheer and Jaeyeon Choe
Project
Researchers: Jaeyeon Choe, Luh Putu Mahyuni, A.A.A.N. Tini Rusmini Gorda While the COVID-19 pandemic has hit all parts of the globe, the tourism sector has been one of the most highly impacted sectors. This is particularly true in the Global South, where many tourism reliant countries and destinations are located. According to the World Tourism Organisation, women in tourism are feeling the economic shock caused by the crisis more acutely as they are often concentrated in low-skilled or informal work (UNWTO, 2021). While many in the industry wait for a return to normal, gender inclusive recovery strategies can provide for a resilient recovery in post-COVID-19 destinations (Bali et al., 2020). In Bali, one of the most visited destinations in the world, women are seeking economic empowerment through entrepreneurship, women-led businesses, and grassroot organisations. The role of women in Bali’s economy and women entrepreneurship have been recognised as a critical area for women’s economic empowerment and gender equality. While recognised as a significant part of the economy in Bali (Tajeddini et al., 2017), women’s participation in tourism remains restricted by gender roles (Al Mazroei & Lynch, 2014), and challenged by economic barriers and social norms. However, the opportunities for wellness tourism in Bali before-during-after the COVID period have allowed women to start their own businesses such as healthy food cafes, cooking classes, and teaching yoga, etc and become economically empowered and resilient. In the pre-COVID period, much of the tourism economy was dominated by foreign investors and those from outside Bali, leading to economic leakage and a tourism economy that does not benefit broader and poorer communities (Choe & Stafford, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic as a turning point, small-scale, community-based tourism businesses and initiatives can be key for the recovery of rural destinations and sustainable futures (UNWTO, 2021). Social entrepreneurship through community-based tourism (Dolezal & Novelli, 2020; Saarinen, 2020; Scheyvens, 2020) and microenterprises have been recognised to help promote cultural pride, environmental protection, increase local capacity-building, local participation and local ownership. Despite the pandemic, women entrepreneurs in rural Bali have increasingly initiated microenterprises and are engaged in community projects. One of the initiatives is the Kenderan village community-based wellness tourism project. Women entrepreneurs are collaborating with multiple stakeholders including private-, public- and community- organisations to create a resilient income source and livelihoods for those in the village. The project is focusing on wellness tourism products given the increasing demand for psychological and physical recovery from pandemic lockdowns and restrictions (Choe & Di Giovine, 2021). The Asian Development Bank also predicts that the Asian destinations who are well-prepared for wellness tourism will recover fastest from the economic losses caused by the pandemic (ADB, 2020). The purposes of this study is (1) to explore women entrepreneurs’ roles in the Kenderan community-based wellness tourism project by conducting 20 semi-structured interviews and four focus groups (2) identify what kind of supports should be offered to facilitate the growth, success and resilience of women tourism entrepreneurship, by way of listening to women’s ‘voices’ (Hutchison et al., 2021).
Project
The objectives of this funded project are to (1) conduct research to examine the recent phenomenon of spiritual tourism in Ubud, Indonesia (2) understand the local perspectives on the impact by conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups with local stakeholders (3) provide recommendations on how this form of tourism can contribute to economic development and community enhancement by suggesting more sustainable development directions. With local partners, we will suggest constructive recommendations for tourism programmes and local governments to attract tourists, which can contribute to sustainable community development whilst providing economic benefits.