Jae-chun Lee

Jae-chun Lee
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources | KIGAM · Mineral Resources Research Department

PhD

About

280
Publications
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7,153
Citations

Publications

Publications (280)
Article
Platinum is one of the platinum group metals that are found in nature in small quantities along with other metals in various ores. In order to meet its increasing demand, it is necessary to harvest platinum by processing and recycling secondary materials that have been generated due to their end-of-service life. Usually, the pyro/hydrometallurgical...
Article
The disposal of large quantities of electronic scraps generated globally is causing not only environmental pollution but also loss of valuable resources. Therefore, R&D efforts have been made to develop a suitable solvent extraction (SX) process for extraction and separation of various metals viz. copper, zinc, cadmium and nickel from the solution...
Article
A large amount of waste copper slag containing about 35–45 wt.% iron is generated every year from pyrometallurgical processes for producing copper from copper concentrate. Recovery of iron from the waste copper slag is of great interest for comprehensive use of mineral resource and reduction of environmental problems. In this study, a method for up...
Article
Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are the most essential components of all electrical and electronic equipments, which contain noteworthy quantity of metals, some of which are toxic to life and all of which are valuable resources. Therefore, recycling of PCBs is necessary for the safe disposal/utilization of these metals. Present paper is a part of dev...
Article
The leaching of gold from the scrap mobile phone PCBs by electro-generated chlorine as an oxidant and its recovery by ion exchange process was investigated. The leaching experiments were carried out by employing separate leaching reactor connected with the anode compartment of a Cl(2) gas generator. The leaching of gold increased with increase in t...
Article
Full-text available
Significantly unexploited red mud contains 0.5–1.7 kg/ton of rare earth metals (REMs) and 14–45% Fe, 5–14% Al, 1–9% Si, 1–6% Na, and 2–12% Ti which is currently being stockpiled. Reasonably, the red mud can be a suitable secondary resource of REMs, and other valuable metals, if not for the contained base metals. Stockpiled red mud locks down these...
Article
The presence of interelements due to sample complexity can produce significant effects on the quantitative determination of Platinum group metals (PGMs) by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP...
Chapter
The diverse and vital applications of rare earth elements (REEs), especially in green technologies, require their effective recovery from natural ores and secondary resources. Although solvent extraction has been developed as the dominant separation technology to obtain high-purity products of REEs with numerous advantages compared to other techniq...
Chapter
Electronic waste is a global concern due to its hazardous materials content. The rapid generation of electronic waste has created the need to develop a proper methodology for its treatment. With regards to its high-value metallic contents, electronic waste has been seen as a potential source of metallurgical secondary resources. Efforts for extract...
Chapter
Hydrometallurgy is a versatile, flexible, and industrially feasible process to simultaneously address waste battery recycling, e-waste management, and environmental challenges for the circular economy of battery metals and sustainable waste battery recycling. We have developed a closed-loop industrial hydrometallurgical process for valorizing lithi...
Article
Copper anode slime (CAS) is a solid byproduct of copper electrorefining process, from which the recoveries of base metals (copper, nickel), high-value rare elements (tellurium, selenium) and precious metals (silver, gold) often witnessed problems because of the complexity of constituent phases in the slime. In the present study, a sulfuric acid lea...
Article
Full-text available
Sulfuric acid leaching of copper anode slime (CAS) in the presence of manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2) and graphite was investigated for Se, Te and Ag recovery. The study reveals that the leaching of Se, Te and Ag was facilitated by the galvanic interaction with MnO2, and graphite played the role of a catalyst. The leaching process could yield 81.9% Se,...
Chapter
Various e-wastesE-waste like waste LCD, LED, and LCD etching industry wastewaterWastewater are important secondary resourcesSecondary resourcesfor indiumIndium, which is a critical metal. In this research, the industrial-scale indiumIndiumrecoveryRecoveryfrom e-wasteE-waste resources like waste LCD, LED, and LCD industry etching wastewaterWastewate...
Chapter
Due to the supply gap towards increasing demand as well as loss of precious metalsPrecious metals by illegal recyclingRecycling, present research reports application-oriented processes developed at CSIR-NML, India to recover precious metalsPrecious metals from small components of e-wasteE-waste containing ~0.1–0.8% Ag, ~0.03–0.9% Au, ~0.01–0.02% Pd...
Chapter
The present paper reports several application-oriented processes developed for the recoveryRecovery of various non-ferrous (Cu, Ni, Al, Pb, Sn), rare (Li, Co, In), precious (Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd), and rare earthRare earthsmetalsRare earth metals (Nd, Ce, La, Y, Eu) from various urban ores, i.e., waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE), liqu...
Article
Full-text available
The critical applications of vanadium in metallurgical field and the growth in commercialization of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) have led to the increased demand of vanadium. It is thus important to ensure the sustainability of vanadium production. Vanadium bearing slags, the solid byproducts in iron- and steel-making plants, are the princi...
Article
To recover vanadium from vanadium-bearing titaniferous magnetite (VTM) ore, the conditions of the soda ash (Na2CO3) the roasting and water leaching were investigated. The VTM ore contained magnetite and ilmenite as the major minerals, from which a concentrate produced from magnetic separation was used as feed material. The vanadium content in the c...
Article
A solvent extraction-based method using mixed extractants of LIX 84-I and TBP has been developed for complete separation of copper from nickel in the ammoniacal leach solutions of ABS plastic waste. The selective separation of copper was facilitated by the antagonistic effect of the extractants on depressing nickel extraction. The FTIR spectra indi...
Article
Full-text available
The metal-containing sludge generated from the printed circuit boards (PCBs) manufacturing has been recycled as a secondary resource of copper (Cu) rather than being treated as a hazardous solid waste. However, it should consider the complexity of processing and using of oxidizing or precipitation agents to dissolve and separate Cu from other impur...
Article
A new approach to recover and purify cerium oxide from the spent autocatalyst after cordierite substrate dissolution and catalytic metals separation has been investigated. Cerium oxide was converted to Ce(IV) sulfate by baking with concentrated H2SO4 at 250 °C, and ∼95% product could be subsequently dissolved in 1.0 M H2SO4 solution at 75 °C and 5%...
Article
Spent auto-catalysts are considered as promising platinum group metals (PGMs) resources based on their rapidly increasing demand along with the underlying uncertainty of the sustainability and long-term availability of PGMs. Recycling spent auto-catalysts presents attractive advantages, particularly for the conservation of primary resources reserve...
Article
Copper anode slimes, the by-product of the copper electrorefining process, have been the subject of extensive investigation for recovering precious metals viz., Au, Ag, Pt and Pd, in addition to being the main source of rare/energy-critical elements such as Se and Te. There have been various approaches aiming at the development of extraction proces...
Article
Demand for platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) as parts of platinum group metals (PGMs) has continued to increase as a consequence of increase in their applications. Various extraction methods have been developed to produce the metals including leaching-based process using halides, sulfate-chloride and cyanide, which generate leach liquo...
Article
This work presents a fundamental electrochemical study of the silver leaching mechanism with the NO2⁻ - Cu²⁺ novel system. The effect of cupric ions concentration, nitrite ions concentration, pH and temperature on the silver oxidation kinetics was evaluated. Anodic polarization of silver revealed three processes: a) selective oxidation-leaching of...
Article
To develop a process for simultaneous extraction and recovery of nitric acid and gold from gold-bearing aqua regia solutions, solvent extraction study was conducted by using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as the extractant. The extraction behaviors of acid from the pure aqua regia, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid were investigated with varying concent...
Article
Total recycling of all valuable metals such as PGMs, Ce, Al and Mg from the spent automobile catalysts has been explored. The alkali roasting was performed under NaOH, 0.5-3.0 g; temperature, 300-800 °C; and time, 10-60 min. The phase transformation from cordierite to the soluble products (NaAlO2, Na2MgSiO4) was influenced by the temperature, follo...
Article
CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory (CSIR-NML), India dealing with coal characterization, has recently made sincere efforts to develop a process to recover REMs from Indian coal bottom ash (CBA) using hydrometallurgical route. The developed process consists of REMs leaching from CBA followed by solvent extraction and selective precipitation. Aft...
Article
Microbial community and metabolic potential changes in a biological wastewater treatment reactor were investigated using phylogenetic and functional profile analysis from 16S rRNA-gene-based pyrosequencing. Stirred-tank bioreactors fed by cyanide-containing synthetic solutions were inoculated with a sewage sludge and the cyanide-degrading microbial...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art recycling of tungsten from carbide (WC) scraps and other spent alloys generated by various production and application industries. With an aim of direct reuse or chemical recovery of tungsten, the reclamation of WC is commonly divided into three parts: (1) pyrometallurgy, (2) hydrometallurgy, and (3) a combine...
Article
The ammoniacal leaching of surface-coated metals from automobile-discarded ABS plastics followed by their recovery through solvent extraction has been investigated. The leaching of ABS (typically containing 4.1% Cu, 1.3% Ni, and 0.03% Cr) could efficiently dissolve the ammine complexes of Cu and Ni, leaving Cr unleached as fine particles. The optim...
Article
Leaching tests were performed in citrate solution with Fe³⁺ to investigate the leaching behaviors of As, Zn, Pb, and Cu from tailings, which has been known as soil contaminant sources near abandoned mines. The combination of citrate and Fe³⁺ was selected based on the previous study, which reported that the oxidants such as Fe³⁺ was required to remo...
Article
South Korea imports 99% of its mineral metal resources, so it is important to recover valuable metals from metal-containing waste for sustainable domestic industry development. The Korean government launched a 10-year recycling research project, ‘Valuable Recycling’, in May 2011 with $180 million funding ($150 million from the government). The obje...
Article
In the present study, development of a novel oxidation route to convert chalcopyrite to tenorite for leaching of copper has been described. Initially chalcopyrite was converted into tenorite/copper oxide (CuO) under alkaline region using electro-generated chlorine as an oxidant. Various process parameters such as chlorine sparging rate, temperature...
Article
Europium (Eu), one of the most significant rare earth (RE) elements, has wide applications as functional material in phosphor production, majorly used in fluorescent lamps, computer monitors, televisions etc. Eu is one of the three divalent lanthanides (along with Yb and Sm) having a reduction potential higher than −2 V. This possibility of Eu redu...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of mechanical activation on the copper leaching of copper sulfide, CuS, in 1 M HNO3 (slurry density: 10 g/L) was investigated by analysis of the leachability and the apparent activation energy. Mechanical activation produced an increase in the leachability and a decrease of the activation energy in this leaching reaction. The leachabilit...
Article
A selective two-step leaching for nickel and rhenium from PWA 1484 nickel-based superalloy scrap in hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated. The scrap was easily comminuted under 150 μm by a pyro-metallurgical pretreatment at 1500 °C, viz. the formation of Al3Ni intermetallic compound with aluminum. At the first leaching step at 90 °C and 40 g...
Article
This new link let’s you download the article until March 25, 2018: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1WVKN,6wyA~DU8 The simultaneous electroleaching-electrodeposition of silver was studied systematically to develop an alternate process for the recovery of metallic silver. The system was assessed employing electrochemical and microstructural characte...
Article
An ecoefficient, economical and sustainable valorization process for the synthesis of Co3O4 from waste lithium-ion battery (LIB) by leaching-solvent extract-scrubbing-precipitation stripping route has been developed. Through an optimization, the waste LIB cathode was leached using 2000 mole/m³ of H2SO4 and 5 Vol. % of the H2O2 at a pulp density of...
Article
Full-text available
Solvent extraction of zinc from sulphate leach solution obtained from the treatment of a sulphide-oxide sample, was investigated using D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 diluted in kerosene in a batch reactor. According to the results, D2EHPA exhibited the higher extraction efficiencies than Cyanex 272 at the organic/aqueous ratio of 1:1. The optimum concentrat...
Article
Zinc is one of the most important metal required in metallurgical and chemical industries. As the high-grade resources diminished, the treatment of processing plants tailings can be considered as a metal significant source. Leaching is regarded as the first step of the hydrometallurgical methods and ferric sulphate/sulphuric acid leaching has been...
Article
The selective extraction of rhenium from the leach liquor of molybdenite roasting flue-dust and its subsequent stripping were investigated using the solvent extraction technique. In this study, tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) as organic extractant in kerosene and metals bearing solution (in mg/L: 6042 Mo, 208 Re, 534 Cu, 1982 Fe, 32 Mg, and 19 Pb) were u...
Article
The uncertainty in production and utilization with the availability of lithium rich minerals and brine in a limited land area has grown the attention for the exploitation of those resources not coming under a specific boundary. Approximately 230 billion tons of lithium in ubiquitous sea water and generation of a huge amount of used lithium ion batt...
Article
Bioprocessing for metal's recovery from divergent resources using the microbial strategy has emerged as a green technology in metallurgical operations. The limitations to maintain the ideal condition for bacterial growth with slow kinetics however have been considered as major obstacles of bioprocessing to be implemented widely. It can be overcome...
Article
Reclamation of spent automobile catalysts via aqueous processing for the efficient recovery of Pt, Pd and Rh (PGMs) has remained a challenge. In this research, the effect of pre-reduction by HCOOH on PGMs leaching using mild acid was investigated and compared to the typical leaching procedure that uses concentrated HCl. Pre-reduced samples with par...
Article
Metals with an average crustal abundance of <0.01 ppm, which are high in supply shortage due to soaring demand, can, under the excessive environmental risk and <1% recycling rate of their production, be termed as ‘critical’ in a limited geo-boundary. A global trend to the green energy and low carbon technologies with geopolitical scenario is challe...
Article
A novel ionic liquid-in-water microemulsion (IL101/TX100/water) was developed for sustainable extraction and separation of precious metals (i.e., Au, Pd, and Pt) in acidic chloride media. Five-step protocol is composed of (i) mixing the feed solution containing precious metals with the ionic liquid based microemulsion; (ii) heating for phase splitt...
Chapter
This paper presents a novel methodology to recover gold from waste solutions of printed circuit boards (PCBs) generated during the gold electro-plating . Studies have been carried out using two different sizes of hydrocyclone (357.00 and 381.87 mm height) at various parameters such as current, flow rate, electrolyte concentration, cathode materials...
Article
Full-text available
Nano-sized tin oxide particles were prepared by nitric acid (HNO3) leaching of Pb-free solder containing tin (Sn), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu) as main components. During the nitric acid leaching, Ag and Cu were dissolved whereas Sn was not detected in the leach solution and the leaching efficiencies of Ag and Cu increased with increasing temperatu...
Article
The flow of products containing valuable metal resources after discharging to waste means that it is necessary to form a plan to improve resource circulation to enhance the circulation of metal resources. In this study, waste resource circulation flow analysis of products containing cobalt and palladium after disposal was performed by classifying f...
Article
We present a process to recycle strategic metals, viz. tungsten and cobalt, from a WC-Co hardmetal sludge (WCHS) via oxidation followed by a two-step hydrometallurgical treatment with alkali and acid solutions. The oxidation of WCHS was investigated in the temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C and optimized at 600 °C to transform the maximum WC into...
Article
A preliminary study on the hydrometallurgical recovery of rhenium from an engine-reverted superalloy, CMSX-4 was performed. The novelty of this work dealt with (i) the applicability of electro-generated Cl2 in rhenium leaching, and (ii) the maneuvering of the organic extractants based on the metal speciation in leach liquor. In a 2-step HCl leachin...
Article
A fundamental study to recycle a Si-Sludge and waste copper nitrate solution acid solution generated by domestic electronic industries was carried out. The waste copper nitrate solution was used as the lixiviant to leach the metals like Cu, Ca, Fe, etc. from the sludge leaving Si in the residues. The effect of reaction temperature, time and pup den...
Article
Chalcopyrite can be electro-reduced in acid media to less refractory mineral phases such as chalcocite and metallic copper. This paper presents the effect of current density, pulp density, acidity, flow of oxygen and agitation on the chalcopyrite reduction kinetics. The study was complemented with SEM and X-ray characterization techniques in order...
Article
Lithium (Li), an exceptional cathode material in rechargeable batteries, is an essential element in modern energy production and storage devices. The continuously increasing demand for lithium in these devices, along with their steady production, has led to the high economic importance of lithium, making it one of the strategically influential elem...
Article
This work presents a novel leaching system involving NO2-Cu to oxidize and complex silver without the use of cyanide, ammonia or thiosulfate. It is possible to oxidize metallic silver through the reduction reaction of the nitrite ions, the cupric-nitrite complexes seem to be responsible for increasing the silver leaching kinetics; the nitrite ions...
Article
An effective solvent extraction-based method has been developed to recover individual platinum group metals (PGMs) (i.e. Pd, Pt and Rh) with high purity from acidic chloride media using phosphonium-based ionic liquid Cyphos IL 101 ([P66614]+Cl-) diluted in xylene used as a model of industrial diluents such as SOLVESSO 150. The system showed the sel...
Article
In this study, a new concept for recycling of chlorine during electrogenerated chlorine leaching has been investigated and applied to the leaching of spent automotive catalyst containing 0.128 wt.% Pt and 0.015 wt.% Rh. The innocuous treatment was achieved by the electrochemical reduction of the unconsumed gas in the cathodic compartment of an in s...
Article
Full-text available
Present work is focused on the recovery of metal and recycling of acid from the leach liquor of discarded Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) using solvent extraction technique. The waste PCBs are segregated and processed for leaching under the optimized condition developed by our group at CSIR-NML. Further, the systematic basic studies were carried out...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
T he present research focused on the use of phosphonium-based ionic liquid to improve the existing solvent extraction process from the environmental benign point of view for the extraction and separation of platinum group metals (PGMs). The studies carried out with [P66614+]Cl–[Cyphos IL 101] diluted in xylene showed the selective extraction of bot...
Article
A hydrochloric acid (HCl) leaching process with stannic chloride (SnCl4) was proposed to leach Sn from waste Pb-free solder containing Sn, Ag, and Cu, where the oxidant stannic ion (Sn4+) oxidizes Sn metal into stannous ion (Sn2+). When Sn reagent-grade powder was leached in HCl solution with SnCl4, the leaching efficiency of Sn increased rapidly a...
Article
Full-text available
Cyanidation has been used worldwide to recover gold from primary ore or concentrate. The use of cyanide is however becoming an emerging issue because of the toxic residue and wastewater made from the process. The cyanide-containing wastewater should be treated properly, obeying the environmental standard and regulations. In the present article, the...
Article
A recycling process consisting of hydrochloric acid leaching with ferric chloride as an oxidant and cementation using Sn powder followed by solvent extraction was proposed to separate Sn from Pb-free solder. Leaching tests showed that the effect of HCl concentration on the leaching efficiency of Sn was negligible in 1.0–2.0 kmol ·m−3 HCl, and the e...
Article
The present work reports the application oriented systematic basic studies for the recovery of copper, nickel and iron from scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs) of computer. Initially, the PCBs were depopulated and crushed with the help of scutter-crusher and then subjected to pyrolysis under vacuum at 300°C for 4min. Thereafter, this pyrolysed PCBs...