Jacques Treiner

Jacques Treiner
LIED/PIERI Université Paris-Diderot · Physics

PhD in physics

About

110
Publications
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4,305
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September 2007 - January 2015
Sciences Po Paris
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (110)
Article
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La nécessité de conserver certains vaccins anti-COVID19 à des températures bien inférieures à celles obtenues dans un réfrigérateur habituel donne l'occasion de rappeler les principes de cet appareil, dont chaque foyer aujourd'hui possède un exemplaire dans sa cuisine.
Preprint
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L'article présente les fondamentaux concernant l'énergie nucléaire, destinés en particulier aux enseignants, pour le nouvel enseignement scientifique commun de terminale. Il est disponible sur le site https://eduscol.education.fr/1750/programmes-et-ressources-en-enseignement-scientifique-voie-gt, dans la rubrique "Ressources pour la classe de term...
Book
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Le livre présente l'évolution des idées sur la détermination de l'âge de la Terre. Quel est l'âge de la Terre ? Quelques milliers d'années, quelques millions, plusieurs milliards ? Que racontaient les mythes ? Que s'est-il passé quand la science s'est emparée de la question ? Pourquoi Kelvin et Darwin se sont-ils opposés sur le sujet ? Comment somm...
Conference Paper
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Les questions de société où science et technologie sont impliquées ne manquent pas : santé, climat, nucléaire, OGM, agriculture…, tout y passe. Les sources d’information aujourd’hui ne manquent pas non plus, ainsi d’ailleurs que les sources de désinformation, les unes et les autres véhiculées le plus démocratiquement possible par Internet. Comment,...
Book
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The theater play is based on the transcripts of conversations which took place among the 10 German physicists detained at Farm Hall, England, beteen July and December 1945. One follows how these physcists, who were in charge of the German atomic bomb and failed to build one, try to recover a moral position from their scientific "failure". The play...
Book
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Ce nouveau recueil de chroniques poursuit le projet de transmettre la science "par petites touches". Les cyclones récents doivent-ils leur force au changement climatique ? La voiture électrique est-elle vraiment "décarbonée" ? La rénovation thermique des bâtiments bute-t-elle sur son financement ? Le grand effondrement que prédisent les collapsolog...
Article
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Making energy available requires energy: producing a baril of oil requires energy for drilling, transportation, refining etc. The EROI (Energy return on energy invested) of a source is defined as the ratio of the energy output to the energy invested in producing that energy. The article explores the EROI of various energy sources. Such comparisons...
Article
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Dans l'enseignement, le dialogue entre disciplines, lorsqu'il a lieu, est souvent placé sur le mode du service : la physique est discipline de service pour la chimie, la chimie pour la biologie, la biologie pour la psychologie, la psychologie pour la sociologie… les mathéma-tiques étant discipline de service pour tout le monde. Chaque domaine est i...
Book
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Ce livre rassemble des chroniques scientifiques réalisées pour la radio entre février 2016 et mai 2017. Energie, climat, santé, eau, agriculture, ondes électromagnétiques ... : le but de l'auteur est d'illustrer, à propos de questions de société où science et technologie sont fortement impliquées, la différence entre un énoncé scientifique et une o...
Article
Christina Gerhardt’s claim about Germany’s energy policy leading the way toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions and therefore providing a model for other nations is confronted with actual data for roughly the past fifteen years. It is shown that the data does not support the claim.
Book
Ce livre, principalement destiné aux étudiants en troisième années de licence et en master de physique - mais aussi aux élèves d'écoles d'ingénieurs - vise, à l'aide d'une progression d'exercices et de problèmes longuement corrigés et commentés, à faire comprendre "comment ça marche". Des rappels de cours et un appendice mathématique viennent en co...
Article
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Dans le numéro de décembre 2013, Gaël Stevens propose une analyse de « la flèche du temps », selon « l'approche thermodynamique ». Il conclut que l'approche classique de Boltzmann de l'irréversibilité est insuffisante, voire « escamote le problème », et penche vers les conceptions développées par Ilya Prigogine vers la fin de sa vie, pour lequel l'...
Article
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L'équation est simple à poser : les étudiants d'aujourd'hui seront, demain, les cadres. Les cadres décideront de l'évolution des sociétés. Or les questions de société où la science est impliquée vont en nombre croissant : énergie nucléaire, OGM, nanosciences, ondes électromagnétiques, réchauffement climatique, autant d'exemples récents-parmi d'au-t...
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Article
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Spinodal decomposition can be observed only in systems whose dynamics are slow enough to quench through the metastable region where the phase transition occurs by nucleation. We discuss the capillary rise of a fluid in a cone inserted into a bulk fluid, with the wide end down. The rise displays a first-order phase transition with a spinodal and is...
Article
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State-of-the-art radiative models can be used to calculate in a rigorous and accurate manner the atmospheric greenhouse effect, as well as its variation with concentration in water vapour or carbon dioxide. A simple explanation of this effect uses an analogy with the greenhouse effect produced by a glass window. While this analogy has pedagogical v...
Article
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Le caractère aléatoire de tout processus de mesure physique peine à être pleinement reconnu, et pas seulement dans l'enseignement. À preuve, la référence persistante à la notion de « valeur exacte » d'une grandeur physique qui, bien que proclamée inconnue, est postulée exister, alors qu'une analyse même succincte de situations concrètes montre qu'i...
Article
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Dans un article paru dans Le Bup n° 922 de mars 2010, Laurence Viennot discute l'origine microscopique de la valeur de la pression atmosphérique : comment se fait-il, interroge-t-elle, que la pression due aux chocs des molécules sur le sol corresponde exactement à ce que dicte un bilan newtonien, c'est-à-dire la valeur obtenue en divisant le poids...
Article
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Les questions de société dans lesquelles la science est impliquée se multiplient. Jacques Treiner examine ici la question des ondes électro magnétiques émises par les antennes-relais de téléphonie mobile, qui ont récemment fait l'objet de nombreuses discussions relayées par les médias. Cet exemple illustre l'utilité de revenir aux sources des éléme...
Article
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Small capillaries can provide strong binding to fluids confined within them. We analyze this behavior with a simple microscopic theory, considering two geometries, a slit pore and a cylindrical pore. A goal is to achieve the maximum possible capillary rise (H) within each type of pore. The attraction for very small capillaries can result in a large...
Book
Full-text available
The theater play is based on the transcripts of conversations which took place among the 10 German physicists detained at Farm Hall, England, beteen July and December 1945. One follows how these physcists, who were in charge of the German atomic bomb and failed to build one, try to recover a moral position from their scientific "failure". The play...
Article
Full-text available
The liquid-solid phase transition of superfluid helium at zero temperature is studied in the framework of the density functional theory. The application of a second-order expansion of the energy of the system around the density of the liquid phase (Ramakrishnan-Yussouff method) is discussed. The role played by the static polarizability of the homog...
Article
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Abstract The relation between continuous-time dynamics and corresponding discrete schemes, and its generally limited validity, is an important and widely acknowledged chapter of numerical analysis. In this paper, we propose another, more physical, viewpoint on this topic in order to un- derstand the possible failure of discretization procedures and...
Article
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Discrete autonomous dynamical systems in dimension 1 can exhibit chaotic behavior, whereas the corresponding continuous evolution equations rule it out, and cannot even possess a nontrivial periodic solution. Therefore the passage from discrete to continuous equations (and conversely) is all but harmless. We address this issue and evidence some cav...
Article
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Issac NEWTON met en oeuvre dans les « Principia » une vision discrétisée et impul-sionnelle du mouvement, dont les historiens s'accordent à présent pour reconnaître qu'elle lui a été suggérée par Robert HOOKE. Nous explicitons dans le présent article l'algorithme implicitement contenu dans cette formulation, et le comparons à celui qu'EULER propose...
Article
The validity of the density-matrix expansion (DME) is investigated using two different interactions: the Brink and Boecker (1967) B1 force and the Campi-Sprung (see Nucl. Phys., vol.194A, p.401 of 1972) G-O force. Simple parametrizations of the Hamiltonian density are discussed and the connection between the DME and Skyrme-like force is examined.
Article
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Presently available experimental data on neutron diffraction, elastic properties, specific heat, high temperature susceptibility for solid helium films adsorbed on Grafoil and theoretical calculations of the energy of the fluid are used to give an estimate of first and second solid layer densities as a function of total coverage. Important informat...
Article
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The surprising discovery, in 1991, that liquid helium does not wet a cesium surface at low temperature has triggered an important activity both theoretical and experimental: helium has become a model system for the study of wetting transitions. After summarizing the main theme of helium wetting, I will focus on more recent studies, such as the stru...
Article
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The various effects determining quantitatively the reentrant wetting phase diagram of helium mixtures on Cs are discussed. Particularly crucial is the temperature dependence of the helium surface tension, for which different interpretations exist in the literature. Recent experiments by the Irvine group are compatible with the predicted existence o...
Article
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Recent calculations of the surface excitations of liquid4He show that besides the ripplon branch, a second branch of excitations, with one node in the transition density, exists at higher energy. Back-flow effects are essential for a quantitative description. Inclusion of both branches in the thermodynamics of the surface provides good agreement wi...
Article
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We present a novel density functional for liquid 4He, properly accounting for the static response function and the phonon-roton dispersion in the uniform liquid. The functional is used to study both structural and dynamical properties of superfluid helium in various geometries. The equilibrium properties of the free surface, droplets and films at z...
Article
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3He atoms dissolved in super fluid4He may form aimers (3He)2 in twodimensional (2D) geometries. We study dimer formation in films of dilute3He-4He mixture. After designing a schematic3He-4He interaction potential we calculate the dimer binding energy for various substrates. It is shown that3He impurity states localized near the substrate give rise...
Article
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We study the phase separation of helium mixtures inside thin channels in contact with a bulk 3He bath at zero temperature. It is found that the substrate potential favors mixing near the walls. While in bulk, the transition takes place between a 4He-rich mixture with 6.6% of 3He and pure 3He; in thin channels, the 4He-rich phase is richer in 3He an...
Article
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A simple model based on interfacial description is used to calculate the line tension of liquid helium at prewetting transitions, i.e. the energy associated with the region which joins the two phases in equilibrium, as a function of the amplitude of the prewetting jump d. The values are typically one order of magnitude smaller than d, where is the...
Article
Full-text available
³He atoms dissolved in superfluid ⁴He may form dimers (³He)â in two-dimensional (2D) geometries. We study dimer formation in films of dilute ³He-⁴He mixture. After designing a schematic ³He-⁴He interaction potential we calculate the dimer binding energy for various substrates. It is shown that ³He impurity states localized near the subst...
Article
Full-text available
3 He atoms dissolved in superfluid 4 He may form dimers (3 He) 2 in two-dimensional (2D) geometries. We study dimer formation in films of dilute 3 He– 4 He mixture. After designing a schematic 3 He– 3 He interaction potential we calculate the dimer binding energy for various substrates. It is shown that 3 He impurity states localized near the subst...
Article
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Excitations of the free surface, films and bounded channels of liquid4He are investigated with a non-local density functional theory at zero temperature in the Feynman approximation. The nature of the various branches is discussed. At the free surface, for large momentum (k~2 Å-1), a hybridization occurs between ripplons and bulk rotons. For low mo...
Article
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Multilayer 3He film growth on weak-binding alkali substrates is investigated with a nonlocal density functional theory. Although 3He wets all substrates down to zero temperature, prewetting transitions are predicted to occur on Cs, Rb, and K. Emphasis is put on the role played by the Fermi statistics. Continuous wetting is recovered with increasing...
Article
We review the theory of prewetting and wetting transitions in relation to recent studies of noble gas and H2 adsorption on alkali metal surfaces. An essential feature is that the adsorption potentials have extremely small well depths. Open theoretical issues include the accuracy of the potentials, the approximations used in the statistical mechanic...
Article
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We calculate wetting behavior for the adsorption of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe for temperatures above their triple point. Experimental observations of wetting transitions of these simple liquids are predicted. We also report a nearly universal trend in the physical interaction parameters for Ar, Kr, and Xe on various substrates. With a simple model, we sho...
Article
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DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.47.14661.2
Article
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Theory and experiment have revealed that novel behavior occurs when a Cs surface is exposed to 4He vapor. For temperature T below the wetting temperature (Tw~=2 K), 4He forms only a microscopically thin film as the vapor pressure P increases from zero to its saturated value. For intermediate values of T (TwTc, the film grows continuously to infinit...
Article
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We present a calculation of the third sound speed c3 of thin4He films adsorbed on H2, Li, Mg, graphite and H2-plated graphite. The results show a clear correlation of oscillations in c3, with a period of one atomic layer, with the layering phenomena observed in adsorption isotherms. Comparison is made with recent experimental results for helium fil...
Article
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It has been recently proposed that3He bound states may exist in the first non solid layer of liquid helium near a substrate [N. Pavloff and J. Treiner, J. Low Temp. Phys.83, 331 (1991)]. Detailed calculations show that for weak binding substrates on which helium remains liquid, the energy of this substrate state 3 is in the range –4 to –5.5 K, wher...
Article
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Multilayer helium films have, until recently, been predicted and observed to exhibit a standard form of structural behavior: one or two solid layers reside adjacent to the substrate and continuous wetting liquid extends outward thereafter. We report contrary theoretical results in the case of weak-binding surfaces, the alkali metals and H[sub 2] be...
Article
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Helium wetting and prewetting phenomena at temperatures T>0 are addressed. Emphasis is given to the weak-binding substrates Cs and H2, which have been predicted and observed to be nonwet and wet, respectively, by4He at low temperatures. Calculations of the wetting temperature TW and the prewetting line near TW for Cs, as well as the prewetting line...
Article
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We calculate the shift in wetting temperature TW of a He film on a layered substrate. The latter consists of an alkali metal layer film of thickness d, deposited on a semi-infinite medium. TW can change from nonzero to zero (Cs) or vice versa (Na) as d changes. The shift is an extremely sensitive probe of long range van der Waals potentials.
Article
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We explore the behavior of quantized vortices in superfluid 4 H3 at negative pressure, by using different models. We suggest the possible nucleation of small vortices with more than one quantum of circulation.
Article
Previous studies have revealed the possibility of observing prewetting phenomena of4He films on alkali substrates, particularly on Na where the prewetting jump was predicted to be the largest (5.25 layers). The well depth D has been calculated for Na to be 10 K. Given the various uncertainties in the calculation, we have explored a range of D value...
Article
In this letter we test carefully the procedure used to extract strength functions from experimental data. This test is performed on a set of pseudo-data generated from HF and RPA results for monopole resonances in 40Ca, 60Ni, 90Zr and 208Pb. We show how the scaling approximation used in the experimental analysis may induce systematic errors. We dem...
Article
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New wetting and nonwetting phenomena for ⁴He adsorbed on weak-binding substrates such as the alkali metals are predicted. With a nonlocal density-functional model, we calculate the density profile of ⁴He films adsorbed on surfaces characterized by an attractive van der Waals potential tail of strength {ital C}â and a well depth {ital D}. As a f...
Article
Adsorption of 4He and para-H2 is predicted to exhibit exotic properties on weak-binding surfaces. For 4He, alternative scenarios include nonwetting, prewetting and a Bose gas monolayer. For H2, a monolayer superfluid phase can be created by a suitable choice of the substrate. Intriguing phenomena are predicted for 3He/4He mixtures in multilayer fil...
Article
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The structure of the states accessible to3He impurities in films of liquid4He on Nuclepore is investigated using a density functional approach with a finite-range effective interaction. In thick films, one finds that the two lowest states are localized in the surface region. For thinner films, the variation with film thickness of the first three st...
Article
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We study, using a density-functional approach, the properties of the two-dimensional system formed by3He atoms on the surface of liquid4He, as a function of3He coverageN s , at zero temperature. We find several types of surface states accessible to the3He atoms. For small values ofN s , the surface tension σ is, as expected, linear inN s 2. For a c...
Article
The properties of the system formed by 3He atoms on the surface of the bulk liquid 4He are studied, using a density functional approach. Two types of states are well localized at the surface. Recent experiment by Hallock et al. on magnetization of 3He on 4He films agree with this prediction. Unité de Recherche des Universités Paris 11 et Paris 6 As...
Article
The properties of liquid helium-4 are investigated in a mean field approximation using a novel finite range effective interaction. The surface tension is found in agreement with the experimental value and the surface width equal to 5.7 Å. Unité de Recherche des Universités Paris 11 et Paris 6 Associée au CNRS.
Article
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The properties of liquid helium-4 are investigated in a mean-field approximation using a finite-range effective interaction. The long-range part (i.e., r>2.556 Å) coincides with the standard Lennard-Jones potential and the hard core is phenomenologically renormalized. The model reproduces the static polarizability of bulk liquid, as well as the act...
Article
We calculate ground-state masses for 4678 nuclei ranging from /sup 16/O to /sup 318/122 by use of a macroscopic-microscopic model, which incorporates several new features. For the macroscopic model we use the finite-range droplet model which we introduced in 1984. The microscopic contribution is taken from a calculation based on a folded-Yukawa sin...
Article
We present a study of the temperature dependence of the energies of isoscalar giant resonances with multipolarities L = 0, 2, 3 and 4, in the framework of the subtraction procedure of Bonche, Levit and Vautherin (BLV). The method is used to calculate, within a Thomas-Fermi (TF) model at finite temperatures, sum rules of the strength function in the...
Article
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We present a comparative study of the free surface of 3He and 4He at zero temperature using phenomenological density functionals. The functional for each fluid is adjusted on experimentally known properties; the surface profile is then obtained variationally. Simple analytical formulas are derived for the relevant quantities characterizing the surf...
Article
Momentum distributions resulting from mean field theories are studied. It is found that their main features depend little on the effective mean field considered. Simple parametrizations of this rather universal curve are proposed to replace the standard distribution of the Fermi gas model, which is found to be quite unrealistic for finite nuclei. S...
Article
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The properties of 3He and 4He clusters are investigated in the framework of a density functional approach. We find that 4He clusters are always bound and do not exhibit any shell effect. Conversely, 3He clusters require a minimum number of atoms (N min≅30) to ensure binding. 3He clusters are found to exhibit harmonic oscillator type shell effects a...
Article
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The authors have carried out Hartree-Fock calculations of the nuclear matter incompressibility K at finite temperatures. These calculations cover the range of proton concentrations Ye = Z/A from symmetric matter, i.e. Ye = 0.5, to Ye = 0.25 and temperatures T from 0 to 8-10 MeV; the authors investigate the role of the effective mass of the interact...
Article
Spherical solutions of the TDHF equations are computed for initial conditions corresponding to hot nuclei under different compressions. Special care is devoted to the emission of particles and to the resulting separation between liquid and vapor phases.
Article
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We present a semiclassical study of the breakdown of the leptodermous character of drops of quantum saturating fluids. A comparison is made between liquid 4He, 3He and nuclear matter. We discuss the size of the smallest bound drop in connection with the statistics obeyed by the particles and the structure of the bulk energy density. The existence o...
Article
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We derive within the linear-response theory for inhomogeneous Bose liquids the dispersion relation of a surface excitation (ripplon). It is shown that, in an infinite half space, the ripplon dispersion relation is omegar(q)~q3/2, where q is the momentum parallel to the surface. This dispersion relation holds only if the system is not in an external...
Article
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Nous présentons une étude de la dépendance en température de l'énergie des résonances géantes isoscalaires, a l'aide d'un modèle semi-classique, et dans le cadre de la procédure de soustraction de Bonche, Levit et Vautherin. Cette prescription permet un traitement cohérent des effets du continu, qui, comme nous le montrons de façon détaillée, jouen...
Article
The relations between different definitions of the surface tension σ of a two-component saturating system are considered. The non-trivial link between the values of σ and the surface energy appearing in the mass formula is studied.
Article
We present a systematic study of average nuclear properties in the framework of an energy density formalism (EDF). The method provides a link between the mean field microscopic approach using effective interactions fitted to ground states of nuclei and the macroscopic approach such as the Droplet Model (DM). First, we concentrate on geometrical asp...
Article
Hartree-Fock calculations for hypothetical spherical nuclei with N = Z are carried out without the inclusion of Coulomb interactions, spin-orbit terms or pairing in order to study one simple property of such systems: the bulk compression due to surface tension. We find that the behavior expected from Thomas-Fermi and droplet calculations manifests...
Article
We use the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and Skyrme-type interactions to describe the energy density of a semi-infinite slab of neutron-rich nuclear matter at zero temperature. We allow for the existence of a drip phase at low proton fractions in addition to the more dense nuclear phase. We determine various bulk properties of both phases whe...
Article
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Atomic nuclei are small Fermi systems-even the heavy ones : the ratio of the number of nucleons in the surface region (-2.5 fm) to the number of nucleons in the bulk is ~ 1 in the largest nuclei and of course greater in smaller ones. This characteristic implies that volume, surface, curvature • • • effects cannot be analyzed separately and are hard...
Article
We present a systematic study of the evolution with excitation energy of the peak energy and width of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The RPA moments m-1, m1 and m3 have been evaluated by means of a Thomas-Fermi method at finite temperatures (T < 3 MeV). We find that the peak energy decreases monotonically with temperature, although only by a sma...
Article
The Hot Modified Thomas-Fermi (HMTF) method has been used in a sum rule approach to estimate the evolution of the energy peak and width of the isoscalar monopole resonance with the excitation energy represented by a nuclear temperature T. Isothermal and isentropic calculations are reported. Laboratoire associé au CNRS.
Article
We consider the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov theory of nuclei in the coordinate representation and derive and solve the HFB equation for the Skyrme effective interaction. Ground-state wave functions and energies of the tin isotopes with 100 ⩽ A ⩽ 176 have been determined and the results have been compared with the predictions of the HF+BCS and macroscop...
Article
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Nous montrons comment la partie moyenne de la transformée de Wigner de ρ correspondant à un potentiel Woods-Saxon peut être calculée semi-classiquement. Nous trouvons une diffusivité dans l'espace de phase appréciable mais toujours bien plus petite que l'énergie de Fermi, ce qui justifie le développement en  à la Wigner-Kirkwood. En utilisant ce f...
Article
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Different fluid-dynamical approximations for Giant Resonances are reviewed. Semi classical calculations of RPA sum rules are presented. A de- tailed analysis of the Dipole case is made, in relation w ith the isospin pro- perties of the effective interaction. The dipole polarizability is investi- gated. The unphysical fragmentation of the RPA dipole...
Article
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D i f f e r e n t fluid-dynamical approximations f o r Giant Resonances are reviewed. Semi c l a s s i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s o f RPA sum r u l e s are presented. A detailed analysis o f the Dipole case i s made, i n r e l a t i o n w i t h the isospin prop e r t i e s o f the e f f e c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n . The dipole p o l a r i...
Article
On présente une revue de diverses approximations conduisant à une description des Résonances Géantes en terme de dynamique des fluides, ainsi que des calculs semi classiques de règles de somme RPA. Le cas dipolaire, en particulier la polarisabilité dipolaire, est traité en détail, en relation avec les propriétés d'isospin de l'interaction. Une expl...
Article
Energy density formalism calculations in semi-infinite nuclear matter are performed. Using the Euler equations, one derives a simple and accurate expression for the surface-symmetry energy, which only involves, besides the surface properties of a symmetric semi-infinite medium, the symmetry energy in an uniform medium. Laboratoire associé au C.N.R....
Article
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We investigate the influence of terms beyond the standard Liquid Drop Model on the slope of the fission valley. An important reduction of the slope is obtained when using values of the curvature energy calculated from effective forces currently in use, thus corroborating a recent microscopic calculation by Berger et al. Nous étudions l'influence de...